BC Reads: Adult Literacy Fundamental English - Course Pack 3

BC Reads: Adult Literacy Fundamental English - Course Pack 3

Shantel Ivits

BCcampus

Victoria, B.C., Canada

Contents

1

About the Book

BC Reads: Adult Literacy Fundamental English – Course Pack 3  was created by Shantel Ivits. This creation is a part of the B.C. Open Textbook project.

The B.C. Open Textbook project began in 2012 with the goal of making post-secondary education in British Columbia more accessible by reducing student cost through the use of openly licensed textbooks. The B.C. Open Textbook project is administered by BCcampus and funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education.

Open textbooks are open educational resources (OER); they are instructional resources created and shared in ways so that more people have access to them. This is a different model than traditionally copyrighted materials. OER are defined as teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others (Hewlett Foundation).

Our open textbooks are openly licensed using a Creative Commons license, and are offered in various e-book formats free of charge, or as printed books that are available at cost.

For more information about this project, please contact opentext@bccampus.ca.

If you are an instructor who is using this book for a course, please let us know.

2

Acknowledgments

These books were developed on the unceded territories of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Waututh Nations. Huy tseep q’u! Chen kw’enmántumiyap! Kw’as hoy!

I feel very fortunate to have had the opportunity to work on this project alongside a dedicated team of basic education instructors from across British Columbia. This series was shepherded by Leanne Caillier-Smith (College of the Rockies) and benefited enormously from the insight and encouragement of Julia Dodge (University of the Fraser Valley), Chandra McCann (Okanagan College), Jan Weiten (Vancouver Community College), and Melinda Worfolk (College of New Caledonia). The above five mentioned are representatives of the BC Adult Literacy Articulation Committee and were the advisory committee members for this project. It has been a pleasure to scaffold my own learning among such brilliant and passionate educators.

Huge thanks to Lauri Aesoph of BCcampus for introducing me to the exciting open textbook movement and managing all aspects of the publication of these books  — from layout and image selection to copyediting and print –so adeptly.

I am incredibly lucky to work with and have the support of the Basic Education Department at Vancouver Community College: Cynthia Bluman, Andrew Candela, Lynn Horvat, Alayna Kruger, Jo Lemay, Edie Mackenzie, Rene Merkel, Tara Mollel, Linda Rider, Mary Thompson-Boyd, Jan Weiten, our Program Assistant, Nadia Kawas, and our Dean, David Wells. I am also deeply grateful to the basic education students at Vancouver Community College for all that you teach me about dreams, resilience, and perseverance.

A special thank you to my partner, Marria, for always lending my words an eager ear, and for keeping the world around me turning even though my head was perpetually stuck in these books.

3

Notes to the Instructor

Welcome to BC Reads!

This course pack is designed to meet the learning outcomes for Adult Literacy Fundamental English Level 3, as outlined in the Adult Basic Education in BC 2014/2015 Articulation Handbook. This is roughly equivalent to grades 3 to 4.5 in the K-12 system.

The units in this course cover three themes:

Each unit begins with a lesson related to “Skills and Strategies for Learning” (as noted in the Adult Basic Education in BC 2014/2015 Articulation Handbook). The lesson is taught using a profile based on a real community college learner in British Columbia.

Every chapter within the units includes a level-appropriate, high-interest reading of between 350 and 500 words. The readings are freely available in a separate reader, BC Reads: Adult Literacy Fundamental English – Reader 3. Convenient links to the readings are embedded in each chapter of this course pack.

Each chapter also teaches:

For more details, please see the Level 3 Scope and Sequence. Note that the learning goals for “Skills and Strategies for Learning” are covered in the unit introductions and are not included in the scope and sequence document.

This course pack makes use of a number of graphic organizers to help students order their thoughts in a visual way. You can download the complete set of graphic organizers. Students can also download them as needed, through the links embedded throughout the course pack.

In the appendix, you will find rubrics tailored to score each of the writing tasks assigned at the end of each chapter.

You may wish to use this program online, or you may wish to print it for your students by downloading it as a PDF. A print-on-demand option is also available, for a nominal fee. This program was designed to suit both options. Font size and line spacing can be adjusted in the online view, and have been enhanced for the print and PDF versions for easier reading. (In addition, both epub and mobi files are offered for students with e-readers and Kindles.) For students using this program in a self-paced format, there are audio clips embedded throughout the course pack. These clips narrate the denser sections of text.  This course pack has been reviewed by subject experts from colleges and universities.

I hope you and your students find the contents of these pages to be both enjoyable and rewarding!

-Shantel Ivits

I

Unit 1: Mysteries in BC History

1

Welcome to Unit 1

Audio Button

In these pages, you will take a walk into the history of British Columbia. You will read about some of the great mysteries of our province. Along the way, you will learn many new skills that will help you be a stronger reader and writer.

Learning Goals

In Unit 1, you will:

  • See your strengths as a learner
  • Use pre-reading strategies
  • Use word attack strategies
  • Practice filling out forms
  • Define subject and verb
  • Write complete sentences
  • Write using the simple past tense

Learning Strategy: Know Your Strengths

A strength is something you are good at. Everyone has something they are good at. Learners who know their strengths and use them are more likely to do well.

mitch
Living outside

Read this story about Mitch. He has lived through some hard times. But he uses his strengths to get by. What are Mitch’s strengths?

My name is Mitch. I am from the Ojibway Nation. When I was a kid, I got a head injury. It made it hard to read and write. So I left school when I was 9. Even though I was just a kid, I went to work. I got jobs cleaning, fixing fences, and digging holes. There was no job I couldn’t do. One day when I was 16, the police said I stole a car. I didn’t. But they put me in jail anyway. I felt so angry. When I got out, it was hard to find work. I have lots of skills. I am good with tools. I can build and fix just about anything. I’m friendly and honest. But it’s hard to find work when you can’t read and write. So these days I live outside. I tried to stay in a shelter once. But it felt too much like jail. At night, I sleep in a tent in the park. In the summer, it’s not so bad. In the winter, the nights are long and cold. One day, I will be a carpenter. I won’t just build houses. I will live in one. In the meantime, I go to school twice a week. I am learning how to read and write. My teacher says I have a positive attitude. My positive attitude is how I get by.

Writing Task

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Write the title Know Your Strengths at the top of the page in your notebook. On a new line, answer these questions:

  1. What are Mitch’s strengths? Make a list.
  2. What are your strengths? Make a list.

In this unit, you will read about some mysteries in British Columbia’s history. As you go through each chapter, think about ways you can use your strengths to do your best work.

Attribution

Living outside
Saturday Night Lights by Luke Detwiler is used under a CC-BY 2.0 license.

2

Searching for Sasquatches

Reading Strategy

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44 In this unit, you will learn some strategies you can use before you read. These are called pre-reading strategies. One pre-reading strategy is called Connect.

First you ask: What is the subject of the reading? Subject is another way of saying “main topic.”

Then you ask: What does this subject remind me of?

Here is why this strategy works:

connect2

 

The subject of the reading in this chapter is the sasquatch. Another name for the sasquatch is Bigfoot.

When you think of a sasquatch, what are you reminded of? You will make a web to show the different ways your mind connects to the word sasquatch.

Make a web

1. Ask your instructor for the Make a Web sheet, or open and print one from the link. For this task, use a marker or pen.

2. Write sasquatch — the subject — in the big shape in the middle.

3. In each of the smaller shapes, write one of these questions:

a. What does it look like?

b. Where does it live?

c. Why do people think it is real?

d. Where have I heard about it?

4. Add your ideas to the lines around each question.

You will return to your web after you read Searching for Sasquatches.

Screen-Shot-2015-01-30-at-4.02.33-PM

Word Attack Strategy

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Sometimes we see a word that we do not understand. Knowing lots of word attack strategies helps us make sense of the word. One word attack strategy is to study word patterns. Here are helpful word patterns to know.

Word Patterns

The letters –dge like in judge make the /j/ sound. The d is usually silent.

The letters –tch like in sasquatch make the /ch/ sound. The t is usually silent.

These patterns are only found at the end of a word or syllable or after a short vowel.

Practice reading these words

/j/ = -dge

lodge

fudge

badge

wedge

 /ch/ = -tch

witch

hutch

fetch

match

You will see these patterns in the reading for this chapter.

Use Your Strategies

Read Searching for Sasquatches in your reader. When you have finished, try the tasks below.

Finish your web

1. After you have read the text, close your eyes and ask: When I think of the word sasquatch, what new things come to mind?

2. Get a different colour of marker or pen. Add your new connections to the web you made at the beginning of this chapter.

Now look at all of your new connections! What do you think about the Connect strategy? Did it help you make sense of what you read? Rate this strategy in your notebook. How many stars would you give it?
One star means it did not help you. Five stars mean it helped you a lot.
Print

Check Your Understanding

Write true or false for each statement

1. The sasquatch is two metres tall.

2. The sasquatch can run very fast.

3. The sasquatch uses its hands and feet to walk, like an ape.

4. The sasquatch does not have a good smell.

5. People in British Columbia are allowed to hunt sasquatches.

Answer these questions

Who

6. …told a judge he was kidnapped by a sasquatch?

7. …was the reporter who researched sasquatches?

8. …has told stories about sasquatches for thousands of years?

Where

9. …is the Land of the Sasquatch?

When

10. …do scientists say a beast like a sasquatch once lived?

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Use your vocabulary

11. Here are some vocabulary words from the reading. Try writing your own sentence for three of the words.

beast protected exist ape
proof carvings  search
Ask your instructor to check your work.

Grammar

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Let’s get ready to do some writing. When you write, it helps to know about subjects and verbs. This will help you know whether the sentences you write are complete sentences.

You know that a sentence begins with a capital and ends with a period, question mark or exclamation mark. Here is another rule about what every sentence needs.

Grammar Rule

A sentence needs a subject and a verb.

The subject tells us who or what the sentence is about.

The verb tells us what the subject is doing. A verb can be an action verb, like run or yell. A verb can also be a state verb, like be or have.

Study these sentences. The subject of each sentence is underlined. The verb of each sentence is bold.

Ostman told a reporter that he was kidnapped by a family of sasquatches.

The sasquatch family held him at their camp.

The sasquatch is a big and hairy beast that looks like an ape.

And it smells very, very bad.

Stories of the sasquatch are not new.

 

Use the sentences above to answer these questions

1. Which statement is true?

a. In each statement, the subject comes before the verb.

b. In each statement, the subject comes after the verb.

2. Which statement is true?

a. The subject is always at the beginning of the sentence.

b. The subject is not always at the beginning of the sentence.

3. Which statement is true?

a. The subject is always just one thing.

b. The subject can be one thing or a group of things.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Copy these sentences, underline the subject, circle the verb

4. John Green researched stories about the sasquatch.

5. The sasquatch stands three metres tall.

6. Harrison Hot Springs is a place in the Fraser Valley.

7. The government of Harrison Hot Springs started a search party to look for the beast.

8. Scientists know an ape three metres tall did exist 200,000 years ago.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Seeing subjects and verbs in your sentences

9. Now write two or three sentences of your own. Write about whether you think the sasquatch is real. Give your reasons.

10. Underline the subject in each sentence. Circle the verbs.

Ask your instructor to check your work.

Writing

Writing Task

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44In everyday life, we often need to fill out forms. Imagine you are going on a trip to search for a sasquatch.

1. Ask your instructor for the Sasquatch Searchers forms, or open and print them from the link.

2. Fill out these forms to sign up for your trip. Print as neatly as you can.

3. Use a dictionary to look up any words you do not know.

4. When you are done, hand in your forms to your instructor.

Sign-Up 

Answer Key

Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 false
2 true
3 false
4 true
5 false
6 Albert Ostman
7 John Green
8 First Nations people
9 Harrison Hot Springs
10 200,000 years ago
11 Answers will vary.
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1  a
2  b
3  b
SUBJECT VERB
4  John Green researched
5  the sasquatch stands
6  Harrison Hot Springs is
7  The government of Harrison Hot Springs started
8  scientists know
9 Answers will vary.
10 Answers will vary.

3

The Shooting of Ginger Goodwin

Reading Strategy

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In the last chapter, you learned a pre-reading strategy called Connect. You connected what you already knew about a topic to what you were reading.

In this chapter, you will use a pre-reading strategy called Predict. Predict means guess.

Try this

1. In your reader, look at the title of the next reading.

2. Look at the pictures that go with the reading.

3. Look at these words from the story:

coal train steamboat mining strike
war government police officer mountain speak out

4. Ask your instructor for the Predict sheet, or open and print one from the link. Under I predict…, answer each question below.

a. When do you think the story takes place?

b. What job did Ginger Goodwin do?

c. How did Ginger Goodwin die?

d. Who might want Ginger Goodwin dead? Why?

 You will look back at your guesses after you read The Shooting of Ginger Goodwin.

Word Attack Strategy

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One way to learn to read harder words is to study word families. A word family is a group of words with the same ending. In this chapter, you will look at words that end with –ight, –ound, and –ain.

Word Patterns

The three letters –igh make one sound. The letters –igh make a long /i/ sound. These letters are usually followed by t.

The word ending –ain has two vowels that make one sound. The vowels –ai can make the long /a/ sound.

The last word family in this chapter is the –ound family. The two vowels –ou can make the same sound you make when you stub your toe: ow!

Practice reading these words

long /i/ = -igh

long /a/ = -ain

ow = -ound

fight

light

might

night

right

sight

tight

gain

main

pain

rain

brain

drain

grain

train

again

plain

explain

bound

found

ground

hound

mound

pound

round

sound

Watch out! Here are some –ai words that make a different sound. The a is silent in these words:

mountain fountain captain

Use Your Strategies

Read The Shooting of Ginger Goodwin in your reader. When you have finished, return to the tasks below.

Try this

Finish filling in your Predict sheet. Under The text says…, write the real answers from the text.  Were your guesses right?

What do you think about the Predict strategy? Did it help you make sense of what you read? Rate this strategy in your notebook. How many stars would you give it? One star means it did not help you. Five stars mean it helped you a lot.
Print

Check Your Understanding

Match the sentence beginnings with the correct endings

Rewrite the complete sentences in your notebook.

Sentence  beginnings:

1. Albert Goodwin was called Ginger because…

2. Coal was important because…

3. Coal mining was dangerous because…

4. The coal miners went on strike because…

5. Ginger fled to Alone Mountain because…

6. The police came after Ginger because…

7. All the workers in British Columbia went on strike because…

Sentence endings:

…it was illegal for fit men aged 20 to 35 not to go to war.

…they wanted to be safe at work.

…gas and coal dust made workers sick.

…they were mad that Ginger was killed.

…it was used to fuel trains and steamboats.

…he had red hair.

…he did not believe in war.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Grammar

Grammar Rule

A sentence needs a subject and a verb. If a sentence is missing a subject or a verb, it is not a complete sentence.

Copy these sentences, underline the subject, circle the verb

1. Coal mining was not a safe job.

2. The coal dust made people sick.

3. Sometimes gas made the workers sick, too.

4. Sometimes mines caved in.

5. Ginger Goodwin spoke out for workers’ rights.

These sentences are not complete

Write what is missing — a subject or a verb.

6. Did not believe in war.

7. Had many health problems.

8. Said he was fit for war.

9. People in the nearby town.

10. A police officer named Campbell.

11. Found Ginger’s dead body.

12. All the workers in British Columbia.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Are these sentences complete?

Write yes if they are complete and no if they are not complete. Rewrite the incomplete sentences to make them complete.

13. His family called him Ginger.

14. Went on strike.

15. Made a law that all men aged 20 to 35 must fight in the war.

16. The doctor said Ginger was fit to go to war.

17. Escaped to a cabin on Alone Mountain.

18. Miners and friends.

Ask your instructor to check your work.

Writing

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Was Ginger Goodwin a lawbreaker or a hero? You will share what you think in a paragraph.

Before you write, it helps to brainstorm as many ideas as you can. The web you used in the last chapter is a great tool for brainstorming.

Make a web

1. Ask your instructor for a Make a Web sheet, or open and print one from the link.

2. Write Ginger Goodwin in the big shape. He will be the subject of your paragraph.

3. In one of the smaller shapes, write lawbreaker. On the lines outside of that shape, brainstorm reasons Ginger was or was not a lawbreaker.

4. In another of the smaller shape, write hero. On the lines outside of that shape, brainstorm reasons Ginger was or was not a hero.

5. Leave the other shapes blank.

6. Think about your web. Decide if you think Ginger was more of a lawbreaker or more of a hero.

Now you are ready to put your thoughts into a paragraph.

Writing Task

Use the ideas from your web. Write a paragraph on this topic:

Was Ginger Goodwin a hero or a lawbreaker?

Make sure your paragraph has:

  1. A topic sentence that says whether you think Ginger Goodwin was a hero or a lawbreaker.
  2. Details to support your opinion.
  3. A conclusion that reminds the reader of your opinion.

When you are done:

  1. Look back to make sure each of your sentences has both a subject and a verb.
  2. Give your first copy to your instructor for feedback.
  3. Write a final copy of your work based on your instructor’s feedback.
  4. Hand in your web, the first copy, and the final copy of your work.

Answer Key

Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 Albert Goodwin was called Ginger because he had red hair.
2 Coal was important because it was used to fuel trains and steamboats.
3 Coal mining was dangerous because gas and coal dust made workers sick.
4 The coal miners went on strike because they wanted to be safe at work.
5 Ginger fled to Alone Mountain because he did not believe in war.
6 The police came after Ginger because it was illegal for fit men aged 20 to 35 not to go to war.
7 All the workers in British Columbia went on strike because they were mad that Ginger was killed.
Grammar
QUESTION  SUBJECT  VERB
1  Coal mining  was
2  The coal dust  made
 3  gas made
4  mines caved or caved in
5  Ginger Goodwin spoke or spoke out
QUESTION ANSWER
6  subject
7  subject
8  subject
9  verb
10  verb
11  subject
12  verb
QUESTION ANSWER REWRITE COMPLETE SENTENCE (Answers may vary.)
13 yes
14 no The miners went on strike. or The workers went on strike.
15 no The government made a law that all men aged 20 to 35 must fight in the war.
16 yes
17 no Ginger Goodwin escaped to a cabin on Alone Mountain.
18 no Miners and friends carried Ginger’s body through the streets.

4

The Gentleman Bandit

Reading Strategy

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In the last chapter, you learned a pre-reading strategy called Predict. You looked at the title, pictures, and words from the story to guess what it was about.

In this chapter, you will use a pre-reading strategy called Question. Asking questions about the topic in the reading helps stir up our interest. When we read with questions in mind, it helps us make sense of what we read.

Here are some question words:

question-words1

Try this

1. Find The Gentleman Bandit in your reader. Look at the title and pictures. Use a dictionary to look up any words in the title that you do not know. What is the subject of the reading?

2. Ask your instructor for the Question sheet, or open and print one from the link.

3. Under I wonder…, make a list of five questions you have about this subject.

Example: What was the bandit’s real name? What did he steal? Did he get caught?

Share your work with your instructor.

Word Attack Strategy

Word Patterns

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44Sometimes when you get stuck on a big word, it helps to look for smaller words inside of the big word.

  • Gentleman is a big word. But it is made up of two smaller words: gentle and man. We can guess what the word means by looking at its parts. A man who is gentle might be a man who treats people in a nice way.
  • Railroad is another big word. But it is made up of two smaller words too: rail and road. We can guess what the word means by looking at its parts. A road with rails on it might be a train track.

Sometimes two words describe just one thing.

  • Prison fence is made of two words that describe just one thing.

Split these big words into smaller words

Then guess what they might mean. Match the word to each picture.

1. newspaper

2. campfire

3. gunfight

bandit NYX campfire-99057_640
a b c

 Match each set of two words to just one picture

4. train bandit

5. wanted poster

6. passenger car

7. police officer

8. British Columbia

burglar-157142_1280 british-43749_640 wanted police-294107_640 caboose-476382_640
d e f g h
Check your answers with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Use Your Strategies

Read The Gentleman Bandit in your reader. Look for the answers to your questions as you read.

Try this

When you have finished reading, write down the answers in your Question chart, under I learned…

What do you think about the Question strategy? Did it help you make sense of what you read? Rate this strategy in your notebook. How many stars would you give it? One star means it did not help you. Five stars mean it helped you a lot.Print

Check Your Understanding

Put these events from Bill Miner’s life in the right order

1. His friends dug a hole under the prison fence.

2. He came to British Columbia.

3. He robbed a train near Kamloops.

4. He escaped back to the United States.

5. He robbed a train near Mission.

6. He only made $15.50.

7. The police put him in prison.

8. He got $7,000 in gold. 

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Grammar

Grammar Rule

The simple past tense is used to talk about events that started and ended in the past (yesterday, last night, three days ago).

Most simple past verbs are formed by adding –ed to a verb.

Example: On a September day in 1904, a CPR train stopped outside of Mission.

The verb in this sentence is stop. To make it a simple past verb, we add an –ed ending.

 Copy these sentences and circle the simple past verbs

1. In the days before cars, people and goods travelled long ways on horses and trains.

2. Bill needed to escape.

3. He slipped across the border into Canada.

4. He played the fiddle.

5. He showed people how to dance.

Find the verbs in these sentences

Change these sentences to simple past by adding –ed to the end of the verbs.

6. The bandits climb onto the train.

7. They unhook the passenger car.

8. They grab the gold.

9. They wish the train workers a good night.

10. They walk off into the night.

11. They share their money.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Grammar Rule

Some verbs break this grammar rule. For some verbs, you cannot add –ed to the end. These verbs are called irregular verbs.

Be is one of these verbs. The simple past forms of be are was and were.

 Write down the subjects and verbs from these sentences

12. Horses and trains were easy targets for bandits.

13. Bill Miner was one of the most infamous train bandits.

14. George Edwards was the name he gave people.

15. He was a charming man.

16. The robbery was in all of the newspapers across British Columbia.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

Here are some other irregular verbs — verbs that break the simple past grammar rule.

Caught is the simple past form of catch.

Felt is the simple past form of feel.

Found is the simple past form of find.

Gave is the simple past form of give.

Knew is the simple past form of know.

Ran is the simple past form of run.

Took is the simple past form of take.

Told is the simple past form of tell.

Try this

Pick three words from the words below. Write one sentence about Bill Miner for each word.

caught found knew took
felt ran gave told
Ask your instructor to check your work.

Writing

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

How do you think Bill Miner got out of British Columbia without anyone seeing him? Create a paragraph telling the story of how he got away.

Make a web

Just like last time, plan out your ideas using a web.

1. Ask your instructor for a Make a Web sheet, or open and print one from the link.

2. In the big shape, write Bill Miner. He is the subject of your story.

3. In each of the smaller shapes, write one of these questions:

a. Who helped him escape?

b. How did he travel across the border?

c. Where did he go?

d. How did he spend the rest of his life?

4. Brainstorm answers for each question. Be creative!

Now you are ready to put your ideas into a paragraph.

Writing Task

Pretend you are Bill. You are writing in your journal. Write a paragraph about your escape from prison. Begin your journal like this:

Tonight, I finally escaped from prison! My friends dug a hole under a fence. I climbed out. Then I…

Write your sentences in past tense.

When you have finished:

  1. Check to make sure all your sentences are complete.
  2. Ask your instructor for feedback.
  3. Write a final copy based on your instructor’s feedback.
  4. Hand in your final copy with your web and your first copy.

Answer Key

Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 b
2 c
3 a
4 d
5 f
6 h
7 g
8 e
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
2 He came to British Columbia.
5 He robbed a train near Mission.
8 He got $7,000 in gold.
3 He robbed a train near Kamloops.
6 He only made $15.50.
7 The police put him in prison.
1 His friends dug a hole under the prison fence.
4 He escaped back to the United States.
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1 travelled
2 needed
3 slipped
4 played
5 showed
6 The bandits climbed onto the train.
7 They unhooked the passenger car.
8 They grabbed the gold.
9 They wished the train workers a good night.
10 They walked off into the night.
11 They shared their money.
SUBJECT VERB
12  Horses and trains were
13  Bill Miner   was
14  George Edwards   was
15  He was
16  The robbery was

Attributions

Photo a by BrokenSphere is in the public domain.

Photo b by Jon S is used under a CC-BY 2.0 license.

Photo c by unknown is in the public domain.

Photo d by unknown is in the public domain.

Photo e by unknown is in the public domain.

Photo f by RadtasticBxtch is used under a CC-BY 2.0 license.

Photo g by unknown is in the public domain.

Photo h by amandaelizabeth84 is in the public domain.

II

Unit 2: Snapshots of BC Culture

5

Welcome to Unit 2

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In these pages, you will walk alongside some of the people of British Columbia. You will read a bit about arts and culture in our province. Along the way, you will learn many new skills that will help you be a stronger reader and writer.

Learning Goals

In Unit 2, you will:

  • Build your vocabulary
  • Find synonyms and antonyms for words
  • Study suffixes
  • Use capital letters correctly
  • Use contractions correctly
  • Read CVCE words
  • Write sentences using future tense

Setting Goals

Everyone has dreams. Setting goals is the first step to making our dreams come true.

Read this story about Sara. Sara is an adult learner in British Columbia. What are Sara’s goals?

My name is Sara. I am from Sudan. In Sudan, I had a friend named Ben. Ben was gay. When he walked, he moved his hips like a woman. Some men did not like Ben’s walk. These men did not like gay people. So they killed my friend Ben. I miss him so much. In 1998, I moved to British Columbia. One of the women in my neighbourhood had a gay son. When she found out her son was gay, she felt ashamed. She kicked him out of the house. These days, I invite her son to my house. I cook for him. He eats with my family. Some of my friends say I should not let this boy near my kids. They say he might turn my kids gay. I know that’s not true. The boy will always be welcome at my house. I take basic education classes four days a week. I want to learn to read and write. My goal is to make the world a better place. My goal is to stand up for human rights. This would have made my friend Ben happy.

Writing Task

Write the title Setting Goals in your notebook. On a new line, answer these questions:

  1. What are Sara’s goals? Make a list.
  2. What are your goals? Make a list.

In this unit, you will learn about some different faces of culture in British Columbia. As you go through each chapter, think about your goals. Let your goals move you toward doing your best work.

6

All Together Now: BC Festivals

Reading Strategy

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In Unit 1, you learned about pre-reading strategies. Another way you can build your reading skills is to build your vocabulary. In this chapter, you will learn to build your vocabulary. Your vocabulary is the group of words that you know.

You can build your vocabulary by keeping track of words that are new to you. You might see new words in newspapers or hear them on TV. Find out what they mean. Then remember and use your new words.

Learning new words helps you because:

Try this

Here are some vocabulary words. Which ones are new for you?

1. Rate each word based on how well you know it. Give it a…

1 – if you do not know it

2 – if you sort of know it

3 – if you know it well

Do not know Sort of know Know well
tradition 1 2 3
celebrate 1 2 3
journey 1 2 3
kilometre 1 2 3
mammal 1 2 3
national 1 2 3
championship 1 2 3
ceremony 1 2 3
festival 1 2 3
sculpture 1 2 3

2. Now ask your instructor for a Vocab Builder sheet, or open and print one from the link.

3. Choose three words that you rated a 1. Add each word to the middle of its own Word box.

VocabBuilderScreenshot

4. Look up your three words in the dictionary. Sometimes a word has more than one meaning. The most common meaning will be given first. Under Dictionary Definition, write down the most common meaning for your three words.

5. For each word, complete all the other boxes in the Vocab Builder.

Have your instructor look at your Vocab Builder boxes before you move on. 

Word Attack Strategy

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Often we can figure out a new word without looking in a dictionary. We can use our word attack skills.

One word attack strategy is to look for a suffix. A suffix is part of a word. It is put at the end of the word to change the meaning. In this chapter, you will learn about these suffixes: –er,  –or,  –ar, and  –est.

Word Patterns

When you see the suffix –er, –or, or –ar at the end of a word, it often means “a person who.”

For example:

  • A baker is a person who bakes.
  • An actor is a person who acts.
  • A liar is a person who lies.

Answer these questions

1. What is a visitor?

A visitor is a person who ____________________.

2. What is a racer?

A racer is a person who ____________________.

3. What is a sculptor?

A sculptor is a person who ____________________.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Word Patterns

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44The suffix –est means “the most.”

For example:

  • Fastest means the most fast.
  • Strongest means the most strong.
  • Lightest means the most light.

Answer these questions

4. What does longest mean?

Longest means the most ______________.

5. What does oldest mean?

Oldest means the most _______________.

6. What does largest mean?

Largest means the most _______________.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Use Your Strategies

The title of the next reading is All Together Now: BC Festivals. Think about any festivals you have been to. What did they celebrate? What kinds of events were there? Guess what festivals will be talked about in this reading. When you are ready, begin reading.

What do you think about the Vocab Builder worksheet? Did it help you make sense of what you read? Rate this worksheet in your notebook. How many stars would you give it? One star means it did not help you. Five stars mean it helped you a lot.Print

Check Your Understanding

The subject of the reading in this chapter is festivals of British Columbia. The reading is divided into six paragraphs. Each paragraph is about a different, but closely related topic.

Find the topic

1. What is the topic of the second paragraph?

a. Whales

b. Festivals in British Columbia

c. The Pacific Rim Whale Festival

2. What is the topic of the third paragraph?

a. Bathtubs

b. Nanaimo’s World Championship Bathtub Race

c. Vancouver Island

3. What is the topic of the fourth paragraph?

a. The Dragon Boat Festival in Vancouver

b. Dragons

c. China

4. What is the topic of the fifth paragraph?

a. The Vernon Winter Carnival

b. Sculptures

c. The Rocky Mountains

Fill in the blanks with a word that makes sense

cultures journey jail serious

5. The Pacific Rim Whale Festival celebrates the _____________________ of the grey whale.

6. The World Championship Bathtub Race started as a silly event but is now a _________________________  sport.

7. The Dragon Boat Festival celebrates the many different ______________________ of the people in Vancouver.

8. At the Vernon Winter Carnival, people are put in ______________________ to raise money.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Grammar

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If we learn the rules about capital letters, we can help our readers understand what we write. You already know to use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence. This helps our readers understand that we are starting a new idea. Here are some more rules about capital letters.

Grammar Rule

Use a capital letter for:

  1. Names of people
  2. Titles of books, movies, newspapers, and so on
  3. Places and landmarks
  4. Days of the week and months of the year
  5. Holidays and special events
  6. The word I

Why do these words have capital letters?

Match each word to the correct capital letter rule using the number from the box above. The first one is done for you.

1. Arctic      Answer: 3

2. Mexico

3. Expo 86

4. Rocky Mountains

5. Nanaimo

6. March

7. Vernon Winter Carnival

8. Dragon Boat Festival

9. China

10. February

11. Pacific Rim National Park

These sentences are missing capital letters

Rewrite these sentences and add capital letters where needed.

12. albert ostman said he was kidnapped by a sasquatch.

13. ginger goodwin hid on alone mountain near comox lake.

14. there is a movie about bill miner called the grey fox.

15. are you going to the kamloopa powwow?

16. yes, i am leaving on friday, and i will be back on sunday.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Writing

Writing Task

Think of a festival you know about. Create a poster or ad to let people know about the event. If you want to, you can invent your own festival.

Include:

  1. The name of the festival
  2. Details about the events
  3. The dates
  4. The address

You can make up the details, such as where and when the next one will take place.

When you have finished:

  1. Check that you used capital letters correctly.
  2. Use the dictionary to check your spelling.
  3. Hand it in to your instructor.

Answer Key

Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 visits
2 races
3 sculpts
4 long
5 old
6 large
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 c
2 b
3 a
4 a
5 journey
6 serious
7 cultures
8 jail
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1 3  answer given
2 3
3 5
4 3
5 3
6 4
7 5
8 5
9 3
10 4
11 3
12  Albert Ostman said he was kidnapped by a sasquatch.
13  Ginger Goodwin hid on Alone Mountain near Comox Lake.
14  There is a movie about Bill Miner called The Grey Fox.
15 Are you going to the Kamloopa Powwow?
16 Yes, I am leaving on Friday and I will be back on Sunday.

7

Bold and Bright: Sook-Yin Lee

Reading Strategy

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In the last chapter, you learned how a bigger vocabulary can help you read. One way to build your vocabulary is to study synonyms.

Synonyms are words that have nearly the same meaning. Think about the word strange. This circle shows some synonyms for strange:

strange-e1422675778963

Some dictionaries give you a synonym along with the definition. Dictionaries often put SYN before the list of synonyms for a word.

Try this

1. Look up wonderful in your dictionary. Does it give a list of synonyms? If not, ask your instructor for a thesaurus to do this task. A thesaurus is a book that gives synonyms for words.

2. Ask your instructor for a SYN Circles sheet, or open and print one from the link.

3. Choose four words from the box below. Put each of your words into a circle.

violent strict fearless smart
funny sad joyful bold

4. Find three synonyms for each word that you chose. Choose synonyms that you can sound out. Add them to the correct circle.

5. Write a sentence for each word you picked from the box.

Ask your instructor to check your work.

Word Attack Strategy

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In the last chapter, you learned about the suffixes –ar, –or, –er, and –est. In this chapter, you will learn about the suffixes –less and –ful.

Word Patterns

The suffix –less means “without.”

For example:

  • Fearless means without fear.
  • Homeless means without a home.
  • Careless means without care.

The suffix –ful means “full of.”

For example:

  • Fearful means full of fear.
  • Careful means full of care.
  • Beautiful means full of beauty.

 Complete these sentences

1. Hopeless means ______________________________.

2. Powerless means ______________________________.

3. Tasteless means ______________________________.

Complete these sentences

4. Joyful means ______________________________.

5. Restful means ______________________________.

6. Tearful means ______________________________.

Complete the sentence with the best word from the box

joyful          fearless          restful          careless          beautiful

7. People who skydive are ______________________________.

8. The ____________________ child raced down the hill on her sled.

9. The sunset is ______________________________.

10. My day off work was very ______________________________.

11. I was being _____________________________ and I broke a glass.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Use Your Strategies

Now it’s time to read Bold and Bright: Sook-Yin Lee. You will come across many of the synonyms and suffixes you looked at in this chapter. Use what you have learned to help you make sense of and enjoy the text.

What do you think about the SYN Circles task? Did it help you make sense of what you read? Rate this task in your notebook. How many stars would you give it? One star means it did not help you. Five stars mean it helped you a lot.Print

Check Your Understanding

Put these events from Sook-Yin’s life in order

1. She grew up in North Vancouver.

2. She became a radio show host on CBC.

3. Her sister died.

4. CBC almost fired her for being in a movie called Shortbus.

5. She ran away from home with her sister.

6. She became a VJ on MuchMusic.

7. She kept her job.

8. People spoke out for her right to express herself.

9. She joined a band called Bob’s Your Uncle.

Try this

10. What does “Jill of all trades” mean?

11. Why is Sook-Yin Lee called a “Jill of all trades”?

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Grammar

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When we talk, we often blend our words together. We do not say, “What is going on?” We say, “What’s going on?” This is called a “contraction.”

Grammar Rule

A contraction is a word made by putting two words together and leaving some letters out. An apostrophe (’) shows that letters have been left out.

Here are some examples:

I am = I’m you are = you’re we are = we’re
she is = she’s he is = he’s it is = it’s
that is = that’s they are = they’re do not = don’t
did not = didn’t does not = doesn’t

Look at these sentences from the reading

Find the contractions. Rewrite the sentences without contractions.

1. She’s a musician, actor, writer, filmmaker, and broadcaster.

2. She says stories are how she makes sense of a world that’s both strange and wonderful.

3. She became the lead singer of a Vancouver-based punk band called Bob’s Your Uncle.

4. What makes Sook-Yin different is that she doesn’t hold back.

5. So CBC didn’t fire her after all.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter.

Try contractions

Choose two of the contractions from the Grammar Rule box above. Write a sentence for each one.

Ask your instructor to check your work. 

Writing

Listen to the first 12 minutes of this podcast of Definitely Not the Opera with Sook-Yin Lee.

Writing Task

Write a paragraph to review the show. Did you like it? Why or why not? Correctly use at least two contractions.

Begin your review like this:

In October 2014, Sook-Yin Lee looked at how art can change your life on her radio show, Definitely Not the Opera. I thought the show was…

When you have finished:

  1. Check for words you could change for a more interesting synonym.
  2. Check that you correctly used at least two contractions.
  3. Give your review to your instructor for feedback.
  4. Make changes based on your instructor’s feedback.
  5. Hand in your first and final copy.

Answer Key

Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 without hope
2 without power
3 without taste
4 full of joy
5 full of rest
6 full of tears
7 fearless
8 joyful
9 beautiful
10 restful
11 careless
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 She grew up in North Vancouver.
5 She ran away from home with her sister.
3 Her sister died.
9 She joined a band called Bob’s Your Uncle.
6 She became a VJ on MuchMusic.
2 She became a radio show host on CBC.
4 CBC almost fired her for being in a movie called Shortbus.
8 People spoke out for her right to express herself.
7 She kept her job.
10 Jill of all trades describes someone who can do a little bit of everything.
11 Sook-Yin Lee is called a “Jill of all trades” because she has done many different jobs in the arts.
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1 She is a musician, actor, writer, filmmaker, and broadcaster.
2 She says stories are how she makes sense of a world that is both strange and wonderful.
3 She became the lead singer of a Vancouver-based punk band called Bob is Your Uncle.
4 What makes Sook-Yin different is that she does not hold back.
5 So CBC did not fire her after all.

8

Spread the Word: First Nations Languages in BC

Reading Strategy

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In the last chapter, you learned how to build your vocabulary with synonyms. In this chapter, you will learn to build your vocabulary with antonyms.

Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. For example, old and young are antonyms. Dead and alive are antonyms.

Find the pairs of antonyms in this list

better sleeping destroy help right
awake harm wrong worse save
Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Words can have many antonyms. The antonyms for renew are in the grey parts of the circle.

image

Try this

1. Ask your instructor for an ANT Circles sheet, or open and print one from the link.

2. Create an Antonym Circle for each of the words below. Use a thesaurus to find antonyms. Choose words you can sound out.

die sick connect grow
Ask your instructor to check your work.

Word Attack Strategy

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When you first began to read, you mostly learned words with three letters, such as hop, pin, and cod.

The first letter is a consonant. The second letter is a vowel. The third letter is a consonant. These words are called consonant-vowel-consonant words. We call them CVC words for short.

Words and syllables with this pattern often have a short vowel sound. Read these words. See if you can hear the short vowel in each list.

rat hid not
gap dim rod
mad pin mop

Word Patterns

Now you will study a new word pattern. This pattern is like the CVC pattern, but it has an e on the end. So we call them CVCE words. Here are some examples:

  • bone
  • cake
  • bike

Check that each word above has the consonant-vowel-consonant-e pattern.

The e on the end of these words is sometimes called the bossy e or the magic e. That’s because the e tells the other vowel to make a long sound.

Read the CVCE words again and notice the long vowel sound. A long vowel sound is when the vowel says its own name.

Now read these words. Make sure you read them with a long vowel sound.

rate hide note
gape dime rode
made pine mope

Practice reading these CVC and CVCE words together

rat rate
gap gape
mad made
hid hide
dim dime
pin pine
mop mope
rod rode
not note

The words in the box are from the reading for this chapter

man home time his
did safe made wave
can save like kid

1. Make a list of the CVC words.

2. Make a list of the CVCE words.

Many words begin with two consonants, like st, pl, bl, wr, th, wh, ph, and ch. Words that begin with two consonants also follow the CVCE rule. The e makes the vowel say its name.

 

Underline the CVCE pattern in these words

3. white

4. these

5. place

6. stage

The CVCE rule is also useful for reading words with more than one syllable.

Underline the CVCE pattern in these words

7. rewrite

8. alive

9. taken

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Use Your Strategies

Now you are ready to read Spread the Word: First Nations Languages in BC. You will come across many of the antonyms you have looked at. You will also read many CVCE words, which will be in bold. Use what you have learned to understand and enjoy the text.

What do you think about the ANT Circles task? Did it help you make sense of what you read? Rate this task in your notebook. How many stars would you give it? One star means it did not help you. Five stars mean it helped you a lot.Print

Check Your Understanding

Choose the best answer

1. What is the subject of this reading?

a. First Nations people in Canada

b. First Nations languages in British Columbia

c. Skwomesh language

2. What is the main idea of this reading?

a. First Nations languages are at risk, but together we can keep them strong

b. Khelsilem is a good person.

c. Hardwood forests renew themselves.

3. How many First Nations languages are spoken in British Columbia?

a. 10

b. Over 30

c. 102

4. Why are First Nations languages at risk?

a. The government tried to get rid of First Nations languages through laws and schools.

b. Language is not important to First Nations people.

5. Why does Khelsilem want Skwomesh culture and language to be like a hardwood forest?

a. He wants the Skwomesh culture and language to reach a point where it renews itself.

b. He thinks forests are very beautiful.

Write a short answer to these questions

6. Name two ways Khelsilem is helping to keep the Skwomesh language strong.

7. What are some ways First Nations people can learn their language?

8. What is a settler?

9. How can settlers help First Nations languages stay strong?

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Grammar

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Look at this quote from Spread the Word: First Nations Languages in BC. Is it talking about the past, present, or future?

First, the flowers will come back. Then the grasses and weeds will return. Then the shrubs and berry bushes will grow. Next, the softwood trees will come. Finally, the hardwood trees will return. Now the hardwood forest will renew itself. Each stage made way for the next stage. Khelsilem hopes to set up the next wave of Skwomesh people so they will be like that hardwood forest.

This quote is talking about the future.

Grammar Rule

To talk about the future, use will + the base form of a verb. The base form of a verb does not have an ending on it.

Example: The flowers will come back. Then the grasses and weeds will return.

Which of these sentences are written in future tense?

1. Khelsilem is 24 years old.

2. Khesilem learned his traditional language.

3. Khelsilem will build a school.

4. Khelsilem will help others learn Skwomesh.

5. He is like a shrub.

6. One day, the shrub will become a forest.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Writing

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Khelsilem hopes to set up the next wave of Skwomesh people so their language will be like a hardwood forest. Their language will not be at risk. It will renew itself. To do this, he lives in a house where Skwomesh is spoken every day. He will also build the Skwomesh Language Academy.

In your life, what will you do to help your community?

Writing Task

Write a paragraph about this topic:

In your life, what will you do to help your community?

Here are some ideas you might write about:

  • Take a bus
  • Plant a garden
  • Fix things that are broken
  • Know my neighbours
  • Pick up litter
  • Vote
  • Use cloth bags
  • Raise good kids
  • Share my skills
  • Buy local
  • Bake extra and share
  • Greet people

Here is an example paragraph:

There are many things I will do to help my community. I will take the bus, ride a bike, and walk rather than drive a car. This will help keep the air clean. I will vote. Then government will have to think about the needs of my community. I will be a good teacher. This will help my community be creative and solve problems. In these ways, I will help keep my community strong.

  1. Make a web to plan your ideas. Ask your instructor for a Make a Web sheet, or open and print one from the link.
  2. Write a topic sentence.
  3. Add the best ideas from your web to your paragraph.
  4. Write a concluding sentence.

When you have finished:

  1. Make sure you correctly use future tense.
  2. Are there any words you could change for a more interesting word?
  3. Did you include a topic sentence, details, and a conclusion?
  4. Hand in your first copy for feedback.
  5. Make changes based on your instructor’s feedback.
  6. Hand in your web with your first and final copy.

Answer Key

Reading Strategy
help/harm, save/destroy, better/worse, sleeping/awake, right/wrong
Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1  CVC words man, did, can, kid, his
2  CVCE words home, time, safe, made, wave, save, like
3 white 
4 these 
5  place   
6 stage
7 rewrite 
8 alive 
9 taken
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 b
2 a
3 b
4 a
5 a
6 Khelsilem learned his language. He lives in a house where he speaks his language every day. He is building a school to help others learn the language.
7 First Nations people can learn their language in a pre-school, at camp, and by spending time with elders.
8 A settler is a person who came to British Columbia from somewhere else.
9 Settlers can listen to people speak their language, learn about the First Nations land where they live, and support First Nations language learning in their area.
Grammar
The sentences written in future tense are 3, 4, and 6.

III

Unit 3: Wild BC

9

Welcome to Unit 3

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

In these pages, you will take a walk along the forests, mountains, and oceans of British Columbia. You will read about some of the animals of our province. Along the way, you will learn many new skills that will help you be a stronger reader and writer.

Learning Goals

In Unit 3, you will:

  • Tell the difference between fact and opinion
  • Read open syllables
  • Read and write compound words
  • Read r-controlled syllables
  • Form an opinion
  • Write sentences using continuous present tense
  • Use clues to understand hard words
  • Read and understand homonyms

Talking about Time

A big part of being a good student is learning how to use your time well.

Read this story about Gus. Gus is very busy. How does he get by?

My name is Gus. I am 22 years old. I am a very busy guy. I work in a kitchen all day. I am a really good cook. One day, I want to go to college to become a chef. So after work, I go to night school where I learn to read and write. I have a learning disability. I went to high school in British Columbia, but I fell through the cracks. Sure, going to work and school at the same time is hard. I won’t give up, though. I just have to plan my time well. I always leave for work and school earlier than I need to. That way, I will always be on time. I make to-do lists to keep track of my homework and chores. I set myself deadlines for each task on my list. Thinking about my dream of being a chef helps me meet my deadlines, even when I don’t feel like it. And I make sure to leave lots of time for sleep, so that I’ll be at my best during the day. Like I said, I’m a busy guy. I’ve got big dreams.

Writing Task

Write the title Talking about Time in your notebook. On a new line, answer these questions:

  1. What strategies does Gus use to plan his time?
  2. What strategies would you like to use to plan your time?

In this unit, you will read about three different animals that call British Columbia home. As you go through each chapter, think about ways you can use your time well.

10

The Rare Spirit Bear

Reading Strategy

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People often try to change the way we think. Sometimes they want to sell us things. Sometimes they want us to support a cause. It is important that we can make up our minds for ourselves.

One way people try to change the way we think is by making their opinion sound like a fact. Can you tell the difference between fact and opinion? If you can, you will be better able to make careful decisions.

A fact is something that you know is true. You can prove it. An opinion is something that you think or believe is true. But you cannot prove it, and people might disagree. For example:

In 2006, the BC government made the spirit bear a provincial symbol. That is a fact. You can check if it is true with research into BC history.
The spirit bear is a kind of black bear that has white fur. That is a fact. You can prove it with science.
The spirit bear is cute. That is an opinion. You cannot prove it. People disagree on what is cute.
People should not hunt bears for sport. That is an opinion. People disagree about what is right and wrong. Also, the word should is a clue that the statement is an opinion.

Try this

Write down fact or opinion for each statement. You do not need to go back to the reader to see if these are true or false. Just look at the statement.

1. The sasquatch is real. fact or opinion?
2. Ginger Goodwin died in 1918. fact or opinion?
3. Bill Miner was handsome. fact or opinion?
4. People should not race in bathtubs. fact or opinion?
5. There are over 30 different First Nations languages in British Columbia. fact or opinion?
6. Sook-Yin Lee was in a band called Bob’s Your Uncle. fact or opinion?
Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Word Attack Strategy

Word Patterns

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44The letter y can make lots of different sounds, depending on where it shows up in a syllable.

 

A syllable that begins with y usually makes a /y/ sound like in yellow. Read these words:

  • yam
  • your
  • yesterday
  • yell

A one syllable word that ends in y usually makes a long /i/ sound, like in cry. Read these words:

  • by
  • my
  • try
  • fly

If the word has more than one syllable and ends in a y, the y usually makes a long /e/ sound, like in baby. Read these words:

  • funny
  • lady
  • plenty
  • cozy

What three sounds can y make? Look at the words in the above Word Patterns box and say them out loud.

 Make a chart like this

Sounds of Y
/y/ like yellow long /i/ like cry long /e/ like baby

 

 

 

 

Fill in your chart

1. Sort these words into your chart

many fry yet why carry
empty fifty yes sky jelly
very yard handy shy year

These words are split up into syllables

2. Put the syllables together to make a word. Write the word on the line. Then sound it out.

com – pan – y  __________________________
most – ly __________________________
Jan – u – ar – y __________________________
Feb – ru – ar – y __________________________

How many syllables are in these words?

3. A syllable is a beat in a word. Each beat has one vowel sound. Write the number of syllables for each word.

mossy ______ only ______
year ______ many ______
mostly ______ carry ______
by ______ yet ______
any ______
Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Use Your Strategies

Read the chapter called The Rare Spirit Bear. You will read some facts and opinions about this animal. You will see many words with open syllables. Try out your new strategies as you read. Enjoy!

Check Your Understanding

Sometimes people make statements that are false. These “facts” about spirit bears are false. One word is wrong.

Rewrite the sentence to make the statement true

Change the wrong word to the correct word.

1. The spirit bear is really a kind of grizzly bear.

2. The Great Bear Rainforest is a place in Alaska.

3. Spirit bears have a harder time catching salmon than black bears do.

4. In winter, spirit bears can go without food for nine months.

5. The First Nations have always hunted the spirit bear.

6. Spirit bears live to be about 50 years old.

Are these statements fact or opinion?

7. Enbridge will pay taxes to the government of British Columbia.

8. A pipeline should be built through the Great Bear Rainforest.

9. The government should not allow any more oil tankers off the coast of British Columbia.

10. Oil spills can kill plants and animals.

11. Building pipelines will create jobs.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Grammar

Grammar Rule

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44A compound word is made up of two small words. Sometimes they have a space between them. Sometimes they don’t.

 

Airplane is a compound word. It’s made up of air + plane.

Backpack is a compound word. It’s made up of back + pack.

Ice cream is a compound word. It’s made up of ice + cream.

Knowing about compound words can help you spell bigger words. If you can spell the small words that make up compound words, you can spell bigger words, too.

Try this

1. Here are some compound words from your reading. What small words do you see inside each compound word? Write them down.

a. waterfall

b. rainforest

c. pipeline

2. Match a word from List 1 with a word from List 2 to make a compound word from the reading.

List 1 List 2
spirit tanker
water spill
rain bear
oil line
pipe Nations
oil fall
First forest

3. What small words do you see in these compound words?

goodbye bathtub hometown steamboat afternoon
something storytelling blowhole birthplace
Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Writing

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

Do you think Enbridge should be allowed to build a pipeline through the Great Bear Rainforest?

 

Make a web

1. Make a web to brainstorm your ideas. Ask your instructor for a Make a Web sheet, or open and print one from the link.

2. Look at your past webs to help you make a web for this writing task.

3. You can use ideas from the reading to fill in the web. But do not copy word for word. Find synonyms for some words instead of copying them.

Writing Task

Write a paragraph that answers this question:

Should Enbridge be allowed to build a pipeline through the Great Bear Rainforest? Why or why not?

When you have finished:

  1. Make sure your paragraph includes a topic sentence, details, and a concluding sentence.
  2. Take extra care to spell compound words correctly.
  3. Hand your first copy in to your instructor.
  4. Make changes based on your instructor’s feedback.
  5. Hand in your final copy with your web and first copy.

Answer Key

Reading Strategies
QUESTION ANSWER
1 opinion
2 fact
3 opinion
4 opinion
5 fact
6 fact
Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1
Sounds of Y
/y/ like yellow long /i/ like cry long /e/ like baby

 

yet

yes

yard

year

fry

why

sky

shy

many

carry

empty

fifty

jelly

very

handy

3
mossy 2 only 2
year 1 many 2
mostly 2 carry 2
by 1 yet 1
any 2
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 The spirit bear is really a kind of black bear.
2 The Great Bear Rainforest is a place in British Columbia.
3 Spirit bears have an easier time catching salmon than black bears do.
4 In winter, spirit bears can go without food for seven months.
5 The First Nations have never hunted the spirit bear.
6 Spirit bears live to be about 25 years old.
7 fact
8 opinion
9 opinion
10 fact
11 fact
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1a water fall
1b rain forest
1c pipe line
2 spirit bear, waterfall, rainforest, oil spill, pipeline, oil tanker, First Nations
3 good-bye, bath-tub, home-town, steam-boat, after-noon, some-thing, story-telling, blow-hole, birth-place

11

The Journey of the Salmon

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oncorhynchus_nerka.flipped.jpg
Sockeye salmon

Reading Strategy

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

We can’t believe everything we read. In the last chapter, you learned about the difference between fact and opinion. Knowing whether the statements we read are facts or opinions helps us form our own ideas.

Which of these statements are facts? Which are opinions?

1. A fish farm is a place where fish are bred and raised for food. fact or opinion?
2. Many salmon are bred in fish farms in British Columbia. fact or opinion?
3. Salmon are tasty. fact or opinion?
4. Fish farms should not be allowed in British Columbia. fact or opinion?
Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Here are some statements about salmon

Some are true and some are false. Predict whether each statement is true or false.

5. Salmon act like food for trees. true or false?
6. Salmon change colour at the end of their life. true or false?
7. It is illegal to fish salmon in British Columbia. true or false?
8. Salmon can leap up waterfalls. true or false?
9. Salmon return to their birthplace to lay eggs and die. true or false?

Word Attack Strategy

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

In the last chapter, you learned about syllables with the letter y. In this chapter, you will learn about r-controlled syllables.

Word Patterns

An r-controlled syllable is a syllable that has a vowel followed by the letter r. The r changes the vowel sound. The vowel sound is neither short nor long.

Read these words:

  • her
  • bird
  • burn

The –er, –ir, and –ur in the middle of these words all make the same sound. That means there are three ways to spell this sound: –er, –ir, and –ur. The –er is the most common.

The letters –ar can make many sounds. For now, think of their sound as the one you hear in car.

The letters –or can also make many sounds. For now, think of their sound as the one you hear in horn.

Practice reading these words

her

serve

nerve

fern

bird

first

shirt

birth

skirt

burst

burn

nurse

surf

curl

park

farm

arm

far

harm

horn

thorn

pork

storm

short

corn

Remember, an r-controlled syllable has the letters –er, –ir, –ur, –ar, or –or.

Examples

Ginger: The second syllable – ger – has the letters –er so it is r-controlled.
charming: The first syllable – charm – has the letters –ar so it is r-controlled.
morning: The first syllable – morn – has the letters –or so it is r-controlled.

Underline the r-controlled syllable in each word

1. water 2. forest 3. over 4. starting
5. farming 6. river 7. return

Use Your Strategies

Read The Journey of the Salmon. You’ll see if your predictions are right. You will also come across many words with r-controlled vowels in bold.

Check Your Understanding

Look to see whether each statement is true or false

Then look back at your predictions. Did anything surprise you?

My guess The text says
1. Salmon act like food for trees. true or false? true or false?
2. Salmon change colour at the end of their life. true or false? true or false?
3. It is illegal to fish salmon in British Columbia. true or false? true or false?
4. Salmon can leap up waterfalls. true or false? true or false?
5. Salmon return to their birthplace to lay eggs and die. true or false? true or false?

Seeing both sides

People have different opinions about fish farms. Some people support fish farms. Others do not. Ask your instructor for the Seeing Both Sides sheet, or open and print one from the link.

Enter this question in the top box: Should people in British Columbia be allowed to farm salmon?

6. Use the good things about fish farms to fill in the Yes side.

7. Use the bad things about fish farms to fill in the No side.

Make your mind up. Write your answer to the question on the bottom line.

Seeing-Both-Sides

Ask your instructor to check your work. 

Grammar

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

Look at these sentences from The Journey of the Salmon:

These sentences are written using the continuous present tense.

Grammar Rule

To write a verb in continuous present:

1. Begin with am, is, or are.

2. Add your verb.

3. Add an –ing ending to your verb.

The continuous present tense is used to talk about events that are happening right now.

Underline the continuous present verbs

Below are some more examples from the reading.

1. A few communities are building fish farms on land, rather than in the ocean.

2. They are using closed tanks, rather than nets and cages.

3. Fish farms are spreading sea lice.

4. The drugs that fish farmers give the salmon are harming other sea life.

Underline the verbs

Here are some sentences from the news clip. They are written in many tenses — simple past, simple present, and continuous present.

5. Lives are beginning — and are ending — on the Adams River in Kamloops.

6. This year is a high point in the sockeye salmon cycle.

7. Once they were just eggs in this river bottom.

8. Now they are returning home.

9. They are dying because they are so old.

10. I saw a dead one on the beach.

11. This is a male and this is a female.

12. Every four years, a large push of fish comes in.

13. Five years ago, it was a different story.

14. Only some fish arrived.

Try this

Which of the above sentences use continuous present tense?

Choose one of your favourite places in the world. For example, you might choose a lake or a city or your kitchen. Describe what is happening there right now using continuous present. Think of at least three things.

Example: In Snug Cove, the otters are swimming. The boats are bobbing in the water. The seagulls are resting on the dock.

Ask your instructor to check your work.

Writing

Writing Task

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44Write a poem in continuous present tense. Use this sentence frame again and again. Pick a new subject and verb for each line.

Somewhere in British Columbia, a_________ is __________-ing.

Examples:

Somewhere in British Columbia, a cedar tree is touching the stars.

Somewhere in British Columbia, a mountain is being climbed.

Somewhere in British Columbia, we are laughing in the rain.

Would you like to find an interesting synonym for any of your words?

  1. If yes, ask your instructor for a thesaurus.
  2. Check your spelling and grammar carefully.
  3. Hand your poem in to your instructor.

Answer Key

Reading Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 fact
2 fact
3 opinion
4 opinion
Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 water
2 forest
3 over
4 starting
5 farming
6 river
7 return
QUESTION ANSWER
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 true
2 true
3 false
4 true
5 true
6  Under Yes
  • Fish farms are keeping wild salmon safe from overfishing.
  • Fish farms are making jobs for people.
7 Under No
  • Fish farms are spreading sea lice.
  • The drugs that fish farmers give the salmon are harming other sea life.
  • Seals and sea lions are getting stuck in the nets.
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1 A few communities are building fish farms on land, rather than in the ocean.
2 They are using closed tanks, rather than nets and cages.
3 Fish farms are spreading sea lice.
4 The drugs that fish farmers give the salmon are harming other sea life.
5 Lives are beginning – and lives are ending – on the Adams River in Kamloops.
6 This year is a high point in the sockeye salmon cycle.
7 Once they were just eggs in this river bottom.
8 Now they are returning home.
9 They are dying because they are so old.
10 I saw a dead one on the beach.
11 This is a male and this is a female.
12 Every four years, a large push of fish comes in.
13 Five years ago, it was a different story.
14 Only some fish arrived.
The sentences that use continuous present tense are 5, 8, and 9.

Attributions

Sockeye salmon by Epipelagic is in the public domain.

12

Spy-Hopping with Orca Whales

Killerwhales_jumping. Photo by Robert Pittman.
Orca whales jumping

Reading Strategy

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44

You are getting better and better at telling the difference between fact and opinion. Let’s practice one more time.

 

Which of these statements are facts? Which are opinions?

1. Orca whales are mammals. fact or opinion?
2. We should not build dams on rivers. fact or opinion?
3. Orca whales live in family groups called pods. fact or opinion?
4. It is a sign of stress when a whale’s fin flops to one side. fact or opinion?
5. We should not allow whales to be kept in pools. fact or opinion?
Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Predict whether these statements are true or false

6. A male orca whale can live up to 90 years. true or false?
7. Orca whales hunt by sending out sound waves and listening as the waves come back. true or false?
8. If a whale’s fin flops to one side, it is a sign that the whale is stressed out. true or false?
9. Orca whales mate for life. true or false?
10. Orca whales can hold their breath underwater for up to one hour. true or false?

You will return to your predictions after you read Spy-Hopping with Orca Whales.

Word Attack Strategy

Word Patterns

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44When we read, we sometimes come across words we cannot sound out or do not understand. Sometimes writers put a definition of a word in the text so that you don’t have to look it up in a dictionary.

Here are some examples you have seen before:

  • Coal was very important back then. Coal is a black rock that can be used for fuel.
  • Sook-Yin Lee has been called “a cultural Jill of all trades.” This means she can do a little bit of everything. 

Here are some examples you will see in the reading for this chapter: 

  • A female orca whale is called a cow.
  • A male orca whale is called a bull.

When the writer does not give us the meaning, we can make a guess based on what makes sense. To make a good guess, we have to think about the other words around it. Read this sentence:

  • Orca whales must breathe air through a ____________ on top of their head.

What word might make sense in the blank? Once you make a guess, you will likely find it easier to read this sentence:

  • Orca whales must breathe air through a blowhole on top of their head.

Try this

Look quickly at Spy-Hopping with Orca Whales in your reader. Don’t read it, just find the words fluke, spy-hop, and breach. Read the paragraph that contains these words.

Write definitions for fluke, spyhop, and breach in your own words.

Word What it means in my own words
1. fluke
2. spy-hop
3. breach

4. Look at these sentences from the reading. Make a guess about what word goes in the blank. Does your guess sound right? Does it make sense? Write down your words.

a. When a baby is born it comes out tail first. The mother brings it to the _____________ of the water. The baby takes its first breath of air.

b. The biggest _________________ to orca whales is people. People build dams on rivers. The dams kill many salmon. With fewer salmon to eat, orca whales die, too.

c. In British Columbia, orca whales do something we do not understand. They come onto some beaches and rub their bodies on the smooth, round ________________.

d. Their two flippers help them steer. Their fin keeps them ________________ when they go fast.

Use Your Strategies

Now it’s time to read Spy-Hopping with Orca Whales. You will see some bold words. If you do not know the word, look at the guess you wrote for the task above. Does it help you figure out the word?

Check Your Understanding

Are these statements true or false?

Look back at the reading to find the answer. Then see if your guesses at the start of the chapter were right.

1. A male orca whale can live up to 90 years.

2. Orca whales hunt by sending out sound waves and listening as the waves come back.

3. If a whale’s fin flops to one side, it is a sign that the whale is stressed out.

4. Orca whales mate for life.

5. Orca whales can hold their breath underwater for up to one hour.

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

The reading talks about three ways that people are a threat to orca whales

6. What are the three ways? Write a summary paragraph. Then check your spelling and grammar. Follow this format when you write your paragraph:

a. Topic sentence.

b. Details of the three ways people are a threat to orca whales. Use your own words.

c. Concluding sentence.

Ask your instructor to check your work.

Grammar

Grammar Rule

Homonyms are words that sound the same but have different meanings. For example, male and mail are homonyms. They sound the same. But a male is a man and mail is a letter or package with a stamp on it.

It is important to know which words are homonyms so that you can learn to spell the word that you mean. This way, your reader will understand what you are saying.

Spy-Hopping with Orca Whales has lots of homonyms.

Try this

Tale and tail sound the same. But they have different meanings. Look at these sentences:

a. In some tales, orca whales take people from canoes and turn them into whales, too.

b. Orca whales have tails called flukes. Their flukes give them power when swimming.

1. Which word means “story”? Tale or tail?

2. Which word means “the back part of an animal’s body”? Tale or tail?

 

No and know sound the same. But they have different meanings. Look at these sentences:

a. Did you know that orca whales cannot breathe underwater?

b. In British Columbia, orca whales do something no one understands.

3. Which word means “not any”? No or know?

4. Which word means “to have learned something”? No or know?

 

There and their sound the same. But they have different meanings. Look at these sentences:

a. Their fin keeps them stable when they go fast.

b. Up north, they tip floating sea ice so that seals, walruses, and sea lions will slide into the mouth of another whale who has been waiting there.

5. Which word means “in that place”? There or their?

6. Which word shows that “something belongs to someone”? There or their?

 

Two, to, and too sound the same. But they have different meanings. Look at these sentences:

a. Their two flippers help them steer.

b. Often the fins of whales that are kept in pools flop to one side.

c. The dams kill many salmon. With fewer salmon to eat, orca whales die, too.

7. Which word means “as well.”

8. Which word has to do with “the direction something is moving”?

9. Which word means “the number 2”?

Check your work with the Answer Key at the end of this chapter. 

Writing

Writing Task

Imagine that there was an oil spill off the coast of British Columbia.

AUDIO-1-BT-44x44You are a newspaper reporter. Write a paragraph about what happened. Include the five W’s – who, what, where, when, why – and how. Predict how the oil spill will affect wildlife in British Columbia.

Make a web before you write. Ask your instructor for a Make a Web sheet, or open and print one from the link.

You can use ideas from the reader, but do not copy word for word.

When you have finished:

  1. Check that you used past and future tenses correctly.
  2. If you used any homonyms from this chapter, check that you used the correct spelling.
  3. Hand in your first copy to your instructor.
  4. Make changes based on your instructor’s feedback.
  5. Hand in your web with your first and final copies.

Answer Key

Reading Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 fact
2 opinion
3 fact
4 fact
5 opinion
Word Attack Strategy
QUESTION ANSWER
1 A fluke is a tail.
2  Spy-hop is when the whale stays upright in the water.
3  Breach is when the whale jumps right out of the water.
4. Answers will vary.
Check Your Understanding
QUESTION ANSWER
1 false
2 true
3 true
4 true
5 false
6 Example Paragraph: People are a threat to orca whales in three main ways. First, they build dams. The dams kill the salmon that the whales feed on. Second, they cause oil spills that harm the animals that orca whales eat. Soon after, this harms the whales themselves. Third, they remove orca whales from the wild. The whales usually die within five years. In these ways, people harm the lives of orca whales.
Grammar
QUESTION ANSWER
1 tale
2 tail
3 no
4 know
5 there
6 their
7 too
8 to
9 two

Attributions

Orca whales jumping by skeeze is in the public domain.

1

Appendix 1: Writing Rubrics

Use these rubrics to score learners’ writing

Unit 1: Mysteries in BC History

Rubric- The Shooting of Ginger Goodwin
Rubric- The Gentleman Bandit

Unit 2: Snapshots of BC Culture

Rubric- All Together Now: BC Festivals
Rubric- Bold and Bright: Sook-Yin Lee
Rubric- Spread the Word: First Nations Languages in BC

Unit 3: Wild BC

Rubric- The Rare Spirit Bear
Rubric- Journey of the Salmon
Rubric- Spy-Hopping with Orca Whales

Print-friendly versions of these same writing rubrics are also provided on the following pages.

Unit 1 - The Gentleman BanditUnit 1 - The Gentleman BanditUnit 2 - All Together Now BC FestivalsUnit 2 - Bold and Bright Sook-Yin LeeUnit 2 - Spread the Word First Nations Languages in BCUnit 3 - The Rare Spirit BearUnit 3 - The Journey of the SalmonUnit 3 - Spy-Hopping With Killer Whales

2

Appendix 2: Level 3 Scope and Sequence

For detailed information on the contents of each chapter in this course pack, please refer to the Level 3 Scope and Sequence document. A print-friendly version of each of the three pages of this document are provided on the following pages.

Level 3 Scope and Sequence - Unit 1Level 3 Scope and Sequence - Unit 2Level 3 Scope and Sequence - Unit 3

3

Bibliography

Azar, B. (2003). Fundamentals of English Grammar (3rd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Brant, J. (2006). The Aboriginal literacy curriculum toolbox. Owen Sound, ON: Ningwakwe.

Gear, A. (2006). Reading power: Teaching students to think while they read. Markham, ON: Pembroke.

Gould, L., & Weiten, J. (1997). Ideas, activities and exercises for fundamental level English. Vancouver, BC: Basic Education Dept, Vancouver Community College.

Laidlaw, L. (2005). Reinventing curriculum: A complex perspective on literacy and writing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Leu, D., & Kinzer, C.K. (2012). Phonics, Phonemic Awareness, and Word Analysis for Teachers. Toronto, ON: Pearson.

MacFarlane, N, et al. (2006). Reflections on Literacy. Toronto: Pearson.

North Vancouver School District. (1999). Reading 44: Primary. North Vancouver, BC: Leo Marshall Curriculum Centre.

Reaburn, R. (2000). Roots, prefixes, & suffixes of the English language. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Community College.

Tuchman Glass, K. (2005). Curriculum design for writing instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Wilson, B. (2014). Wilson reading system instructor manual. Oxford, MA: Wilson Language Training.

Wilson, B. (2014). Wilson reading system rules notebook. Oxford, MA: Wilson Language Training.

4

About the Author

ivits_shantel_15_0056_bw

Shantel Ivits is an instructor in the Basic Education Department at Vancouver Community College, on the unceded territories of the Musqueam, Squamish, and Tsleil-Waututh Nations.

Shantel has designed curricula for the National Film Board of Canada, the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation, and many community-based projects.

Over the past decade, they have taught in literacy programs, university bridging programs, an ESL academy, and K-12 public schools.

They hold a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature from Trent University, as well as a Bachelor of Education and a Master of Arts in Educational Studies from the University of British Columbia.

Shantel identifies as a queer and trans person with white settler privilege. Their goal as an educator is to help people build their capacity to reach their goals and create more socially just communities.

Shantel also enjoys raising awareness that “they” can be used as a singular pronoun!

5

Versioning History

This page provides a record of edits and changes made to this book since its initial publication in the B.C. Open Textbook Collection. Whenever edits or updates are made in the text, we provide a record and description of those changes here. If the change is minor, the version number increases by 0.1. If the edits involve substantial updates, the version number increases to the next full number.

The files posted by this book always reflect the most recent version. If you find an error in this book, please fill out the Report an Open Textbook Error form.

Version Date Change Details
1.0 November 9, 2015 Added to the B.C. Open Textbook Collection.
1.1 June 11, 2019 Updated the book’s theme. The styles of this book have been updated, which may affect the page numbers of the PDF and print copy.