Preface

Human Anatomy and Physiology is designed for the two-semester anatomy and physiology course taken by life science and allied health students. The textbook follows the scope and sequence of most Human Anatomy and Physiology courses, and its coverage and organization were informed by hundreds of instructors who teach the course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom.
The artwork for this textbook is aimed focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations. Color is used sparingly, to emphasize the most important aspects of any given illustration. Significant use of micrographs from the University of Michigan complement the illustrations, and provide the students with a meaningful alternate depiction of each concept. Finally, enrichment elements provide relevance and deeper context for students, particularly in the areas of health, disease, and information relevant to their intended careers.

Welcome to Anatomy and Physiology, an OpenStax resource. We created this textbook with several goals in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—helping students reach high levels of academic scholarship. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a thorough introduction to the content in an accessible format.

About OpenStax

OpenStax is a nonprofit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure that they are readable, accurate, and organized in accordance with the scope and sequence requirements of today’s college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, we are working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

About OpenStax’s Resources

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Customization

OpenStax learning resources are conceived and written with flexibility in mind so that they can be customized for each course. Our textbooks provide a solid foundation on which instructors can build their own texts. Instructors can select the sections that are most relevant to their curricula and create a textbook that speaks directly to the needs of their students. Instructors are encouraged to expand on existing examples in the text by adding unique context via geographically localized applications and topical connections.

Anatomy and Physiology can be easily customized using our online platform (https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/anatomy-and-physiology/adapt). The text is arranged in a modular chapter format. Simply select the content most relevant to your syllabus and create a textbook that addresses the needs of your class. This customization feature will ensure that your textbook reflects the goals of your course.

Curation

To broaden access and encourage community curation, Anatomy and Physiology is “open source” under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. Members of the scientific community are invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material, keeping it current and relevant for today’s students. You can submit your suggestions to info@openstaxcollege.org.

Cost

Our textbooks are available for free online, and in low-cost print and tablet editions.

About Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology is designed for the two-semester anatomy and physiology course taken by life science and allied health students. It supports effective teaching and learning, and prepares students for further learning and future careers. The text focuses on the most important concepts and aims to minimize distracting students with more minor details.

The development choices for this textbook were made with the guidance of hundreds of faculty who are deeply involved in teaching this course. These choices led to innovations in art, terminology, career orientation, practical applications, and multimedia-based learning, all with a goal of increasing relevance to students. We strove to make the discipline meaningful and memorable to students, so that they can draw from it a working knowledge that will enrich their future studies.

Coverage and Scope

The units of our Anatomy and Physiology textbook adhere to the scope and sequence followed by most two-semester courses nationwide.

Unit 1: Levels of Organization

Chapters 1–4 provide students with a basic understanding of human anatomy and physiology, including its language, the levels of organization, and the basics of chemistry and cell biology. These chapters provide a foundation for the further study of the body. They also focus particularly on how the body’s regions, important chemicals, and cells maintain homeostasis.

Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body

Chapter 2 The Chemical Level of Organization

Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization

Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization

Unit 2: Support and Movement

In Chapters 5–11, students explore the skin, the largest organ of the body, and examine the body’s skeletal and muscular systems, following a traditional sequence of topics. This unit is the first to walk students through specific systems of the body, and as it does so, it maintains a focus on homeostasis as well as those diseases and conditions that can disrupt it.

Chapter 5 The Integumentary System

Chapter 6 Bone and Skeletal Tissue

Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton

Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton

Chapter 9 Joints

Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue

Chapter 11 The Muscular System

Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control

Chapters 12–17 help students answer questions about nervous and endocrine system control and regulation. In a break with the traditional sequence of topics, the special senses are integrated into the chapter on the somatic nervous system. The chapter on the neurological examination offers students a unique approach to understanding nervous system function using five simple but powerful diagnostic tests.

Chapter 12 Introduction to the Nervous System

Chapter 13 The Anatomy of the Nervous System

Chapter 14 The Somatic Nervous System

Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous System

Chapter 16 The Neurological Exam

Chapter 17 The Endocrine System

Unit 4: Fluids and Transport

In Chapters 18–21, students examine the principal means of transport for materials needed to support the human body, regulate its internal environment, and provide protection.

Chapter 18 Blood

Chapter 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation

Chapter 21 The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange

In Chapters 22–26, students discover the interaction between body systems and the outside environment for the exchange of materials, the capture of energy, the release of waste, and the overall maintenance of the internal systems that regulate the exchange. The explanations and illustrations are particularly focused on how structure relates to function.

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System

Chapter 23 The Digestive System

Chapter 24 Nutrition and Metabolism

Chapter 25 The Urinary System

Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance

Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life

The closing chapters examine the male and female reproductive systems, describe the process of human development and the different stages of pregnancy, and end with a review of the mechanisms of inheritance.

Chapter 27 The Reproductive System

Chapter 28 Development and Genetic Inheritance

Pedagogical Foundation and Features

Anatomy and Physiology is designed to promote scientific literacy. Throughout the text, you will find features that engage the students by taking selected topics a step further.

  • Homeostatic Imbalances discusses the effects and results of imbalances in the body.
  • Disorders showcases a disorder that is relevant to the body system at hand. This feature may focus on a specific disorder, or a set of related disorders.
  • Diseases showcases a disease that is relevant to the body system at hand.
  • Aging explores the effect aging has on a body’s system and specific disorders that manifest over time.
  • Career Connections presents information on the various careers often pursued by allied health students, such as medical technician, medical examiner, and neurophysiologist. Students are introduced to the educational requirements for and day-to-day responsibilities in these careers.
  • Everyday Connections tie anatomical and physiological concepts to emerging issues and discuss these in terms of everyday life. Topics include “Anabolic Steroids” and “The Effect of Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke.”
  • Interactive Links direct students to online exercises, simulations, animations, and videos to add a fuller context to core content and help improve understanding of the material. Many features include links to the University of Michigan’s interactive WebScopes, which allow students to zoom in on micrographs in the collection. These resources were vetted by reviewers and other subject matter experts to ensure that they are effective and accurate. We strongly urge students to explore these links, whether viewing a video or inputting data into a simulation, to gain the fullest experience and to learn how to search for information independently.

Dynamic, Learner-Centered Art

Our unique approach to visuals is designed to emphasize only the components most important in any given illustration. The art style is particularly aimed at focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations.

Much of the art in this book consists of black line illustrations. The strongest line is used to highlight the most important structures, and shading is used to show dimension and shape. Color is used sparingly to highlight and clarify the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. This technique is intended to draw students’ attention to the critical learning point in the illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows, and highlights. Full color is used when the structure or process requires it (for example, muscle diagrams and cardiovascular system illustrations).

A color illustration of the pharynx.

The Pharynx. By highlighting the most important portions of the illustration, the artwork helps students focus on the most important points, without overwhelming them.

Micrographs

Micrograph magnifications have been calculated based on the objective provided with the image. If a micrograph was recorded at 40×, and the image was magnified an additional 2×, we calculated the final magnification of the micrograph to be 80×.

Please note that, when viewing the textbook electronically, the micrograph magnification provided in the text does not take into account the size and magnification of the screen on your electronic device. There may be some variation

A color illustration of the pharynx.

Sebaceous Glands. These glands secrete oils that lubricate and protect the skin. LM × 400. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Learning Resources

The following resources are (or will be) available in addition to main text:

  • PowerPoint slides: For each chapter, the illustrations are presented, one per slide, with their respective captions.
  • Pronunciation guide: A subset of the text’s key terms are presented with easy-to-follow phonetic transcriptions. For example, blastocyst is rendered as “blas’to-sist”

About Our Team

Senior Contributing Authors

J. Gordon Betts Tyler Junior College
Peter Desaix University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eddie Johnson Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson Arapahoe Community College
Oksana Korol Aims Community College
Dean Kruse Portland Community College
Brandon Poe Springfield Technical Community College
James A. Wise Hampton University
Mark Womble Youngstown State University
Kelly A. Young California State University, Long Beach

Advisor

Robin J. Heyden

Contributing Authors

Kim Aaronson Aquarius Institute; Triton College
Lopamudra Agarwal Augusta Technical College
Gary Allen Dalhousie University
Robert Allison McLennan Community College
Heather Armbruster Southern Union State Community College
Timothy Ballard University of North Carolina Wilmington
Matthew Barlow Eastern New Mexico University
William Blaker Furman University
Julie Bowers East Tennessee State University
Emily Bradshaw Florida Southern College
Nishi Bryska University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Susan Caley Opsal Illinois Valley Community College
Boyd Campbell Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences
Ann Caplea Walsh University
Marnie Chapman University of Alaska, Sitka
Barbara Christie-Pope Cornell College
Kenneth Crane Texarkana College
Maurice Culver Florida State College at Jacksonville
Heather Cushman Tacoma Community College
Noelle Cutter Molloy College
Lynnette Danzl-Tauer Rock Valley College
Jane Davis Aurora University
AnnMarie DelliPizzi Dominican College
Susan Dentel Washtenaw Community College
Pamela Dobbins Shelton State Community College
Patty Dolan Pacific Lutheran University
Sondra Dubowsky McLennan Community College
Peter Dukehart Three Rivers Community College
Ellen DuPré Central College
Elizabeth DuPriest Warner Pacific College
Pam Elf University of Minnesota
Sharon Ellerton Queensborough Community College
Carla Endres Utah State University – College of Eastern Utah: San Juan Campus
Myriam Feldman Lake Washington Institute of Technology; Cascadia Community College
Greg Fitch Avila University
Lynn Gargan Tarant County College
Michael Giangrande Oakland Community College
Chaya Gopalan St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Victor Greco Chattahoochee Technical College
Susanna Heinze Skagit Valley College
Ann Henninger Wartburg College
Dale Horeth Tidewater Community College
Michael Hortsch University of Michigan
Rosemary Hubbard Marymount University
Mark Hubley Prince George’s Community College
Branko Jablanovic College of Lake County
Norman Johnson University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Jonasson North Arkansas College
Jeff Keyte College of Saint Mary
William Kleinelp Middlesex County College
Leigh Kleinert Grand Rapids Community College
Brenda Leady University of Toledo
John Lepri University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Sarah Leupen University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Lihua Liang Johns Hopkins University
Robert Mallet University of North Texas Health Science Center
Bruce Maring Daytona State College
Elisabeth Martin College of Lake County
Natalie Maxwell Carl Albert State College, Sallisaw
Julie May William Carey University
Debra McLaughlin University of Maryland University College
Nicholas Mitchell St. Bonaventure University
Shobhana Natarajan Brookhaven College
Phillip Nicotera St. Petersburg College
Mary Jane Niles University of San Francisco
Ikemefuna Nwosu Parkland College; Lake Land College
Betsy Ott Tyler Junior College
Ivan Paul John Wood Community College
Aaron Payette College of Southern Nevada
Scott Payne Kentucky Wesleyan College
Cameron Perkins South Georgia College
David Pfeiffer University of Alaska, Anchorage
Thomas Pilat Illinois Central College
Eileen Preston Tarrant County College
Mike Pyle Olivet Nazarene University
Robert Rawding Gannon University
Jason Schreer State University of New York at Potsdam
Laird Sheldahl Mt. Hood Community College
Brian Shmaefsky Lone Star College System
Douglas Sizemore Bevill State Community College
Susan Spencer Mount Hood Community College
Cynthia Standley University of Arizona
Robert Sullivan Marist College
Eric Sun Middle Georgia State College
Tom Swenson Ithaca College
Kathleen Tallman Azusa Pacific University
Rohinton Tarapore University of Pennsylvania
Elizabeth Tattersall Western Nevada College
Mark Thomas University of Northern Colorado
Janis Thompson Lorain County Community College
Rita Thrasher Pensacola State College
David Van Wylen St. Olaf College
Lynn Wandrey Mott Community College
Margaret Weck St. Louis College of Pharmacy
Kathleen Weiss George Fox University
Neil Westergaard Williston State College
David Wortham West Georgia Technical College
Umesh Yadav University of Texas Medical Branch
Tony Yates Oklahoma Baptist University
Justin York Glendale Community College
Cheri Zao North Idaho College
Elena Zoubina Bridgewater State University; Massasoit Community College
Shobhana Natarajan Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

Special Thanks

OpenStax wishes to thank the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School for the use of their extensive micrograph collection. Many of the UM micrographs that appear in Anatomy and Physiology are interactive WebScopes, which students can explore by zooming in and out.

We also wish to thank the Open Learning Initiative at Carnegie Mellon University, with whom we shared and exchanged resources during the development of Anatomy and Physiology.