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Managing Human Resources and Labor Relations

68 The Labor Relations Process

  1. What is a labor union and how is it organized, what is collective bargaining, and what are some of the key negotiation issues?

Tens of thousands of American firms are unionized, and millions of U.S. workers belong to unions. Historically, the mining, manufacturing, construction, and transportation industries have been significantly unionized, but in recent years, service-based firms, including health care organizations, have been unionized.

A labor union, such as the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, is an organization that represents workers in dealing with management over disputes involving wages, hours, and working conditions. The labor relations process that produces a union-management relationship consists of three phases: union organizing, negotiating a labor agreement, and administering the agreement. In phase one, a group of employees within a firm may form a union on their own, or an established union (United Auto Workers, for example) may target an employer and organize many of the firm’s workers into a local labor union. The second phase constitutes collective bargaining, which is the process of negotiating a labor agreement that provides for compensation and working arrangements mutually acceptable to the union and to management. Finally, the third phase of the labor relations process involves the daily administering of the labor agreement. This is done primarily through handling worker grievances and other workforce management problems that require interaction between managers and labor union officials.

The Modern Labor Movement

The basic structure of the modern labor movement consists of three parts: local unions, national and international unions, and union federations. There are approximately 60,000 local unions, 75 national and international unions, and two federations. Union membership has been declining over the past three decades and is now half what it once was. The number of employed union members has declined by 2.9 million since 1983, the first year union statistics were reported. In 1983, union membership was 20.1 percent of workers, with 17.7 million union workers. In 2017, membership declined to 10.7 percent of workers, with 14.8 million members.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary,”, January 19, 2018; Megan Dunn and James Walker, “Union Membership in the United States,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 2016.

A local union is a branch or unit of a national union that represents workers at a specific plant or over a specific geographic area. Local 276 of the United Auto Workers represents assembly employees at the General Motors plant in Arlington, Texas. A local union (in conformance with its national union rules) determines the number of local union officers, procedures for electing officers, the schedule of local meetings, financial arrangements with the national organization, and the local’s role in negotiating labor agreements.

The three main functions of the local union are collective bargaining, worker relations and membership services, and community and political activities. Collective bargaining takes place every three or four years. Local union officers and shop stewards in the plant oversee labor relations on a day-to-day basis. A shop steward is an elected union official who represents union members to management when workers have complaints. For most union members, his or her primary contact with the union is through union officials at the local level.

A national union can range in size from a few thousand members (Screen Actors Guild) to more than a million members (Teamsters). A national union may have a few to as many as several hundred local unions. The number of national unions has steadily declined since the early twentieth century. Much of this decline has resulted from union mergers. In 1999, for example, the United Papermakers International Union (UPICU) and the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union (OCAW) agreed to merge under the new name of PACE, or Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy International Union. PACE has about 245,000 members.

For 50 years, one union federation (the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization, or AFL-CIO) dominated the American labor movement. A federation is a collection of unions banded together to further organizing, public relations, political, and other mutually-agreed-upon purposes of the member unions. In the summer of 2005, several unions (Teamsters, Service Employees International Union, Laborers’ International Union, United Farm Workers, Carpenters and Joiners, Unite Here, and the United Food and Commercial Workers Union) split from the AFL-CIO and formed a new federation named the Change to Win Coalition.

Jill Lawrence, “Union’s Break off from AFL-CIO,” USA Today, July 26, 2005, pp. 5A and 6A.

The new federation and its member unions represent more than 5.5 million union members. Change to Win Coalition member unions left the AFL-CIO over leadership disagreements and ineffective organizing strategies of the AFL-CIO; one of its primary goals is to strengthen union-organizing drives and reverse the decline in union membership.

“About Us,”, accessed February 8, 2018.

Union Organizing

A nonunion employer becomes unionized through an organizing campaign. The campaign is started either from within, by unhappy employees, or from outside, by a union that has picked the employer for an organizing drive. Once workers and the union have made contact, a union organizer tries to convince all the workers to sign authorization cards. These cards prove the worker’s interest in having the union represent them. In most cases, employers resist this card-signing campaign by speaking out against unions in letters, posters, and employee assemblies. However, it is illegal for employers to interfere directly with the card-signing campaign or to coerce employees into not joining the union.

Once the union gets signed authorization cards from at least 30 percent of the employees, it can ask National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) for a union certification election. This election, by secret ballot, determines whether the workers want to be represented by the union. The NLRB posts an election notice and defines the bargaining unit—employees who are eligible to vote and who will be represented by the particular union if it is certified. Supervisors and managers cannot vote. The union and the employer then engage in a pre-election campaign conducted through speeches, memos, and meetings. Both try to convince workers to vote in their favor. (Figure) lists benefits usually emphasized by the union during a campaign and common arguments employers make to convince employees a union is unnecessary.

The election itself is conducted by the NLRB. If a majority vote for the union, the NLRB certifies the union as the exclusive bargaining agent for all employees who had been designated as eligible voters. The employer then has to bargain with the union over wages, hours, and other terms of employment. The complete organizing process is summarized in (Figure).

In some situations, after one year, if the union and employer don’t reach an agreement, the workers petition for a decertification election, which is similar to the certification election but allows workers to vote out the union. Decertification elections are also held when workers become dissatisfied with a union that has represented them for a longer time. In recent years, the number of decertification elections has increased to several hundred per year.

Benefits Stressed by Unions in Organizing Campaigns and Common Arguments Against Unions
Almost Always Stressed Often Stressed Seldom Stressed
Grievance procedures More influence in decision-making Higher-quality products
Job security Better working conditions Technical training
Improved benefits Lobbying opportunities More job satisfaction
Higher pay Increased production
Employer Arguments Against Unionization:

  • An employee can always come directly to management with a problem; a third party (the union) isn’t necessary.
  • As a union member, you will pay monthly union dues of $15 to $40.
  • Merit-based decisions (promotions) are better than seniority-based decisions.
  • Pay and benefits are very similar to the leading firms in the industry.
  • We meet all health and safety standards of the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
  • Performance and productivity are more important than union representation in determining pay raises.
Union Organizing Process and Election
(Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license.)

The steps are numbered 1 through 7. 1, union contact with employees. 2, authorization card campaign. 3, petition for certification election. 4, N L R B determination of bargaining unit. 5, employer and union pre election campaigns. 6, election. 7 a, certification of union and start of collective bargaining. 7 b, rejection of union.

Negotiating Union Contracts through Collective Bargaining

A labor agreement, or union contract, is created through collective bargaining. Typically, both management and union negotiation teams are made up of a few people. One person on each side is the chief spokesperson. Bargaining begins with union and management negotiators setting a list of contract issues that will be discussed. Much of the bargaining over specific details takes place through face-to-face meetings and the exchange of written proposals. Demands, proposals, and counterproposals are exchanged during several rounds of bargaining. The resulting contract must be approved by top management and ratified by the union members. Once both sides approve, the contract is a legally binding agreement that typically covers such issues as union security, management rights, wages, benefits, and job security. The collective bargaining process is shown in (Figure). We will now explore some of the bargaining issues.

The Process of Negotiating Labor Agreements
(Attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license.)

The chart starts with two separate boxes, one labeled employer bargaining preparation, and the other label reads union bargaining preparation. These both flow into a box labeled exchange of initial demands and proposals. This flows into bargaining agenda. This flows into bargaining compromise, concession, and tentative agreement. This branches in two directions. In one direction, it branches to top management approval. This is the end of this branch. In the other direction, it flows into vote of union members. This then flows into 2 directions. In one direction, it branches to ratification, which is the end of this branch. In the other direction, it flows into rejection and strike, which then flows into resumption of bargaining. This is the end of the flow chart.

Union Security

A union wants all employees to be union members. This can be accomplished by negotiating a union security clause. The most common union security arrangement is the union shop, whereby nonunion workers can be hired by the firm, but then they must join the union, normally within 30 to 60 days. An agency shop does not require employees to join the union, but to remain employees, workers must pay the union a fee (known as the agency fee) to cover the union’s expenses in representing them. The union must fairly represent all workers, including those in the bargaining unit who do not become members.

Under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, a state can make any and all forms of union security illegal by enacting a right-to-work law. In the 28 states that have these laws, employees can work at a unionized company without having to join the union. This arrangement is commonly known as an open shop. Workers don’t have to join the union or pay dues or fees to the union.

Management Rights

When a company becomes unionized, management loses some of its decision-making abilities. But management still has certain rights that can be negotiated in collective bargaining. One way to resist union involvement in management matters is to put a management rights clause in the labor agreement. Most union contracts have one. A typical clause gives the employer all rights to manage the business except as specified in the contract. For instance, if the contract does not specify the criteria for promotions, with a management rights clause, managers will have the right to use any criteria they wish. Another way to preserve management rights is to list areas that are not subject to collective bargaining. This list might secure management’s right to schedule work hours; hire and fire workers; set production standards; determine the number of supervisors in each department; and promote, demote, and transfer workers.

Wage and Benefits

Much bargaining effort focuses on wage adjustments and changes in benefits. Once agreed to, they remain in effect for the length of the contract. For example, in 2015, the United Auto Workers negotiated a four-year contract containing modest hourly wage increases with U.S. car manufacturers; pay hikes were about 3 percent for first and third years and 4 percent in year four.

Alisa Priddle and Brent Snavely, “UAW-Ford Deal Passes, and New Era Begins for Detroit 3,” Detroit Free Press,, November 21, 2015.

Hourly rates of pay can also increase under some agreements when the cost of living increases above a certain level each year, say 4 percent. No cost-of-living adjustment is made when annual living cost increases are under 4 percent, which has been the case for the early years of the twenty-first century.

In addition to requests for wage increases, unions usually want better benefits. In some industries, such as steel and auto manufacturing, benefits are 40 percent of the total cost of compensation. Benefits may include higher wages for overtime work, holiday work, and less desirable shifts; insurance programs (life, health and hospitalization, dental care); payment for certain nonwork time (rest periods, vacations, holiday, sick time); pensions; and income-maintenance plans. Supplementary unemployment benefits (income-maintenance) found in the auto industry are provided by the employer and are in addition to state unemployment compensation given to laid-off workers. The unemployment compensation from the state and supplementary unemployment pay from the employer together maintain as much as 80 percent of an employee’s normal pay.

Job Security and Seniority

Wage adjustments, cost-of-living increases, supplementary unemployment pay, and certain other benefits give employees under union contracts some financial security. But most financial security is directly related to job security—the assurance, to some degree, that workers will keep their jobs. Of course, job security depends primarily on the continued success and financial well-being of the company. For example, thousands of airline employees lost their jobs after the 9/11 terrorist attack in 2001; these were employees with the least seniority.

Seniority, the length of an employee’s continuous service with a firm, is discussed in about 90 percent of all labor contracts. Seniority is a factor in job security; usually, unions want the workers with the most seniority to have the most job security.

  1. Discuss the modern labor movement.
  2. What are the various topics that may be covered during collective bargaining?
  3. Explain the differences among a union shop, agency shop, and an open shop.

Summary of Learning Outcomes

  1. What is a labor union and how is it organized, what is collective bargaining, and what are some of the key negotiation issues?

A labor union is an organization that represents workers in dealing with management over disputes involving wages, hours, and working conditions. A company is unionized through an organizing drive that begins either inside, with a small group of existing employees, or outside, with an established union that targets the employer. When the union gets signed authorization cards from 30 percent of the firm’s employees, the NLRB conducts a union certification election. A majority vote is needed to certify the union as the exclusive bargaining agent. The union and the employer then begin collective bargaining and have one year in which to reach an agreement.

Collective bargaining is the process of negotiating, administering, and interpreting labor agreements. Both union and management negotiators prepare a bargaining proposal. The two sides meet and exchange demands and ideas. Bargaining consists of compromises and concessions that lead to a tentative agreement. Top management then approves or disapproves the agreement for the management team. Union members vote to either approve or reject the contract. The key issues included in a union contract are wage increases, fringe benefits, and job security.


agency shop
Workers don’t have to join a union but must pay union dues.
collective bargaining
Negotiating a labor agreement.
A collection of unions banded together to achieve common goals.
labor union
An organization that represents workers in dealing with management.
local union
Branch of a national union that represents workers in a specific plant or geographic area.
management rights clause
Clause in a labor agreement that gives management the right to manage the business except as specified in the contract.
open shop
Workers do not have to join the union or pay union dues.
right-to-work law
State laws that an employee does not have to join a union.
shop steward
An elected union official that represents union members to management when workers have complaints.
union shop
Nonunion workers can be hired but must join the union later.


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