Appendix G: Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances

Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
Substance {\Delta}H_\text{f}^{\circ} (kJ mol) {\Delta}G_\text{f}^{\circ} (kJ mol–1) S_{298}^{\circ} (J K–1 mol–1)
aluminum
Al(s) 0 0 28.3
Al(g) 324.4 285.7 164.54
Al3+(aq) –531 –485 –321.7
Al2O3(s) –1676 –1582 50.92
AlF3(s) –1510.4 –1425 66.5
AlCl3(s) –704.2 –628.8 110.67
AlCl3·6H2O(s) –2691.57 –2269.40 376.56
Al2S3(s) –724.0 –492.4 116.9
Al2(SO4)3(s) –3445.06 –3506.61 239.32
antimony
Sb(s) 0 0 45.69
Sb(g) 262.34 222.17 180.16
Sb4O6(s) –1440.55 –1268.17 220.92
SbCl3(g) –313.8 –301.2 337.80
SbCl5(g) –394.34 –334.29 401.94
Sb2S3(s) –174.89 –173.64 182.00
SbCl3(s) –382.17 –323.72 184.10
SbOCl(s) –374.0
arsenic
As(s) 0 0 35.1
As(g) 302.5 261.0 174.21
As4(g) 143.9 92.4 314
As4O6(s) –1313.94 –1152.52 214.22
As2O5(s) –924.87 –782.41 105.44
AsCl3(g) –261.50 –248.95 327.06
As2S3(s) –169.03 –168.62 163.59
AsH3(g) 66.44 68.93 222.78
H3AsO4(s) –906.3
barium
Ba(s) 0 0 62.5
Ba(g) 180 146 170.24
Ba2+(aq) –537.6 –560.8 9.6
BaO(s) –548.0 –520.3 72.1
BaCl2(s) –855.0 –806.7 123.7
BaSO4(s) –1473.2 –1362.3 132.2
beryllium
Be(s) 0 0 9.50
Be(g) 324.3 286.6 136.27
BeO(s) –609.4 –580.1 13.8
bismuth
Bi(s) 0 0 56.74
Bi(g) 207.1 168.2 187.00
Bi2O3(s) –573.88 –493.7 151.5
BiCl3(s) –379.07 –315.06 176.98
Bi2S3(s) –143.1 –140.6 200.4
boron
B(s) 0 0 5.86
B(g) 565.0 521.0 153.4
B2O3(s) –1273.5 –1194.3 53.97
B2H6(g) 36.4 87.6 232.1
H3BO3(s) –1094.33 –968.92 88.83
BF3(g) –1136.0 –1119.4 254.4
BCl3(g) –403.8 –388.7 290.1
B3N3H6(l) –540.99 –392.79 199.58
HBO2(s) –794.25 –723.41 37.66
bromine
Br2(l) 0 0 152.23
Br2(g) 30.91 3.142 245.5
Br(g) 111.88 82.429 175.0
Br(aq) –120.9 –102.82 80.71
BrF3(g) –255.60 –229.45 292.42
HBr(g) –36.3 –53.43 198.7
cadmium
Cd(s) 0 0 51.76
Cd(g) 112.01 77.41 167.75
Cd2+(aq) –75.90 –77.61 –73.2
CdO(s) –258.2 –228.4 54.8
CdCl2(s) –391.5 –343.9 115.3
CdSO4(s) –933.3 –822.7 123.0
CdS(s) –161.9 –156.5 64.9
calcium
Ca(s) 0 0 41.6
Ca(g) 178.2 144.3 154.88
Ca2+(aq) –542.96 –553.04 –55.2
CaO(s) –634.9 –603.3 38.1
Ca(OH)2(s) –985.2 –897.5 83.4
CaSO4(s) –1434.5 –1322.0 106.5
CaSO4·2H2O(s) –2022.63 –1797.45 194.14
CaCO3(s) (calcite) –1220.0 –1081.4 110.0
CaSO3·H2O(s) –1752.68 –1555.19 184.10
carbon
C(s) (graphite) 0 0 5.740
C(s) (diamond) 1.89 2.90 2.38
C(g) 716.681 671.2 158.1
CO(g) –110.52 –137.15 197.7
CO2(g) –393.51 –394.36 213.8
CO32–(aq) –677.1 –527.8 –56.9
CH4(g) –74.6 –50.5 186.3
CH3OH(l) –239.2 –166.6 126.8
CH3OH(g) –201.0 –162.3 239.9
CCl4(l) –128.2 –62.5 214.4
CCl4(g) –95.7 –58.2 309.7
CHCl3(l) –134.1 –73.7 201.7
CHCl3(g) –103.14 –70.34 295.71
CS2(l) 89.70 65.27 151.34
CS2(g) 116.9 66.8 238.0
C2H2(g) 227.4 209.2 200.9
C2H4(g) 52.4 68.4 219.3
C2H6(g) –84.0 –32.0 229.2
CH3CO2H(l) –484.3 –389.9 159.8
CH3CO2H(g) –434.84 –376.69 282.50
C2H5OH(l) –277.6 –174.8 160.7
C2H5OH(g) –234.8 –167.9 281.6
HCO3(aq) –691.11 –587.06 95
C3H8(g) –103.8 –23.4 270.3
C6H6(g) 82.927 129.66 269.2
C6H6(l) 49.1 124.50 173.4
CH2Cl2(l) –124.2 –63.2 177.8
CH2Cl2(g) –95.4 –65.90 270.2
CH3Cl(g) –81.9 –60.2 234.6
C2H5Cl(l) –136.52 –59.31 190.79
C2H5Cl(g) –112.17 –60.39 276.00
C2N2(g) 308.98 297.36 241.90
HCN(l) 108.9 125.0 112.8
HCN(g) 135.5 124.7 201.8
cesium
Cs+(aq) –248 –282.0 133
chlorine
Cl2(g) 0 0 223.1
Cl(g) 121.3 105.70 165.2
Cl(aq) –167.2 –131.2 56.5
ClF(g) –54.48 –55.94 217.78
ClF3(g) –158.99 –118.83 281.50
Cl2O(g) 80.3 97.9 266.2
Cl2O7(l) 238.1
Cl2O7(g) 272.0
HCl(g) –92.307 –95.299 186.9
HClO4(l) –40.58
chromium
Cr(s) 0 0 23.77
Cr(g) 396.6 351.8 174.50
CrO42–(aq) –881.2 –727.8 50.21
Cr2O72–(aq) –1490.3 –1301.1 261.9
Cr2O3(s) –1139.7 –1058.1 81.2
CrO3(s) –589.5
(NH4)2Cr2O7(s) –1806.7
cobalt
Co(s) 0 0 30.0
Co2+(aq) –67.4 –51.5 –155
Co3+(aq) 92 134 –305.0
CoO(s) –237.9 –214.2 52.97
Co3O4(s) –910.02 –794.98 114.22
Co(NO3)2(s) –420.5
copper
Cu(s) 0 0 33.15
Cu(g) 338.32 298.58 166.38
Cu+(aq) 51.9 50.2 –26
Cu2+(aq) 64.77 65.49 –99.6
CuO(s) –157.3 –129.7 42.63
Cu2O(s) –168.6 –146.0 93.14
CuS(s) –53.1 –53.6 66.5
Cu2S(s) –79.5 –86.2 120.9
CuSO4(s) –771.36 –662.2 109.2
Cu(NO3)2(s) –302.9
fluorine
F2(g) 0 0 202.8
F(g) 79.4 62.3 158.8
F(aq) –332.6 –278.8 –13.8
F2O(g) 24.7 41.9 247.43
HF(g) –273.3 –275.4 173.8
hydrogen
H2(g) 0 0 130.7
H(g) 217.97 203.26 114.7
H+(aq) 0 0 0
OH(aq) –230.0 –157.2 –10.75
H3O+(aq) –285.8 69.91
H2O(l) –285.83 –237.1 70.0
H2O(g) –241.82 –228.59 188.8
H2O2(l) –187.78 –120.35 109.6
H2O2(g) –136.3 –105.6 232.7
HF(g) –273.3 –275.4 173.8
HCl(g) –92.307 –95.299 186.9
HBr(g) –36.3 –53.43 198.7
HI(g) 26.48 1.70 206.59
H2S(g) –20.6 –33.4 205.8
H2Se(g) 29.7 15.9 219.0
iodine
I2(s) 0 0 116.14
I2(g) 62.438 19.3 260.7
I(g) 106.84 70.2 180.8
I(aq) –55.19 –51.57 11.13
IF(g) 95.65 –118.49 236.06
ICl(g) 17.78 –5.44 247.44
IBr(g) 40.84 3.72 258.66
IF7(g) –943.91 –818.39 346.44
HI(g) 26.48 1.70 206.59
iron
Fe(s) 0 0 27.3
Fe(g) 416.3 370.7 180.5
Fe2+(aq) –89.1 –78.90 –137.7
Fe3+(aq) –48.5 –4.7 –315.9
Fe2O3(s) –824.2 –742.2 87.40
Fe3O4(s) –1118.4 –1015.4 146.4
Fe(CO)5(l) –774.04 –705.42 338.07
Fe(CO)5(g) –733.87 –697.26 445.18
FeCl2(s) –341.79 –302.30 117.95
FeCl3(s) –399.49 –334.00 142.3
FeO(s) –272.0 –255.2 60.75
Fe(OH)2(s) –569.0 –486.5 88.
Fe(OH)3(s) –823.0 –696.5 106.7
FeS(s) –100.0 –100.4 60.29
Fe3C(s) 25.10 20.08 104.60
lead
Pb(s) 0 0 64.81
Pb(g) 195.2 162. 175.4
Pb2+(aq) –1.7 –24.43 10.5
PbO(s) (yellow) –217.32 –187.89 68.70
PbO(s) (red) –218.99 –188.93 66.5
Pb(OH)2(s) –515.9
PbS(s) –100.4 –98.7 91.2
Pb(NO3)2(s) –451.9
PbO2(s) –277.4 –217.3 68.6
PbCl2(s) –359.4 –314.1 136.0
lithium
Li(s) 0 0 29.1
Li(g) 159.3 126.6 138.8
Li+(aq) –278.5 –293.3 13.4
LiH(s) –90.5 –68.3 20.0
Li(OH)(s) –487.5 –441.5 42.8
LiF(s) –616.0 –587.5 35.7
Li2CO3(s) –1216.04 –1132.19 90.17
magnesium
Mg2+(aq) –466.9 –454.8 –138.1
manganese
Mn(s) 0 0 32.0
Mn(g) 280.7 238.5 173.7
Mn2+(aq) –220.8 –228.1 –73.6
MnO(s) –385.2 –362.9 59.71
MnO2(s) –520.03 –465.1 53.05
Mn2O3(s) –958.97 –881.15 110.46
Mn3O4(s) –1378.83 –1283.23 155.64
MnO4(aq) –541.4 –447.2 191.2
MnO42–(aq) –653.0 –500.7 59
mercury
Hg(l) 0 0 75.9
Hg(g) 61.4 31.8 175.0
Hg2+(aq) 164.8
Hg2+(aq) 172.4 153.9 84.5
HgO(s) (red) –90.83 –58.5 70.29
HgO(s) (yellow) –90.46 –58.43 71.13
HgCl2(s) –224.3 –178.6 146.0
Hg2Cl2(s) –265.4 –210.7 191.6
HgS(s) (red) –58.16 –50.6 82.4
HgS(s) (black) –53.56 –47.70 88.28
HgSO4(s) –707.51 –594.13 0.00
nickel
Ni2+(aq) –64.0 –46.4 –159
nitrogen
N2(g) 0 0 191.6
N(g) 472.704 455.5 153.3
NO(g) 90.25 87.6 210.8
NO2(g) 33.2 51.30 240.1
N2O(g) 81.6 103.7 220.0
N2O3(g) 83.72 139.41 312.17
NO3(aq) –205.0 –108.7 146.4
N2O4(g) 11.1 99.8 304.4
N2O5(g) 11.3 115.1 355.7
NH3(g) –45.9 –16.5 192.8
NH4+(aq) –132.5 –79.31 113.4
N2H4(l) 50.63 149.43 121.21
N2H4(g) 95.4 159.4 238.5
NH4NO3(s) –365.56 –183.87 151.08
NH4Cl(s) –314.43 –202.87 94.6
NH4Br(s) –270.8 –175.2 113.0
NH4I(s) –201.4 –112.5 117.0
NH4NO2(s) –256.5
HNO3(l) –174.1 –80.7 155.6
HNO3(g) –133.9 –73.5 266.9
oxygen
O2(g) 0 0 205.2
O(g) 249.17 231.7 161.1
O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.9
phosphorus
P4(s) 0 0 164.4
P4(g) 58.91 24.4 280.0
P(g) 314.64 278.25 163.19
PH3(g) 5.4 13.5 210.2
PCl3(g) –287.0 –267.8 311.78
PCl5(g) –374.9 –305.0 364.4
P4O6(s) –1640.1
P4O10(s) –2984.0 –2697.0 228.86
PO43–(aq) –1277 –1019 –222
HPO3(s) –948.5
HPO42–(aq) –1292.1 –1089.3 –33
H2PO42–(aq) –1296.3 –1130.4 90.4
H3PO2(s) –604.6
H3PO3(s) –964.4
H3PO4(s) –1279.0 –1119.1 110.50
H3PO4(l) –1266.9 –1124.3 110.5
H4P2O7(s) –2241.0
POCl3(l) –597.1 –520.8 222.5
POCl3(g) –558.5 –512.9 325.5
potassium
K(s) 0 0 64.7
K(g) 89.0 60.5 160.3
K+(aq) –252.4 –283.3 102.5
KF(s) –576.27 –537.75 66.57
KCl(s) –436.5 –408.5 82.6
rubidium
Rb+(aq) –246 –282.2 124
silicon
Si(s) 0 0 18.8
Si(g) 450.0 405.5 168.0
SiO2(s) –910.7 –856.3 41.5
SiH4(g) 34.3 56.9 204.6
H2SiO3(s) –1188.67 –1092.44 133.89
H4SiO4(s) –1481.14 –1333.02 192.46
SiF4(g) –1615.0 –1572.8 282.8
SiCl4(l) –687.0 –619.8 239.7
SiCl4(g) –662.75 –622.58 330.62
SiC(s, beta cubic) –73.22 –70.71 16.61
SiC(s, alpha hexagonal) –71.55 –69.04 16.48
silver
Ag(s) 0 0 42.55
Ag(g) 284.9 246.0 172.89
Ag+(aq) 105.6 77.11 72.68
Ag2O(s) –31.05 –11.20 121.3
AgCl(s) –127.0 –109.8 96.3
Ag2S(s) –32.6 –40.7 144.0
sodium
Na(s) 0 0 51.3
Na(g) 107.5 77.0 153.7
Na+(aq) –240.1 –261.9 59
Na2O(s) –414.2 –375.5 75.1
NaCl(s) –411.2 –384.1 72.1
strontium
Sr2+(aq) –545.8 –557.3 –32.6
sulfur
S8(s) (rhombic) 0 0 256.8
S(g) 278.81 238.25 167.82
S2–(aq) 41.8 83.7 22
SO2(g) –296.83 –300.1 248.2
SO3(g) –395.72 –371.06 256.76
SO42–(aq) –909.3 –744.5 20.1
S2O32–(aq) –648.5 –522.5 67
H2S(g) –20.6 –33.4 205.8
HS(aq) –17.7 12.6 61.1
H2SO4(l) –813.989 690.00 156.90
HSO42–(aq) –885.75 –752.87 126.9
H2S2O7(s) –1273.6
SF4(g) –728.43 –684.84 291.12
SF6(g) –1220.5 –1116.5 291.5
SCl2(l) –50
SCl2(g) –19.7
S2Cl2(l) –59.4
S2Cl2(g) –19.50 –29.25 319.45
SOCl2(g) –212.55 –198.32 309.66
SOCl2(l) –245.6
SO2Cl2(l) –394.1
SO2Cl2(g) –354.80 –310.45 311.83
tin
Sn(s) 0 0 51.2
Sn(g) 301.2 266.2 168.5
SnO(s) –285.8 –256.9 56.5
SnO2(s) –577.6 –515.8 49.0
SnCl4(l) –511.3 –440.1 258.6
SnCl4(g) –471.5 –432.2 365.8
titanium
Ti(s) 0 0 30.7
Ti(g) 473.0 428.4 180.3
TiO2(s) –944.0 –888.8 50.6
TiCl4(l) –804.2 –737.2 252.4
TiCl4(g) –763.2 –726.3 353.2
tungsten
W(s) 0 0 32.6
W(g) 849.4 807.1 174.0
WO3(s) –842.9 –764.0 75.9
zinc
Zn(s) 0 0 41.6
Zn(g) 130.73 95.14 160.98
Zn2+(aq) –153.9 –147.1 –112.1
ZnO(s) –350.5 –320.5 43.7
ZnCl2(s) –415.1 –369.43 111.5
ZnS(s) –206.0 –201.3 57.7
ZnSO4(s) –982.8 –871.5 110.5
ZnCO3(s) –812.78 –731.57 82.42
complexes
[Co(NH3)4(NO2)2]NO3, cis –898.7
[Co(NH3)4(NO2)2]NO3, trans –896.2
NH4[Co(NH3)2(NO2)4] –837.6
[Co(NH3)6][Co(NH3)2(NO2)4]3 –2733.0
[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl, cis –874.9
[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl, trans –877.4
[Co(en)2(NO2)2]NO3, cis –689.5
[Co(en)2Cl2]Cl, cis –681.2
[Co(en)2Cl2]Cl, trans –677.4
[Co(en)3](ClO4)3 –762.7
[Co(en)3]Br2 –595.8
[Co(en)3]I2 –475.3
[Co(en)3]I3 –519.2
[Co(NH3)6](ClO4)3 –1034.7 –221.1 615
[Co(NH3)5NO2](NO3)2 –1088.7 –412.9 331
[Co(NH3)6](NO3)3 –1282.0 –524.5 448
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 –1017.1 –582.5 366.1
[Pt(NH3)4]Cl2 –725.5
[Ni(NH3)6]Cl2 –994.1
[Ni(NH3)6]Br2 –923.8
[Ni(NH3)6]I2 –808.3

 

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