Food Safety, Sanitation, and Personal Hygiene

Food Safety, Sanitation, and Personal Hygiene

The BC Cook Articulation Committee

BCcampus

Victoria, B.C.

Contents

1

Accessibility Statement

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2

About BCcampus Open Education

BCcampus Open Education began in 2012 as the B.C. Open Textbook Project with the goal of making post-secondary education in British Columbia more accessible by reducing student costs through the use of openly licensed textbooks and other OER. BCcampus supports the post-secondary institutions of British Columbia as they adapt and evolve their teaching and learning practices to enable powerful learning opportunities for the students of B.C. BCcampus Open Education is funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education, Skills & Training, and the Hewlett Foundation.

Open textbooks are open educational resources (OER) created and shared in ways so that more people have access to them. This is a different model than traditionally copyrighted materials. OER are defined as teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Our open textbooks are openly licensed using a Creative Commons licence, and are offered in various e-book formats free of charge, or as printed books that are available at cost. For more information about open education in British Columbia, please visit the BCcampus Open Education website. If you are an instructor who is using this book for a course, please fill out our Adoption of an Open Textbook form.

"Open Educational Resources," Hewlett Foundation, https://hewlett.org/strategy/open-educational-resources/ (accessed September 27, 2018).

3

Preface

Food Safety, Sanitation, and Personal Hygiene is one of a series of Culinary Arts open textbooks developed to support the training of students and apprentices in British Columbia’s foodservice and hospitality industry. Although created with the Professional Cook, Baker and Meatcutter programs in mind, these have been designed as a modular series, and therefore can be used to support a wide variety of programs that offer training in foodservice skills.

Other books in the series include:

The series has been developed collaboratively with participation from public and private post-secondary institutions.

1

Introduction

Learning Objectives

  • Describe food safety regulations
  • Describe the causes and prevention of foodborne illnesses
  • Describe the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
  • Describe general food-handling and storage procedures
  • Describe the procedures for maintaining workplace sanitation and personal hygiene

This material is intended as a review of food safety regulations and principles and not a replacement for required food safety training or certification.

2

Food Safety Regulations

In British Columbia, the Food Premises Regulation stipulates that:

(1) Every operator of a food service establishment must hold a certificate, issued by a health officer, for the successful completion of the food handler training program known as FOODSAFE or its equivalent.

(2) Every operator of a food service establishment must ensure that, while the operator is absent from the food service establishment, at least one employee present in the establishment holds the certificate referred to in subsection (1).

Although food safety certification is only required of one person per shift, a FOODSAFE certificate is recognized by many employers as a valuable and necessary employee qualification and an industry best practice for all people handling food.

FOODSAFE Level 1, B.C.’s provincial food safety course, is available in three ways: face to face, online, or through distance education (correspondence). In order to obtain a FOODSAFE Level 1 certificate, you must take a course through an approved training provider and pass an exam, which consists of 50 multiple-choice questions. A minimum score of 70% is required to pass the exam. Once you have successfully completed both the course and the exam, you will be registered in the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) database and receive a FOODSAFE certificate.

All new FOODSAFE Level 1 certificates have a five-year expiry date. Once your certificate expires, you must take a refresher course and achieve a grade of 80% on the refresher exam in order to be recertified.

For those in supervisory positions, the FOODSAFE Level 2 course offers training in the management of food safety and food safety systems.

More information on FOODSAFE certification as well as other equivalent food safety certificates can be found on the FOODSAFE website.

http://www.bclaws.ca/EPLibraries/bclaws_new/document/ID/freeside/11_210_99

3

An Approach to Food Safety

Food safety does not happen by accident. To prepare safe food, you must follow certain steps and procedures throughout the entire food preparation process. You have to think, and you have to pay attention to how you prepare food to make sure it is safe. You do this by developing a food safety plan. A good food safety plan will make sure that anything that might make someone sick is under control.

A basic food safety plan uses the HACCP method. HACCP stands for hazard analysis critical control points. HACCP was originally developed by NASA to make sure the food on their space flights was safe to eat. HACCP is not a complicated process; it just means that you have to first identify the various steps you must take when you prepare your menu items, then look for possible sources of contamination, and then find ways to control these sources.

The HACCP approach

HACCP is an approach to food safety that is systematic and preventive. It is recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the United Nations international standards organization for food safety. HACCP is used by most countries around the world and has been in use since the 1960s.

HACCP goes beyond inspecting finished food products. It helps to find, correct, and prevent hazards throughout the production process. These include physical, chemical, and biological hazards.

There are seven universally accepted HACCP principles. Every country that uses HACCP follows these principles.

Principle 1: Hazard analysis

A plan is laid out to identify all possible food safety hazards that could cause a product to be unsafe for consumption, and the measures that can be taken to control those hazards. For example, at the cooking step of the production process, one of the identified hazards is the survival of pathogens due to inadequate cooking time or temperature.

Principle 2: Identifying critical control points

Critical control points are the points in the production process where an action can be taken to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level. For example, the cooking step is considered a critical control point because control measures are necessary to deal with the hazard of pathogens surviving the cooking process.

Principle 3: Establishing critical limits for each critical control point

A critical limit is the limit at which a hazard is acceptable without compromising food safety. For example, critical limits at the cooking stage include specific time and temperature for cooking the product.

Principle 4: Establishing monitoring procedures for critical control points

Highly detailed monitoring activities are essential to make sure the process continues to operate safely and within the critical limits at each critical control point. For example, monitoring procedures at a cooking critical control point could include taking the internal temperature of the product with a specialized thermometer.

Principle 5: Establishing corrective actions

Actions must be taken to bring the production process back on track if monitoring indicates that deviation from critical limits has occurred. In food production, correcting problems before end-stage production is far more effective than waiting until a product is finished to test it. For example: If the required internal temperature has not been reached, a corrective action would require that the product be cooked further. If the cooking temperature cannot be reached, another corrective action would call for the product to be held and destroyed.

Principle 6: Establishing verification procedures

Verification means applying methods, procedures, tests, sampling and other evaluations (in addition to monitoring) to determine whether a control measure at a critical control point is or has been operating as intended. Verification activities also ensure that the monitoring and the corrective actions are done according to a company’s written HACCP program. For example, testing and calibrating thermometers is a verification procedure that is important to ensure accurate readings. The easiest way to test a thermometer’s accuracy is by submerging the probe into a pot of boiling water. If it does not read 100˚C (212˚F) then the thermometer must be adjusted to read the correct temperature.

Principle 7: Record keeping

The company must keep records to demonstrate the effective application of the critical control points and assist with official verification (which is done in Canada by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency). Records must be established to document the monitoring and verification results as well as all information and actions taken in response to any deviations found through monitoring and verification. For example, the employee responsible for monitoring a cooking critical control point completes a cooking log sheet. This sheet includes the date, the start and finish time, the temperature, and the employee’s signature. If a deviation has occurred in the production process, the responsible employee records the details in a deviation log book.

For more information on current food safety regulations in Canada, see Safe Food for Canadians Regulations.

Here is the original HACCP document from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (now archived).

4

Causes of Foodborne Illnesses

There are many myths about foodborne illness and food poisoning. Table 1 dispels some common misconceptions about food poisoning.

Table 1. Food poisoning myths
Myth Fact
1. A food with enough pathogens to make you sick will look, smell, or taste bad. 1. A food with enough pathogens to make you sick may look, smell, or taste good.
2. Really fresh food cannot make people sick. 2. Really fresh food can cause food poisoning if it is not properly handled.
3. Only dirty kitchens can make people sick. 3. Even clean kitchens can make people sick.
4. Properly cooked food can never cause food poisoning. 4. Food poisoning can occur even when foods are properly cooked.

Foodborne illnesses can be caused by any of:

Understanding each of these is critical in ensuring that food safety is maintained.

Food contaminants can be:

Biological causes of foodborne illness

Biological contaminants are by far the greatest cause of illness. Many of the risks associated with biological contaminants can be controlled or removed by effective food handling practices, so it is critical that the safe food handling and prevention procedures outline in the rest of the book be followed.

Microbes are all around us. They are living things, often too small to be seen without a microscope. Many microbes are beneficial, but some can cause illness or even death. These harmful microbes are called pathogens. Five types of microbes include bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, and fungi.

Food Intoxication and Food Infection

Have you ever had the “24-hour flu”? Probably not, because there’s no such thing. Many people who think they have the 24-hour flu have had a foodborne illness caused by some type of pathogen. A rapid reaction is normally caused by a food intoxication. A slower reaction is normally caused by a food infection. Here’s how to tell the difference between the two:

Improper Food Handling Practices

The top 10 causes of foodborne illness are the following:

  1. Improper cooling
  2. Advance preparation
  3. Infected person
  4. Inadequate reheating for hot holding
  5. Improper hot holding
  6. Contaminated raw food or ingredient
  7. Unsafe source
  8. Use of leftovers
  9. Cross-contamination
  10. Inadequate cooking

We will be looking at this top 10 list in greater detail later in the book.

Food Allergies

Food allergies are specific to individuals, but can be life threatening, and can be prevented by a thorough understanding of the allergy issue, knowledge of ingredients used in the preparation of foods, including pre-prepared foods, and care in ensuring separate cooking utensils, cookware, and food preparation surfaces. Oftentimes, the smallest oversights can have serious consequences, as indicated in the example below:

A customer has indicated they have an allergy to MSG and ordered chicken strips with a sweet and sour sauce.  The server tells them that the restaurant doesn’t add MSG to any of its food normally, so the order should be fine.  After eating the sauce, the customer experiences tingling lips and hives.  In follow up, the manager discovers that the pre-prepared sweet and sour sauce served with the chicken strips contains MSG on the list of ingredients.

This incident could have been prevented if the server was aware of all of the ingredients used in the dish.

Find more information foodborne illness and their causes and symptoms on the FOODSAFE Foodborne Illness Chart [PDF].
For more information on foodborne illnesses, outbreaks, and important news bulletins, consult the BC Centre for Disease Control website.

5

Preventing Foodborne Illness

Food-handling and Storage Procedures

Proper food handling and storage can prevent most foodborne illnesses. In order for pathogens to grow in food, certain conditions must be present. By controlling the environment and conditions, even if potentially harmful bacteria are present in the unprepared or raw food, they will not be able to survive, grow, and multiply, causing illness.

There are six factors that affect bacterial growth, which can be referred to by the mnemonic FATTOM:

  1. Food
  2. Acid
  3. Temperature
  4. Time
  5. Oxygen
  6. Moisture

Each of these factors contributes to bacterial growth in the following ways:

Identifying Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHFs)

Foods that have the FATTOM conditions are considered potentially hazardous foods (PHFs). PHFs are those foods that are considered perishable. That is, they will spoil or “go bad” if left at room temperature. PHFs are foods that support the growth or survival of disease-causing bacteria (pathogens) or foods that may be contaminated by pathogens.

Generally, a food is a PHF if it is:

Table 2 identifies common foods as either PHF or non-PHF.

Table 2. Common PHF and non-PHFs
PHF Non-PHF
Chicken, beef, pork, and other meats Beef jerky
Pastries filled with meat, cheese, or cream Bread
Cooked rice Uncooked rice
Fried onions Raw onions
Opened cans of meat, vegetables, etc. Unopened cans of meat, vegetables, etc. (as long as they are not marked with “Keep Refrigerated”)
Tofu Uncooked beans
Coffee creamers Cooking oil
Fresh garlic in oil Fresh garlic
Fresh or cooked eggs Powdered eggs
Gravy Flour
Dry soup mix with water added Dry soup mix

The Danger Zone

One of the most important factors to consider when handling food properly is temperature. Table 3 lists the most temperatures to be aware of when handling food.

Table 3. Important temperatures to remember
Celsius Fahrenheit What happens?
100° 212° Water boils
60° 140° Most pathogenic bacteria are destroyed. Keep hot foods above this temperature.
20° 68° Food must be cooled from 60°C to 20°C (140°F to 68°F) within two hours or less
40° Food must be cooled from 20°C to 4°C (68°F to 40°F) within four hours or less
32° Water freezes
–18° Frozen food must be stored at −18°C (0°F) or below
Temperature chart. Long description available.
Figure 1. Danger Zone Chart, Used with permission from BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC). [Image description]

The range of temperature from 4°C and 60°C (40°F and 140°F) is known as the danger zone, or the range at which most pathogenic bacteria will grow and multiply.

Time-temperature Control of PHFs

Pathogen growth is controlled by a time-temperature relationship. To kill micro-organisms, food must be held at a sufficient temperature for a sufficient time. Cooking is a scheduled process in which each of a series of continuous temperature combinations can be equally effective. For example, when cooking a beef roast, the microbial lethality achieved at 121 minutes after it has reached an internal temperature of 54°C (130°F) is the same as if it were cooked for 3 minutes after it had reached 63°C (145°F).

Table 4 show the minimum time-temperature requirements to keep food safe. (Other time-temperature regimens might be suitable if it can be demonstrated, with scientific data, that the regimen results in a safe food.)

Table 4. Temerature control for PHFs
Critical control point Type of food Temperature
Refrigeration Cold food storage, all foods. 4°C (40°F) or less
Freezing Frozen food storage, all foods. −18°C (0°F) or less
Freezing Parasite reduction in fish intended to be served raw, such as sushi and sashimi −20°C (−4°F) for 7 days or −35°C (−31°F) in a blast freezer for 15 hours
Cooking Food mixtures containing poultry, eggs, meat, fish, or other potentially hazardous foods Internal temperature of 74°C (165°F) for at least 15 seconds
Cooking Rare roast beef Internal temperature of 54°C to 60°C (130°F to 140°F)
Cooking Medium roast beef Internal temperature of 60°C to 65°C (140°F to 150°F)
Cooking Pork, lamb, veal, beef (medium-well) Internal temperature of 65°C to 69°C (150°F to 158°F)
Cooking Pork, lamb, veal, beef (well done) Internal temperature of 71°C (160°F)
Cooking Poultry Internal temperature of 74°C (165°F) for 15 seconds
Cooking Stuffing in poultry 74°C (165°F)
Cooking Ground meat (Includes chopped, ground, flaked, or minced beef, pork, or fish) 70°C (158°F)
Cooking Eggs 63°C (145°F) for 15 seconds
Cooking Fish 70°C (158°F)
Holding Hot foods 60°C (140°F)
Cooling All foods 60°C to 20°C (140°F to 68°F) within 2 hours and 20°C to 4°C (68°F to 40°F) within 4 hours
Reheating All foods 74°C (165°F) for at least 15 seconds

The Top 10 List: Do’s and Don’ts

Figure 1 illustrates the top 10 improper food-handling methods and the percentage of foodborne illnesses they cause.

A chart of the top 10 causes of foodborne illnesses. Long description availabale.
Figure 2. Top 10 causes of foodborne illness. Chart created by go2HR under CC BY. [Image description]

This section describes each food-handling practice outlined in the top 10 list and the ways to prevent each problem.

1. Improper cooling

Many people think that once a food has been properly cooked, all disease-causing organisms (pathogens) have been killed. This is not true. Some pathogens can form heat-resistant spores, which can survive cooking temperatures. When the food begins cooling down and enters the danger zone, these spores begin to grow and multiply. If the food spends too much time in the danger zone, the pathogens will increase in number to a point where the food will make people sick. That is why the cooling process is crucial. Cooked food must be cooled from 60°C to 20°C (140°F to 70°F) in two hours or less, AND then from 20°C to 4°C (70°F to 40°F) in four hours or less.

Food needs to cool from 60°C to 20°C in 2 hours. It needs to cool between 20°C and 4°C in 4 hours.
Figure 3. Food Cooling Procedure, used with permission from BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC)

Even in modern walk-in coolers, large cuts of meat will not cool down properly. Neither will whole poultry. Even large pots (4 L/1 gal. or more) of soup, stews, gravy, etc., can take a day or more to cool to 4°C (40°F). However, you can cool these foods down quickly by using one or more of the following methods depending on the type of food being cooled:

2. Advance preparation

Advance preparation is the cause of many food-poisoning outbreaks, usually because food has been improperly cooled. Often, foods that are prepared well before serving spend too much time in the danger zone. This may happen for one or more of the following reasons:

To prevent problems of advance preparation:

3. Infected person

Many people carry pathogens somewhere on or in their bodies without knowing it—in their gut, in their nose, on their hands, in their mouth, and in other warm, moist places. People who are carrying pathogens often have no outward signs of illness. However, people with symptoms of illness (diarrhea, fever, vomiting, jaundice, sore throat with a fever, hand infections, etc.) are much more likely to spread pathogens to food.

Another problem is that pathogens can be present in the cooked and cooled food that, if given enough time, can still grow. These pathogens multiply slowly but they can eventually reach numbers where they can make people sick. This means that foods that are prepared improperly, many days before serving, yet stored properly the entire time can make people sick.

Some pathogens are more dangerous than others (e.g., salmonella, E. coli, campylobacter). Even if they are only present in low numbers, they can make people very sick. A food handler who is carrying these kinds of pathogens can easily spread them to foods – usually from their hands. Ready-to-eat food is extra dangerous. Ready-to-eat food gets no further cooking after being prepared, so any pathogens will not be killed or controlled by cooking.

To prevent problems:

4. Inadequate reheating for hot holding

Many restaurants prepare some of menu items in advance or use leftovers in their hot hold units the next day. In both cases, the foods travel through the danger zone when they are cooled for storage and again when they are reheated.

Foods that are hot held before serving are particularly vulnerable to pathogens. In addition to travelling through the danger zone twice, even in properly operating hot hold units, the food is close to the temperature that will allow pathogens to grow.

To prevent problems:

5. Improper hot holding

Hot hold units are meant to keep hot foods at 60°C (140°F) or hotter. At or above this temperature, pathogens will not grow. However, a mistake in using the hot hold unit can result in foods being held in the super danger zone – between 20°C and 49°C (70°F and 120°F), temperatures at which pathogens grow very quickly.

To prevent problems:

6. Contaminated raw food or ingredient

We know that many raw foods often contain pathogens, yet certain foods are often served raw. While some people believe these foods served raw are “good for you,” the truth is that they have always been dangerous to serve or eat raw. Some examples include:

These foods have caused many food-poisoning outbreaks. Always remember: you cannot tell if a food contains pathogens just by look, taste, or smell.

To prevent problems:

7. Unsafe source

Foods from approved sources are less likely to contain high levels of pathogens or other forms of contamination. Approved sources are those suppliers that are inspected for cleanliness and safety by a government food inspector. Foods supplied from unreliable or disreputable sources, while being cheaper, may contain high levels of pathogens that can cause many food-poisoning outbreaks.

Fly-by-night suppliers (trunk sales) often do not care if the product is safe to sell to you, but approved suppliers do! As well, many fly-by-night suppliers have obtained their product illegally (e.g., closed shellfish fisheries, rustled cattle, poached game and fish) and often do not have the equipment to properly process, handle, store, and transport the food safely.

Of particular concern is seafood from unapproved sources. Seafood, especially shellfish, from unapproved sources can be heavily contaminated with pathogens or poisons if they have been harvested from closed areas.

To prevent problems:

8. Use of leftovers

Using leftovers has been the cause of many outbreaks of food poisoning because of improper cooling and reheating (of “hot” leftovers). Leftovers that are intended to be served hot pass through the danger zone twice (during the initial cooling of the hot food and when reheating). Those leftovers intended to be served without reheating, or as an ingredient in other foods (e.g., sandwich filler), go through the danger zone during cooling and then, when being prepared and portioned, often stay in the danger zone for another long period. The time in the danger zone adds up unless the food is quickly cooled and then quickly reheated (if being served hot), or kept cold until serving (if not being served hot).

Contamination can also occur with leftover foods when they are stored in the cooler. Improperly stored leftovers can accidentally be contaminated by raw foods (e.g., blood dripping from a higher shelf).

To prevent problems:

9. Cross-contamination

You can expect certain foods to contain pathogens, especially raw meat, raw poultry, and raw seafood. Use extreme caution when you bring these foods into your kitchen. Cross-contamination happens when something that can cause illness (pathogens or chemicals) is accidentally put into a food where not previously found. This can include, for example, pathogens from raw meats getting into ready-to-eat foods like deli meats. It can also include nuts (which some people are very allergic to) getting into a food that does not normally have nuts (e.g., tomato sauce).

To prevent problems:

10. Inadequate cooking

Proper cooking is one of the best means of making sure your operation does not cause a food-poisoning outbreak. Proper cooking kills all pathogens (except spores) or at least reduces their numbers to a point where they cannot make people sick. Inadequate cooking is often done by accident: for example, cooking still-frozen poultry or meat; attempting to cook a stuffed bird using the same time and temperature as an unstuffed bird; using an inexperienced cook.

To prevent problems:

Image descriptions

Figure 1 image description:

At 100°C (or 212°F), water boils. Above 74°C (or 165°F), bacteria die, although spores and toxins may survive. Food that is being cooked or reheated should hit 74°C (or 165°F). You can hold hot food for service at 60°C (or 140°F). Between 4°C and 60°C (or 40°F and 140°F) is the “Danger Zone.” Keep food out of this temperature range because bacteria will multiply rapidly. Between 0°C and 4°C (or 32°F and 40°F), most bacteria will survive but will not multiply quickly. Water freezes at 0°C (or 32°F). Between 0°C and −18°C (or 0°F and 32°F), most bacterial will survive but not grow. Frozen food is stored at −18°C (or 0°F).

[Return to Figure 1]

Figure 2 image description:

  1. Improper cooling, 30%.
  2. Advance preparation, 15%.
  3. Infected person, 12%.
  4. Inadequate reheating, 10%.
  5. Improper hot holding, 8%.
  6. Contaminated raw food, 4%.
  7. Unsafe source, 3%.
  8. Use of leftovers, 2%.
  9. Cross-contamination, 2%.
  10. Inadequate cooking, 1%.
  11. All other causes, 3%.

[Return to Figure 2]

Customers requiring a runny yolk egg should be aware that pathogens are not destroyed until yolk has completely coagulated.
Customers wishing raw marinated fish and raw shellfish, such as oysters, should be aware that they should be cooked to ensure safety.

6

Receiving Practices

HACCP is an operation system that ensures that as many precautions as possible are undertaken to eliminate, minimize, or prevent any kind of contamination. HACCP identifies critical control points that relate to all transportation, handling, preparation, service, and storage of food products.

Receiving, storage, and preparation are all important sections of a food safety flow chart, and receiving of products is your first step when developing a flow chart. The following are important elements to consider when receiving products in general.

Each group of food, whether dry foods, dairy products, fresh produce, or meats, requires a slightly different procedure. No matter what the product type, the principal component in a receiving procedure is accuracy. Any carelessness or half-hearted attempts at checking the delivery will render the whole process useless.

Dry foods

Dry foods or goods are usually shipped in cartons, bags, cases, or pails. Count the pieces and check that the number corresponds with what is listed on the invoice.

If a carton is damaged, check the contents carefully. Pay particular attention to signs of leakage in cartons that contain products in jars or bottles. It is extremely difficult to get credit at a later date for products stored in glass jars or bottles that have broken. In addition, visually check bags and pails for damage or leakage.

If sealed cartons show evidence of having been opened, check the contents. All unsealed or obviously repacked cartons should be checked to verify what they contain. Do not sign the invoice if there is any doubt about quantity, quality, or damage until you or your supervisor has cleared up the problem with the shipper.

Canned goods are delivered in cases or cartons. Do a count and a quality check of the cans.

The two most common types of damage to cans are swelling and large dents. If cans are swollen or bulging, it means the food has spoiled and must not be used. If the cans have large dents, seams may have split and the food may be contaminated. Again, the canned product is unsafe to use and should be sent back to the supplier. If a whole case of canned goods is unacceptable, the local health authority should be notified.

Dairy products

Dairy products are perishable and do not store long. Check the best-before date on each container, which should be at least a week after the receiving date.

As with dry foods, compare the number of items received with the invoice and check all items for damage and leakage.

Produce

Produce is delivered in bags, cases, or cartons. Count the number of pieces, weigh items, and check for quality. Open any closed cases and cartons to check the produce for ripeness, freshness, and other signs of quality.

When there are mistakes in delivery or an unacceptable quality of food has been received, you should insist that the supplier pick up the item and issue a credit.

Meats, poultry, and seafood

Fresh meat is shipped in pieces and/or by weight. Count and weigh the fresh items. Check for leaking vacuum-packed (Cryovac) packages, and check the grade of the meat against the grade on the invoice. In addition, if specifications were given on the order form, confirm the cuts of meat do meet those specifications.

Fresh poultry and seafood should also be counted, weighed, and checked for quality.

Frozen products are often delivered in cases and cartons. Open the cases to count the items and to check for signs of freezer burn, torn wrappings, partial thawing, or other problems.

In summary, when receiving goods, remember:

7

Storage Temperatures and Procedures

A food service operation needs to have clearly defined storage areas and procedures for several reasons. First, by providing storage facilities it is possible to purchase supplies in quantities large enough quantities to get price breaks. Second, the ability to store supplies on the premises reduces the cost and time needed to order supplies and handle them upon delivery. Third, menu planning is easier when you are aware of the quality, quantity, and types of supplies that are on hand. If there is a run on a particular menu item, it is nice to know there are enough materials on hand to ensure that everyone who orders the item can be served.

In today’s market, many food service operations are reducing the amount of stock they keep on hand because storage is expensive. Not only does space need to be found but security needs to be tight. Many operators are willing to pay a bit extra to suppliers in order to avoid the headaches of keeping track of expensive items such as large quantities of high-quality meat, wines, and spirits.

Regardless, there still is a need for storing many types of supplies including dry foods, dairy products, frozen foods, produce, and fresh meats. Storage areas for such items often have design requirements that must be built into the space in order to efficiently handle the specific types of supplies.

Dry Foods

The storeroom for dry foods should be located near the receiving area and close to the main kitchen. Unfortunately, the storeroom for dry foods is often an afterthought in food service facility designs, and the area designated for storage is sometimes in an inconvenient location.

No matter where the location, there are several essential points to be observed in the care and control of the dry storeroom.

Refrigerated Products

The refrigerator, whether a walk-in or a standard upright, is an important component in planning the storage of food items. Most fresh foods must be stored in the refrigerator to delay their deterioration and decomposition. The most basic rule must be always followed: store raw products below, never above, your cooked or ready-to-eat products.

Critical Control Point

Keep foods 4°C (39°F) or colder, the safe temperature for refrigerated storage.

Here are some considerations to ensure that the refrigerator does not break down and risk spoiling food:

There are also several general rules that all personnel using the refrigerator should follow:

Although lack of time and personnel shortages often make it difficult to observe these rules, it is imperative that they be followed.

Dairy Products

Dairy products must be stored in the refrigerator at temperatures of 2°C to 4°C (36° to 39°F). Follow these guidelines:

Produce

Most produce is stored in the refrigerator at 2° to 4°C (36° to 39°F) to ensure freshness and to prevent rapid deterioration. There are, however, a number of exceptions, including potatoes and bananas, which should be stored at higher temperatures.

Keep these factors in mind when storing produce:

Fresh Meats, Poultry, and Seafood

These items are the most difficult to store and the most expensive food items sold by the restaurant. When storing meats, poultry, and seafood items, remember the critical control point.

Critical Control Point

Keep foods 4°C (39°F) or colder, the safe temperature for refrigerated storage.

Keep these factors in mind when storing fresh meats, poultry, and produce:

Frozen Foods

Frozen foods should be stored at –18°C (0°F) or lower. If the temperature rises above –18°C, food can become discoloured and lose vitamin content. Lowering the temperature after it has risen does not correct the damage.

Critical Control Point

Frozen food must be kept at −18°C or lower to maintain its quality.

Keep these factors in mind when storing frozen foods:

8

Food Rotation

The primary purpose of proper storage is to prevent food from spoiling. There are three main agents that cause food to deteriorate: moulds, yeast, and bacteria. Although they all act quickly on all foods containing moisture, each has its own characteristics.

Moulds are easily detected by their bluish-green colour and hair-like fungal structure. Mould commonly grows on bread, fruit, and cheese when these items are stored in a warm, dark, and slightly moist environment.

Yeast are plant micro organisms that are present in the air at all times. In order to grow and reproduce, yeasts require air, a source of food, and warm temperatures. Yeasts cause fruit and vegetables to ferment and rot by changing the natural sugars of the fruit into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This process of fermentation is used deliberately to make wine and beer, and the production of carbon dioxide during fermentation causes bread dough to rise. Yeasts can be detected by the formation of slime in the foods in which they are present.

Bacteria, although they are usually the first agents to begin the decomposition process, are the hardest to detect. Their presence usually only becomes noticeable after decomposition has advanced to the stage where unpleasant odours are produced.

When food is deteriorating, you will notice changes in its colour, odour, and taste. Examples include:

9

Developing a Food Safety Plan

You should always know, without a doubt, that the food you serve your customers is safe. The only way you can be sure of this is by developing and following a food safety plan (FSP).

There are two types of food safety plans: process based and recipe based. A process-based FSP is often used when the same process is used for several different food items, or when menu items change regularly, such as on a daily special sheet. For example, the process for cooking pork chops and chicken breasts is very similar, as is the process for cooking bacon and sausages. A process-based food safety plan for the station preparing these items will ensure the steps to food safety are being followed.

Whether the FSP is process based or recipe based, the seven basic steps for creating one are the same. This section leads you through these steps by using a basic recipe and turning it into a food safety plan.

Recipe

SAMPLE RECIPE: BEEF STEW
Ingredients Weights and Measures
Stewing beef (pre-cooked) 2.5 kilograms
Beef stew base, beef consommé, beef gravy 1 can (each)
Vegetables (frozen) 2 packages
Seasoning 1 packet
Water 5 litres

PREPARING

  1. Pour beef stew base, beef consommé, and beef gravy into stock pot. Add water and seasoning. Stir with wire whisk until all seasoning is dissolved.

COOKING

  1. Preheat stove. Begin heating beef stew mix.
  2. Break up any clumps in the frozen vegetables. Add to the beef stew mix. Stir with long-handled spoon.
  3. Add cooked stewing beef and stir. Simmer for 30 minutes.

SERVING AND HOLDING

  1. Serve immediately, or
  2. Hold beef stew in hot hold unit.

COOLING

  1. Store any leftovers in a covered pan in the cooler.

REHEATING

  1. Reheat beef stew until steaming.

Step 1: Find the food safety hazards and critical control points.

If the answer is yes to any of the questions in the list above, then the menu item has a food safety hazard that must be controlled.

Now let’s apply this to the beef stew recipe.

Beef stew is a PHF. The main hazards with this menu item would be:

Step 2: Identify where and when you have to control the hazards for each menu item.

In Step 1 you found the food safety hazards in a specific menu item that must be controlled. Now you must find the steps in the food preparation process where these hazards can best be controlled. (These steps are called critical control points.)

The critical control point is the “kill step” where the bacteria are either killed by cooking or are controlled to prevent or slow their growth (such as by proper hot holding or rapid cooling). Cooking, cooling, hot holding, and reheating are always critical control points. For ready-to-eat foods (e.g., sandwiches, salads), all steps where hands touch foods are critical control points.

Highlight the critical control points in your recipe or flow chart of the menu item by underlining them or highlighting them with a marker.

Here is the same recipe with the critical control points identified:

SAMPLE RECIPE: BEEF STEW (with critical control points identified)
Ingredients   Weights and Measures
Stewing beef (pre-cooked)                         2.5 kilograms
Beef stew base, beef consommé, beef gravy 1 can (each)
Vegetables (frozen) 2 packages
Seasoning 1 packet
Water 5 litres

PREPARING

  1. Pour beef stew base, beef consommé, and beef gravy into stock pot. Add water and seasoning. Stir with wire whisk until all seasoning is dissolved.

COOKING (critical control point)

  1. Preheat stove. Begin heating beef stew mix.
  2. Break up any clumps in the frozen vegetables. Add to the beef stew mix. Stir with long-handled spoon.
  3. Add cooked stewing beef and stir. Simmer for 30 minutes.

SERVING AND HOLDING (critical control point)

  1. Serve immediately, or
  2. Hold beef stew in hot hold unit.

COOLING (critical control point)

  1. Store any leftovers in a covered pan in the cooler.

REHEATING (critical control point)

  1. Reheat beef stew until steaming.

Step 3: Set critical limits or procedures to control the hazards.

Once you have identified the food safety hazards and where to control them (the critical control points), you need to set limits or procedures to control the hazard at each critical control point. This includes identifying minimum cooking temperature/times, maximum time to cool foods , minimum hot hold temperatures, etc.

You can incorporate most control procedures or limits right onto your recipe cards. Now look at the beef stew recipe showing both the critical control points and critical limits. You will see that the cooking temperature and time, the hot hold temperature, the cooling temperatures and times, and the reheating temperature and times (the critical control points) have the limits written right into the recipe.

SAMPLE RECIPE: BEEF STEW (with critical control points and critical limits identified)
Ingredients   Weights and Measures
Stewing beef (pre-cooked)                         2.5 kilograms
Beef stew base, beef consommé, beef gravy 1 can (each)
Vegetables (frozen) 2 packages
Seasoning 1 packet
Water 5 litres

PREPARING

  1. Pour beef stew base, beef consommé, and beef gravy into stock pot. Add water and seasoning. Stir with wire whisk until all seasoning is dissolved.

COOKING (critical control point)

  1. Preheat stove. Begin heating beef stew mix.
  2. Break up any clumps in the frozen vegetables. Add to the beef stew mix. Stir with long-handled spoon.
  3. Add cooked stewing beef and stir. Continue heating beef stew until 74°C (165°F) or hotter is reached for at least 15 seconds (critical limit). Simmer for 30 minutes.

SERVING AND HOLDING (critical control point)

  1. Serve immediately, or
  2. Hold beef stew at 60°C (140°F) or hotter in hot hold unit (critical limit)

COOLING (critical control point)

  1. Cool in shallow pans with product depth not to exceed 5 cm (2 in.), stirring frequently while cooling. Product temperature must reach 20°C (70°F) within 2 hours and then 4°C (60°F) within next 4 hours (critical limit).

REHEATING (critical control point)

  1. Reheat beef stew to an internal temperature of 74°C (160°F) or hotter for at least 15 seconds within 2 hours – one time only (critical limit).

Step 4: Check the critical limits.

You have now set critical limits for each critical control point. Next you want to make sure the limits that you’ve set are actually being followed. To do this they must be checked regularly.

Make sure everyone in your operation knows their responsibilities for checking critical limits. Make it a part of their job description.

Step 5: Set up procedures to handle control problems.

Workers must also know what to do if a process or step does not meet critical limits and what corrective action can be taken.

Problems happen when critical limits are not met. You must have a plan in place when a critical limit is not met. These procedures are called corrective actions.

Examples of corrective actions might include:

If you find a problem, correct it right away, and remember, If in doubt, throw it out!

Let’s again use the beef stew recipe and include corrective actions to take when critical limits are not met. In most cases, the corrective actions are common sense and can easily be incorporated into the recipe or flow chart. Also add any food safety steps that are important to keep in mind prior to and while preparing the recipe.

Once you have added the corrective actions and safety steps, you have a completed food safety plan for the beef stew recipe.

SAMPLE RECIPE: BEEF STEW (with critical control points, critical limits, and corrective actions identified)
Ingredients   Weights and Measures
Stewing beef (pre-cooked)                         2.5 kilograms
Beef stew base, beef consommé, beef gravy 1 can (each)
Vegetables (frozen) 2 packages
Seasoning 1 packet
Water 5 litres

PREPARING

  1. Pour beef stew base, beef consommé, and beef gravy into stock pot. Add water and seasoning. Stir with wire whisk until all seasoning is dissolved.

COOKING (critical control point)

  1. Preheat stove. Begin heating beef stew mix.
  2. Break up any clumps in the frozen vegetables. Add to the beef stew mix. Stir with long-handled spoon.
  3. Add cooked stewing beef and stir. Continue heating beef stew until 74°C (165°F) or hotter is reached for at least 15 seconds critical limit. If the critical limit has not been met, continue to cook until it has been met (corrective action) Simmer for 30 minutes.

SERVING AND HOLDING (critical control point)

  1. Serve immediately, or
  2. Hold beef stew at 60°C(140°F) or hotter in hot hold unit (critical limit). If critical limit has not been met, increase thermostat on holding unit (corrective action).

COOLING (critical control point)

  1. Cool in shallow pans with product depth not to exceed 5 cm (2 in.), stirring frequently while cooling. Product temperature must reach 20°C (70°F) within 2 hours and then 4°C (60°F) within next 4 hours (critical limit). If critical limit is not met, modify the cooling procedure to ensure food does not stay in the danger zone or discard food (corrective action).

REHEATING (critical control point)

  1. Reheat beef stew to an internal temperature of 74°C (160°F) or hotter for at least 15 seconds within 2 hours – one time only (critical limit). If the critical limit has not been met, continue to heat food until it has been met (corrective action).

Remember these safety steps:

Figure 2 shows in detail a process-based food safety plan flow chart. The plan identifies the critical control points and critical limits in the process for cooking and reheating hot foods and provides a monitoring step and corrective action to minimize risk at each of the critical control points.

Figure 4. Process-based food safety plan

Figure 5. Process-based food safety plan: hot entrée station (hot entrée items: chicken cacciatore, beef bourguignon, turkey tetrazzini)
Hazards Monitoring action Corrective action Checks Actions
Receiving raw meats and poultry

Safety step

Bacterial growth during transportation

Cross-contamination during transport

Physical contamination during transport

Sourced from approved suppliers

Remained colder than 4°C (39°F) during transport.

Delivered in secure packaging

Ensure supplier is on approved list.

Check temperature of product and vehicle on delivery.

Ensure packaging is secure.

Refuse delivery if any of the following are found:
  • Supplier is not on approved list
  • Temperature of product is above 4°C (39°F)
  • Packaging is damaged
Storing ingredients

Safety step

Bacterial growth during storage

Cross-contamination during storage

Stored between 0° and 4°C (32°F and 39°F)

Raw meats and poultry are stored separately from each other and below ready-to-use or prepared foods

Check temperature of cooler twice each shift.

Monitor storage locations in cooler.

If ingredients have been stored over 4°C (39°F) for less than 2 hours, move to a cooler at the correct temperature

If ingredients have been stored over 4°C (39°F) for more than 2 hours, discard food

If raw meats and poultry have been stored above ready to eat or prepared foods, modify storage procedures and discard any foods that have been contaminated

Preparation

Safety step

Cross-contamination by food handlers Use clean hands

Use sanitized utensils

Do not work when sick

Visual observation.

Do not allow employees to work when sick.

Follow proper handwashing procedures

Provide sanitized utensils for preparation

Send sick employees home

Cooking

Critical control point

Survival of pathogens during cooking process Cook foods to a minimum of 74°C (165°F) Measure and record internal temperature at the end of the cooking time. If food has not reached 74°C (165°F), continue cooking until it reaches 74°C (165°F)
Hot holding
Critical control point
Bacterial growth following cooking process Cover foods and hold hotter than 60°C (140°F) Check temperature of food every 2 hours. If food has been held below 60°C (140°F) for less than 2 hours, reheat food to 74°C (165°F), and transfer to a clean container.

Increase temperature of storage equipment to above 60°C (140°F)

Reheat food only once

If food has been held at below 60°C (140°F) for more than 2 hours, discard food

Serving

Critical control point

Cross-contamination by servers Use clean hands

Use sanitized utensils

Do not work when sick

Visual observation.

Do not allow employees to work when sick.

Follow proper handwashing procedures

Provide sanitized utensils for serving

Send sick employees home

Step 6: Keep accurate records. Review them regularly to make sure that the controls are working.

You and your workers are now taking corrective actions when critical limits are not met. To make sure that the controls are working, you have to keep records of the checks that are being done, and any corrective actions that have been taken

A regular review of these records will quickly tell you if your controls are working and if your workers are handling the foods properly. If your records show a problem, fix it right away.

Step 7: Check your food safety plan to make sure it’s working.

At least once a year you should check your food safety plan to make sure it is working and is complete. Verify with your environmental health officer that your plan is appropriate. Questions to ask yourself can include:

If the answer is yes to any of these questions, you probably need to adjust your food safety plan.

10

Workplace Sanitation

Maintaining a clean work environment is critical in preventing foodborne illness. Bacteria can grow on unsanitary surfaces and then contaminate food. Just because a work surface looks clean does not mean that it is sanitary. Always ensure that you clean and sanitize a work area before starting to prepare food.

Cleaning Procedures and Schedules

Cleaning with soap and other detergents is just one step of the cleaning procedure. It is also necessary to sanitize. Cleaning will remove any dirt or grease, but will not necessarily kill any bacteria or other pathogens. Only a sanitizer will kill bacteria and ensure the area is safe for food preparation. Leading sanitizers used in the food service industry are chlorine solutions (bleach), quaternary solutions (quats), and iodine. Use these materials according to the manufacturer’s instructions that accompany the product and that are found on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) using the appropriate personal protective equipment.

A sanitation plan is important in any food service preparation area. It ensures that all surfaces are cleaned on a regular basis and reduces the risks of transferring bacteria or other pathogens from an unclean surface to clean equipment such as cutting boards or tools. A sanitation plan has two components:

  1. A list of cleaning and sanitizing agents or supplies with instructions on their safe use and storage
  2. A cleaning schedule, outlining how each item needs to be cleaned, who is responsible, and how frequently it happens

Figure 5 shows a sample daily and weekly cleaning schedule for a restaurant.

Figure 5. Sample Cleaning Schedule

Daily Cleaning Schedule. Date: ______________
Item Frequency Method Responsibility Supervisor initial
Upright mixer
  • Prior to use if mixer not used in previous 2 hours
  • Immediately after use when finished task
  1. Lock out machine (unplug) and remove attachments and bowl. Send through dishwasher.
  2. Wash down all surfaces with a clean cloth immersed in clean warm water and detergent.
  3. Wipe down all surfaces with a second clean cloth immersed in sanitizing solution (100 ppm chlorine or 28 mL bleach per 4.5 L water).
  4. Allow to air dry prior to reassembly and next use.
Pastry cooks ________
Meat slicer
  • Prior to use if slicer not used in previous 2 hours
  • Immediately after use when finished task
  1. Lock out machine (unplug) and set slicer to zero.
  2. Remove blade guard. Send through dishwasher.
  3. Carefully wash down all surfaces with a clean cloth immersed in clean warm water and detergent.
  4. Carefully wipe down all surfaces with a second clean cloth immersed in sanitizing solution (100 ppm chlorine or 28 mL bleach per 4.5 L water).
  5. Allow air dry prior to reassembly and next use.
Garde manger ________
Weekly Cleaning Schedule. Date: ______________
Item Frequency Method Responsibility Supervisor initial
Dry storage  Monday after dinner service
  1. Remove food from shelves one shelf at a time. Store rolling rack in dry storage while cleaning shelf in place.
  2. Wash down all surfaces with a clean cloth immersed in clean warm water and detergent.
  3. Wipe down all surfaces with a second clean cloth immersed in sanitizing solution (100 ppm chlorine or 28 mL bleach per 4.5 L water).
  4. Allow to air dry prior to replacing food on shelves.
Grill cook ________
Reach-in freezer Tuesday after dinner dervice
  1. Remove food from shelves one shelf at a time. Store rolling rack in cooler while cleaning shelf in place.
  2. Wash down all surfaces with a clean cloth immersed in clean warm water and detergent.
  3. Wipe down all surfaces with a second clean cloth immersed in sanitizing solution (100 ppm chlorine or 28 mL bleach per 4.5 L water).
  4. Allow to air dry prior to replacing food on shelves.
Garde manger ________

 

Dishwashing Procedures

Effective dishwashing ensures that all equipment is sanitary and ready for use when required. Using soiled or dirty china is not only dangerous, but it will tell customers that the operator as little or no regard for customer safety. Table 2.5 shows the proper procedures for both manual and automatic dishwashing.

Before washing, scrape dishes and pre-soak any items with hard to remove residue. Then follow the procedure in Table 5, depending on whether you are using a high- or low-temperature dishwasher or you are washing dishes manually.

Table 5. Dishwashing procedures
Step Manual High-temperature dishwasher Low-temperature dishwasher or glass washer
Wash Use a commercial detergent and 45°C (113°F) water. Wash cycle must reach at least 60°C (140°F). Wash cycle must reach at least 60°C (140°F).
Rinse Rinse in clean hot water. Hot rinse cycle. Warm or cold rinse cycle with sanitizer.
Sanitize Sanitize for 2 minutes with an approved sanitizing solution (50 ppm chlorine or 12.5 ppm iodine). Rinse cycle must reach at least 82°C (180°F) for at least 10 seconds. Final rinse must have concentration of 50 ppm chlorine or 12.5 ppm iodine.
Dry Drain boards should be sanitized and sloped for drainage.

Never towel dry.

Drain boards should be sanitized and sloped for drainage

Never towel dry.

Drain boards should be sanitized and sloped for drainage

Never towel dry.

Routine Equipment Maintenance

Most kitchen equipment is intended to be disassembled for cleaning. Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions and training provided by your employer or instructor on how to do this safely. Some equipment is intended to be cleaned in place. This should be identified in your sanitation plan and cleaning schedule.

All equipment must be routinely cleaned and inspected. Older equipment may have nooks and crannies where dirt and bacteria can hide, which can be difficult to clean effectively. Proper cleaning procedures must be established and followed at all times with regular review to ensure that procedures are working. If equipment is replaced or cleaning materials change, the process may have to be adjusted. If you notice any safety concerns with the equipment while cleaning it, such as a frayed cord, missing guard or loose parts, let your supervisor know immediately.

Importance of Personal Hygiene

It is imperative for safe food-handling outcomes for all workers to be familiar with standard sanitation and hygiene practices. Figure 6 shows the cycles of transmission of micro-organisms. One of the basic principles is to break the cycle by avoiding cross-contamination, which can be achieved by ensuring personal hygiene practices are followed.

 

The cycle of bacterial transmission goes from food handler to environment to food and back to the Food Handler
Figure 6. The cycle of bacterial transmission. Image created by go2hr and used under a CC BY 4.0 Licence.

Proper personal hygiene is critical in any food service premise. Personal hygiene includes:

Handwashing

Proper and regular handwashing is a critical part of any food safety system. You must always wash your hands after:

The steps for proper handwashing are as follows:

  1. Wet hands with warm water.
  2. Apply liquid soap and lather for at least 20 to 30 seconds.
  3. Scrub backs of hands, wrists, all fingers, and under nails.
  4. Rinse under running water, pointing down toward the drain.
  5. Dry with a paper towel.
  6. Turn off taps and open bathroom door using the paper towel.

11

Key Takeaways and Activities

Key Takeaways

  • Foodborne illness is most often caused by cross-contamination of some form, and therefore effective steps must be taken to prevent the transfer of contaminants at every stage of the production process.
  • Temperature control is a critical way to manage food safety—by properly heating and cooling foods, and limiting the time potential hazardous foods spend in the danger zone.
  • Personal hygiene, equipment and tool cleanliness, pest control, and environmental sanitation are all areas to scrutinize when considering an operations ability to control cross-contamination.

Activities

  1. Complete a Food safety plan flow chart [.docx] for a recipe or process of your choice. Remember to follow all of the seven steps when completing your flow chart.
  2. Complete a Cleaning Schedule [.docx] for your station or work area.

1

Key Terms

aerobic bacteria
Bacteria that require oxygen in order to grow
anaerobic bacteria
Bacteria that only grow in environments where oxygen is not present
contaminants
 Unwanted bacteria or substances
cooling
Lowering the temperature of a food from 60°C (140°F) down to 20°C (70°F) in two hours or less AND then from 20°C (70°F) down to 4°C (40°F) in four hours or less
cooling wands
Reusable, hollow, plastic, sealable containers that are filled with water, sealed, and then once frozen, can be put in a liquid food to help cool the food quickly
critical control points
The steps in the food preparation processes where an action can be taken to control a hazard; loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk
critical limits
The limits at which a hazard is acceptable without compromising food safety
danger zone
Temperature zone in which bacteria will grow the fastest: between 4°C and 60°C (40°F and 140°F)
FATTOM
A mnemonic to remember the conditions that affect the growth of bacteria: food, acid, temperature, time, oxygen, moisture
FIFO
First in, first out; the principle of using supplies and stock in the order they were received
finger cots
Small plastic or rubber tubes that, when inserted over a finger, will form a waterproof cover over a cut or sore
FOODSAFE
Provincial food safety program
gloves
Plastic, latex, or rubber gloves that, when worn while handling food, will eliminate direct hand contact with the food
HAACP
Hazard analysis and critical control points; system to define potential areas of risk in food production and prevention methods
hot hold
To hold foods at 60°C (140°F) or hotter; at these temperatures, pathogens will not grow
infection
Invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
internal temperature
The temperature taken with a thermometer in the centre of the food; in the case of whole poultry or large cuts of meat, the temperature should be taken in the thickest part of the flesh without the thermometer touching a bone
intoxication
Effects on the body produced from the consumption of harmful pathogens or substances
pathogen
An agent that causes disease, especially a living micro-organism such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus
potentially hazardous foods (PHFs)
Foods that will allow the growth or survival of pathogens OR foods that may be contaminated by pathogens
product
Any menu item
ready-to-eat food
Any food that can be eaten without cooking or any other additional preparation, and is expected to be served this way
sanitize
to apply heat or chemicals on a clean food contact surface (e.g., cutting board, countertop) to destroy most pathogens
shallow pans
Large metal pans that are usually not deeper than 10 cm (4 in.) that are useful for cooling foods
sick worker
Any food handler who has one or more of the following symptoms associated with a foodborne illness: sore throat with a fever, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, or jaundice; or has a sore containing pus that is open and draining
super danger zone
The temperature range where pathogens will grow very quickly, between 20°C and 49°C (70°F and 120°F)
temperature abuse
The practice of either not cooling PHFs fast enough after cooking (see Cooling) or of storing PHFs between 4°C and 60°C (40°F and 140°F )
toxins
Any of various poisonous substances produced by microorganisms that stimulate the production of neutralizing substances (antitoxins) in the body

2

References

BC Centre for Disease Control. (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2015, from http://www.bccdc.ca

FOODSAFE. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from http://www.foodsafe.ca

Food Safety Definitions for Food Vendors at Special Events. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.halton.ca/cms/one.aspx?portalId=8310&pageId=37644

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). (2012, August 30). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/newsroom/food-safety-system/haccp/eng/1346306502207/1346306685922

Public Health Act. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from http://www.bclaws.ca/civix/document/id/complete/statreg/08028_01

3

About the Authors

This series of Open Textbooks has been developed collaboratively on behalf of the BC Provincial Cook Articulation Committee and go2HR. The committee would like to thank the following individuals for their contributions to developing, editing and reviewing these texts:

4

Versioning History

This page provides a record of edits and changes made to this book since its initial publication in the B.C. Open Textbook Collection. Whenever edits or updates are made, we make the required changes in the text and provide a record and description of those changes here. If the change is minor, the version number increases by 0.1. However, if the edits involve substantial updates, the version number goes up to the next full number. The files on our website always reflect the most recent version, including the Print on Demand copy.

If you find an error in this book, please fill out the Report an Open Textbook Error form.

Version Date Change Details
1.0 May 14, 2015 Book added to the B.C. Open Textbook Collection
1.01 June 6, 2019 Updated the book’s theme. The styles of this book have been updated, which may affect the page numbers of the PDF and print copy.
2.00 June 26, 2019 Entire book revised for accessibility.

Applied a number of changes as part of a project to standardize BCcampus-published books.

Accessibility remediation:
  • Image descriptions added.
  • Tables reformatted for accessibility.
  • Link text edited to be descriptive.
  • Headings added.
  • Added an Accessibility Statement.

Standardization project:

  • Added additional publication information.
  • Updated copyright information.
  • Added a Versioning History page.
  • Renamed the “About the Book” section to “About BCcampus Open Education” and updated the content.

Other changes:

  • Added pop-up definitions for key terms in web book.
  • Changed some table and figure numbers for consistency.
  • Replaced broken links.