Healing 2: Caring for Individuals Experiencing Cognitive or Mental Health Challenges

Course Guideline

The main focus of this course (at least 70%) should be on:

  • Learning Outcome #1 – Describe ways to organize, administer, and evaluate person-centred care and assistance for clients experiencing cognitive health challenges (dementia).
  • Learning Outcome #3 – Demonstrate an understanding of effective approaches to disruptive or abusive behaviours.

A maximum of 30% of course hours should be dedicated to:

  • Learning Outcome #2 – Describe ways to organize, administer, and evaluate person-centred care and assistance for clients experiencing mental health challenges (other than dementia).

Suggested Learning Strategies

Strategies that Focus on Caring

1. Contributing to a Broadened Understanding of Cognitive Health Challenges

Invite students to imagine what it is like to suffer from a cognitive health challenge, particularly dementia. Have students sit comfortably, close their eyes, and take several deep breaths.

Speaking softly, lead them through the following scenario:

Imagine yourself walking alone through a forest. It’s a lovely warm spring day. The sights and sounds and smells of the forest are refreshing and you are enjoying your walk.

As the afternoon progresses, you realize you aren’t sure which direction you should take to get back to your friends and family. As you look around, you realize that you are lost.

As you realize your situation, you experience a twinge of fear.

You decide to keep walking in hopes of seeing something familiar, but find that the further you go, the more lost you become. Time passes and your fear is verging on panic. As evening draws closer, you realize that you may have to spend the night alone in the forest.

Invite students at this point to open their eyes and discuss their bodily experiences, feelings, and thoughts. Invite them to discuss how this is similar to what some cognitively challenged individuals might experience.

The client with cognitive changes may constantly feel lost. No matter what they do or where they go, they can find nothing that is familiar.

What feelings, therefore, would this person be likely to have? How is this related to some of the behaviours we might see in a cognitively challenged person?

Invite students to close their eyes once again and visualize themselves back in the forest. Continue the scenario as follows:

You are back in the forest, still feeling lost and fearful. As dusk begins to settle, you notice that there is a strange man who seems to be following or observing you.

Can you see him? He is about 30 feet away. When you attempt to speak to him, he answers in a language you don’t understand.

Invite students to open their eyes and describe their responses to the stranger. What feelings were stimulated? How does this relate to how a cognitively challenged individual might experience the people in their environment (even family members)? How might this help us understand some of the responses of clients?

2. Contributing to Person-Centred Care

Using the health wheel from Health 2: Lifestyle and Choices as a guide, invite students to work in small groups to discuss how cognitive health challenges might affect all areas of health and healing (physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual). Then ask the groups to discuss how changes in each dimension of health might positively contribute to improved quality of life for the affected individual. Invite each group to report back to the whole class.

The above process could be undertaken using scenarios of real or fictitious individuals who are experiencing a cognitive health challenge. Invite students, in small groups, to discuss how the changes in cognitive ability and perceptions affect all dimensions of the person’s health and lifestyle. Ask the groups to discuss how changes in each dimension of health might positively contribute to healing. Discussion should also focus on how this understanding might influence caregiver practice. Invite each group to report back to the whole class.

An alternative to the above could involve using scenarios of a real or fictitious individual who is supporting a family member experiencing a cognitive health challenge. The focus should be on a family member (wife, husband, daughter, son, etc.) and how the cognitive health challenge of a family member is impacting them. Invite students, in small groups, to discuss how the cognitive and perceptual changes in a family member affect other members of the family. Students should consider all dimensions of the health wheel. Discussion should also focus on how this understanding might influence caregiver practice. Invite each group to report back to the whole class.

3. Unfolding Case Study: Caring for Peter Schultz

As a homework assignment, ask students to review relevant textbook, online course, or other course material related to communicating with clients with dementia.[1]

Whole Class or Small Group Activity

In class, briefly review the challenges to communication experienced by clients with dementia. Following this, create a table with three columns on the whiteboard (or use the STUDENT HANDOUT) below.

  • First column: To provide a meaningful context for this activity, the communication challenges experienced by the unfolding case study client, Peter Schultz, can be listed.
  • Second column: For each challenge listed, ask the students to consider the potential impact on the client (and his family) and list them.
  • Third column: List communication strategies that could be used by the HCA to address the challenge and reduce the potential impact. The instructor may wish to complete a few full examples through each of the columns and then ask the students to complete the remaining items in a small group.

Throughout the activity and/or during the debrief, highlight further communications challenges and strategies that were not listed.

Communication Challenges and Impact: Supporting Clients with Dementia

Communication Challenges – Peter Schultz Impact on the Client and/or Family HCA Strategies
Difficulty initiating or following conversations.
Difficulty following instructions or rules related to a game or activity.
Difficulty understanding written material or communicating in writing.
Expressing confusion and/or the inability to understand what is being said.
Expressing resistance when directed to complete tasks related to personal care and hygiene.
Expressing anger and frustration related to the loss of ability to complete formerly known or routine activities (e.g., household repairs and maintenance).

Metzger, Z.B. (2010). The Last Lap of the Long Run, Addendum to “On the Long Run”: An Account of our Travels with Dementia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Communication Challenges and Impact: Supporting Clients with Dementia [PDF].

4. Ambiguous Loss and Grief Discussion Activity[2]

Using the document, Ambiguous Loss and Grief: A resource for health-care providers as reference, introduce the concept of ambiguous loss and grief to the class.

Explain that this document is intended to help health care providers, Alzheimer Society staff, and volunteers gain a better understanding of how loss and grief affect people with dementia and their family caregivers. It provides useful strategies to assist families with their multiple losses and grief and to help caregivers stay connected with the person with dementia, while building strength and resilience as the disease progresses.

Using the DISCUSSION GUIDE below, explore the following questions with the students:

  • What is ambiguous loss and grief?
  • Why is ambiguous loss and grief different from other types of grief?
  • How can HCAs provide support to individuals and families experiencing ambiguous loss and grief?

Invite students to share their response to the questions listed above. As ideas are forthcoming, write them on the whiteboard or flip chart. Use the discussion guide to highlight any items that were not considered.

Note: To promote discussion, you may wish to prepare a few copies of the document to share with the class. Students could also be asked to review the document as a homework assignment prior to the class discussion. To support a professional approach to practice, students could be provided with a link to the document for reference during their clinical placement and after completion of the program.

Ambiguous Loss and Grief

What is ambiguous loss and grief?

  • Ambiguous loss is a type of loss that happens when a person with dementia is physically present but is experiencing changed cognitive abilities.
  • A family member caring for a person with dementia may experience ongoing stress and grief due to the ambiguous loss of having a spouse or parent still here, but not present in the same way as before.

Why is ambiguous loss and grief different from other types of grief?

  • When a person is bereaved, they are likely to receive support from family and friends, and may eventually find closure through the natural grieving process.
  • Ambiguous loss complicates grief. It’s often hard for a caregiver to know whether or how to grieve.
  • Many aspects of the person with dementia are lost, but some remain. Family and friends may not recognize the caregiver’s need to grieve the many losses at different stages of the disease and receive support while the person with dementia is alive.
  • The caregiver may feel like he or she is living in limbo, unable to fully grieve or resolve the losses that have already occurred while anticipating other losses that lie ahead.

How can HCAs provide support to individuals and families experiencing ambiguous loss and grief?

  • Be sensitive to a wide range of caregiver grief reactions, including sadness, anger, anxiety, ambivalence, guilt, denial, and helplessness.
  • Use empathetic listening skills.
  • Validate the person’s feelings and experience in a non-judgmental way.
  • Acknowledge and affirm caregivers’ strengths, success, and resilience in coping with losses and adapting to changes.
  • Help families and individuals recognize and understand the feelings of ambiguous loss and work through them with the help of Alzheimer Society staff or other health care providers.
  • Provide strategies to help caregivers learn how to live with ambiguous loss, and remain healthy and resilient.
  • Help caregivers find creative ways to engage with the person with dementia.
  • Make a referral to the Alzheimer Society of B.C.
  • Encourage caregivers to practise good self-care, for example by staying socially and physically active, eating well, and engaging in the spiritual or religious practices that are important to them.

Download Discussion Guide: Ambiguous Loss and Grief [PDF].

Strategies that Focus on Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making

1. Classroom Debate Activity

Invite students to engage in a debate about a topic discussed in this course. Divide the class into small groups of three to five students and assign two groups to each of the topics outlined; one group will take a pro position towards the topic and the other group will take a con position.

Ask each group to identify two to three reasons to support the position they have been assigned. Then, with the instructor acting as the moderator, the two groups will engage in a debate using the following structure:

  1. Each group provides a brief introduction to their position on the topic.
  2. In alternating format, the two groups present the two or three reasons identified to support their position.
  3. Each group provides a brief closing statement.

After the debate has concluded, briefly come together as a larger group and summarize the positions that were presented. Invite feedback from the students not involved in the debate and discuss further considerations. Alternate groups until each student has participated in a debate.

Debate topics for Healing 2: Caring for Individuals Experiencing Cognitive or Mental Health Challenges.

  1. For clients with dementia, reality orientation is more effective than validation therapy.
  2. A client demonstrating responsive behaviours should be moved from a communal setting to a quiet room.

2. Supporting Clients with Dementia

As a homework assignment, have students read relevant course or online materials describing challenges that may be experienced by people with dementia and their families and the role of the HCA in responding with appropriate care and support.

  1. Whole Class Reading and Discussion
    • Using the STUDENT HANDOUT below, read one of the following scenarios and use it as an example. Then have the students identify key information and observations from the scenario and list it in the first column. Following this, have students identify important considerations that could provide context for the situation and list them in the second column. Lead the students in a discussion about how they, as HCAs, would respond to the situation (A DISCUSSION GUIDE on supporting clients with dementia has been provided below).
  2. Small Group Activity
    • Divide the class into small groups, assigning each group one of the remaining scenarios. Using the handout provided below, the students should identify key information and considerations. The students should then identify how they, as HCAs, could respond to the same situation.
  3. Whole Class Activity Debrief
    • Come back together as a class and have each group report on the key information, considerations, and potential responses identified. Use the Discussion Guide to highlight any that were not identified.

Scenarios: Supporting Clients with Dementia

DIRECTIONS: Identify key information and observations from the scenario and list in the first column. Next, identify important considerations that could provide context for the situation and list them in the second column. Finally, consider how to best respond to the situation.

Example, Scenario 1

It is 1:00 p.m. – time for Jean’s scheduled bath. Although she willingly goes to the bathing room with her regular HCA, she pulls away and cries out when the HCA starts to remove her clothing. She becomes extremely agitated and the HCA is unable to calm her and continue with the bathing process. For the third week in a row, Jean returns to her room without bathing.

Key Information Considerations HCA Responses
  • Jean has become too agitated to have her bath.
  • This is the third week in a row that this has happened.
  • What time of day did Jean usually bathe when she lived on her own? Could her bath time be adjusted?
  • How would I respond?

Scenario 2

Mary usually goes to bed around 8:00 p.m. but always gets up at 2:00 a.m. and wanders the halls. When staff take her back to bed, she gets up again, saying she has to take care of the baby.

Key Information Considerations HCA Responses

Scenario 3

Fiona has lived at a care home for the past two years. She has Alzheimer’s disease and now requires full assistance with personal care and dressing. She used to be a very classy lady – everything matching, makeup always impeccable. Her daughter, Marjorie, is having a hard time adjusting to her mother’s changing abilities.

Today the HCA, Maria, came in to help Fiona get ready for the day and Fiona was already dressed. Maria noticed that the buttons of her blouse were done up incorrectly and her clothing neither matched, nor was particularly clean. She had brushed her hair, leaving a large piece sticking up at the back. Maria was thrilled that Fiona had dressed and groomed independently and chose to leave Fiona’s hair and clothing as it was, saying, “Fiona, you look nice today. I like the blouse you’ve chosen!” Later in the day when Marjorie visited, she was furious that staff had not “corrected” her mother’s outfit and hair.

Key Information Considerations HCA Responses

Scenario 4

Albert is a newly graduated HCA. He feels fortunate to have secured full-time employment at a fairly new long-term care facility. During his HCA program, Albert took pride in taking the time to apply a person-centred approach with each of the clients he supported.

Despite his training and a sincere desire to help, he quickly feels discouraged and overwhelmed by the large workload and the attitudes of his colleagues, who Albert considers to be too “task focused.” He does not feel that he is able to use anything he learned, since every minute of his day is spent racing through a series of tasks.

Key Information Considerations HCA Responses

Copyright © 2017, Alzheimer Society of B.C. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Scenarios: Supporting Clients with Dementia [PDF].

Supporting Clients with Dementia

Key Information Considerations and Potential Responses
Scenario 1

  • Jean has become too agitated to have her bath.
  • This is the third week in a row that this has happened.
  • It happens in the bathing room.
  • Her regular HCA is the only one involved so far.
  • It seems that she doesn’t want her clothing removed.
  • It is going to require some kind of intervention soon, since she has not had a bath for three weeks now.
  • What time of day did Jean usually bathe when she lived on her own? Could her bath time be adjusted?
  • Has another HCA tried to bathe her? Perhaps Jean feels shy with the regular HCA for some reason.
  • How did the HCA approach Jean before attempting to remove her clothing? Could she have moved more slowly or communicated her plans more clearly?
  • Is Jean warm enough? If she is cold, perhaps this accounts for her reluctance to have her clothing removed. Check the temperature of the room. You could try wrapping her in a large warm towel before removing the clothing underneath. Is it necessary to remove her clothing or could she sit in the tub with her clothing on?
  • What is the bathing room like? Is it bare and sterile looking? Could it be painted a warmer colour? Would adding candles, plants, or calling it the “spa room” make it more inviting?
Scenario 2

  • It is difficult to keep Mary in bed after 2:00 a.m.
  • Mary gets up and starts to wander the halls at 2:00 a.m.
  • Only the night staff is involved; Mary does not go into the rooms of the other residents.
  • According to Mary, the reason is that she needs to take care of the baby.
  • It may not require intervention. If Mary is not upset, if she is safe, and if she is not disturbing others, there may not be a concern.
  • Is Mary getting too much sleep? Perhaps Mary could go to bed later. She is getting 6 hours of sleep, which may be enough for her. Perhaps Mary needs to walk off her extra energy and will then return to bed quietly on her own.
  • Staff might offer to walk with her. This could be reassuring to her, and might calm her down enough so that she feels ready to go back to bed.
  • Is Mary experiencing pain? If she is taking painkillers, her medication may have worn off by 2:00 a.m.
  • Is there a regular sound that occurs around 2:00 a.m. (e.g., staff doing rounds, something outside the building, or a furnace that starts noisily)? Something specific may be waking her up.
  • Does Mary have to go to the bathroom? She may be getting up because she needs to go to the bathroom, but then gets side tracked as she heads down the hallway. Try limiting her fluid intake at night.
  • Is Mary hungry? Staff could place a snack by her bedside, which may redirect her and prevent her from leaving her bed.
  • If Mary is worried about her baby, staff may tell her not to worry about the baby – a friend is caring for the baby tonight.
  • She may calm down if given a doll and then returned to bed. If a doll is used, Mary’s family should be informed. Despite the efficacy of using dolls for some people with more advanced dementia, families may see it as disrespectful or feel that their family member is being treated like a child if they do not understand why this approach is being taken.
Scenario 3

  • Marjorie is very upset with what she perceives to be the “poor care” her mother is receiving.
  • Though this is not typical, Marjorie may think that variations of this scenario occur periodically.
  • This is a situation involving Marjorie and the care staff. Fiona is happy.
  • Maria recognizes that Fiona’s actions today were significant since she has not dressed or groomed herself without help for some time. She knows that people with dementia, like everyone else, want to feel productive and her response was aimed at enhancing Fiona’s dignity.
  • Although Fiona has lived at the care home for a couple of years, Marjorie may still be grieving her mother’s loss of freedom or her own inability to care for her. She may be feeling like she has broken a promise by admitting her mom into a care home. She may be experiencing grief over the loss of her mother, as she once was.
  • Her mother is changing and Marjorie may feel that her mother is slipping away – the way she dresses herself feels like proof of that. She may feel that allowing her mother to be seen in an “unkempt way” robs her of her dignity as her appearance was always so important to her.
  • Families experience a unique kind of grief in these situations, since the person with dementia is still alive. This grief is not typically acknowledged or validated by others, who may even say things like, “At least you still have your mother.”
  • Perhaps the best gift Maria, or another staff member, could give Marjorie would be to name the grief and empathize. “It’s so hard seeing the changes in your Mom, isn’t it? It’s like one long grieving journey.”
  • Marjorie could connect with the Alzheimer Society of B.C. It might help to talk to someone separate from the home, or even to attend a support group.
  • The goal for Maria and the staff should be to collaborate with Marjorie in Fiona’s care. The best way to do that is through compassion. Getting upset with Marjorie because she doesn’t understand what an accomplishment her Mom’s dressing was, or dismissing her “obnoxiousness” by saying she is in denial, would only further antagonize the situation.
Scenario 4

  • The biggest challenge for Albert will be to maintain resilience. He will need to accept the situation at the facility, but work to make small changes. He cannot change the workload; he can change his attitude. Perhaps others will follow suit over time.
  • Albert may face discouragement from other people he works with. It might be hard to feel like he is the only person wanting to make a difference.
  • Despite his new job being task-oriented, Albert can still work to accomplish these tasks with kindness and respect for the clients he is caring for. His sincere desire to know as much as possible about his clients will help him to use a person-centred approach.
  • Using a person-centred approach might even help him reduce responsive behaviours, taking less time over all.
  • Albert might find opportunities to share his learning or successes with his colleagues at staff meetings, huddles, or through the communication book.
  • Over time, Albert may be able to find opportunities to support newer staff to contribute to a better culture.
  • If Albert sees situations or behaviours that are of concern, or if he is concerned about workload, he can speak to his supervisor and/or union.
  • Albert may decide to find a job where his values and the workplace culture are a better fit.

Copyright © 2017, Alzheimer Society of B.C. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Discussion Guide: Supporting Clients with Dementia [PDF].

3. Person-Centred Care in Practice[3]

Using the document, Guidelines for Care: Person-centred care of people with dementia living in care homes framework as reference, explore the role of the HCA in providing person-centred care to clients with dementia.

  1. Whole Class Review and Discussion
    • Ask the students to respond to one or more of the following questions:
      • What is person-centred care?
      • How can health care staff provide person-centred care for clients with dementia?
      • What does it mean to understand the reality of someone with dementia?
      • Is it possible to provide person-centred care if you don’t know anything about dementia and how it progresses?
      • How can you involve family?
      • How can you provide choices to the person who appears unable to choose, and why is this important?
      • How would you respond to the following statement: “Come on, sweetie. Let me help you get dressed”?
    • As ideas are forthcoming, write them on the whiteboard or flip chart. Use the DISCUSSION GUIDE below on person-centred care in practice to highlight any items that were not considered. Discuss terms commonly used to address clients (e.g., love, dearie, etc.) and discuss why they are not appropriate. Ask students to identify appropriate ways to address clients (e.g., according to preference, culture, formality, etc.).
  2. Small Group Activity
    • Divide the class into small groups. Ask the students to read the scenario on the STUDENT HANDOUT below and respond to the discussion questions provided. To support completion of the small group activity, ensure that students are able to link to the reference document or provide printed copies.
  3. Whole Class Activity Debrief
    • Briefly come back together as a group and have each group report on their responses. Use the DISCUSSION GUIDE below to highlight any considerations that were not identified.

Scenario: Person-Centred Care in Practice

DIRECTIONS: Read the scenario and respond to discussion questions provided. While completing this activity, you may wish to refer to Guidelines for care: Person-centred care of people with dementia living in care homes framework.

Mr. Peterson has moderate dementia and has particular difficulty with his language. He never participates in any of the activities that the facility organizes. Today he walked over to the activity room and sat down at a table by himself. The recreation therapist, Dawn, asked one of the HCAs to take him back to his room. “He never participates anyway, so he probably just got lost,” she tells the HCA.

Small Group Discussion Questions:

  1. Is this a person-centred response? Why or why not?
  2. How could the HCA respond to Dawn’s statement and the situation?
  3. If Dawn or the HCA were to involve Mr. Peterson in the activity, what should they consider? (Refer to p. 31 of Guidelines for care: Person-centred care of people with dementia living in care homes framework.)
  4. Why is meaningful activity critical to a person-centred approach? (Refer to p. 28–30 Guidelines for care: Person-centred care of people with dementia living in care homes framework.)
  5. How could the HCA provide opportunity for meaningful activity while assisting Mr. Peterson with his activities of daily living (e.g., during the morning care routine)?
  6. How can you provide choices to the person who appears unable to choose and why is this important?

Copyright © 2017, Alzheimer Society of B.C. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Scenario: Person-Centred Care in Practice [PDF].

Person-Centred Care in Practice

Person-Centred Care

  • Focuses on the individual, rather than the condition.
  • Focuses on the person’s strengths and abilities, rather than their losses.
  • Recognizes that the personality of the person with dementia is not lost, just increasingly changed by the disease.

How can HCAs provide person-centred care for people with dementia?

  • Focusing on people with dementia as individuals – understanding the person’s history, values, likes, and dislikes.
  • Trying to understand each person’s reality.
  • Remembering that all behaviour has meaning.
  • Mastering effective and meaningful communication.
  • Recognizing every person’s potential to engage socially and spiritually.
  • Talking to and about the person with dignified, non-judgmental and respectful language.
  • Providing choices, taking the person’s wishes into consideration, and obtaining consent, if possible.
  • Recognizing feelings and providing support.
  • Demonstrating empathy.
  • Involving and supporting family and friends.
  • Focusing on bringing out the best in the person and helping them to have a good day.
  • Bringing these values into the last stages of dementia and the end of life.

What does it mean to understand another person’s reality?

  • A person’s reality does not actually have to be objectively real to be their reality.
  • It is not helpful to try to “set the person straight” about what is really happening.
  • Sometimes understanding the world from the perspective of the person with dementia means not only speaking to them, but also to family and friends and being attentive to non-verbal cues. It helps to have a sense of where a person’s memory is at any given time. Putting their reality into a context of time and place can help you understand their reality; for example, if a person is talking or acting like they are in their 30s, it might make sense that they are talking about having a young daughter.

How can you involve and support family and friends?

  • First and foremost, the staff needs to recognize what a move to long-term care might represent for a family or care partner.
  • HCAs should recognize that grief is a constant companion for families who are on the dementia journey.
  • Families are valuable members of the care team.
  • Families provide a sense of continuity for the person with dementia and can familiarize staff with the person’s likes and dislikes, values, wishes, and personality.
  • A collaborative relationship with families benefits the person with dementia, their family members, and the staff of the care home.
  • Some families will be very difficult, for a variety of reasons. A referral to counselling or the Alzheimer Society of B.C. might be the best choice under such circumstances.

“Come on, sweetie. Let me help you get dressed.” Is there anything wrong with this statement?

  • Ask yourself if referring to someone under your care as “sweetie” is dignified and respectful.
  • Do you talk to your parents that way?
  • Most care staff would say that using endearments like “sweetie,” “dear,” “honey,” or “mama” is not done with bad intentions. They want to be nurturing, which is a commendable intention. But these terms are likely not appropriate under the circumstances.
  • What are other ways that you can be nurturing, yet respectful of the person’s dignity?

Would you say Dawn is providing person-centred care? Please explain why you answered the way you did.

  • This is not person-centred care.
  • Dawn does not speak to Mr. Peterson; she talks about him to the HCA, as if he was not there.
  • Just because he hasn’t participated in the past does not mean that he can’t change his mind and decide to participate today. Dawn is disregarding Mr. Peterson’s potential to engage socially.

How can you provide choices to the person who appears unable to choose? Why is this important?

  • Choice is a key component of personal agency; we are able to make choices for ourselves as adults. Removing any sense of choice from the person with dementia robs them of their independence.
  • You can incorporate the values, beliefs, cultural, and spiritual backgrounds of people with dementia and their families into the planning and delivery of care.
  • You can recognize that dementia does not diminish a person. Rather, it changes the person’s capacity to interact with their environment.
  • As dementia progresses and it becomes increasingly difficult to obtain fully informed consent from people with dementia, it is still possible to involve them in the decision-making process to some extent. Keep them informed and find out from their family, representative, or temporary decision-maker what their preferences are.
  • Respect dissent. This is often expressed through behaviour, like turning their head away, biting, pushing or walking away.
  • Frame your words and actions in “choice” language, so even if you really are only offering one choice, it still appears to be a choice and not an imposition.

Download Discussion Guide: Person-Centred Care in Practice [PDF].

Strategies that Focus on Professional Approaches to Practice

1. Discussion on Mental Illness

Invite students, individually, to reflect on the following questions:

  • What are your concerns or fears in relation to people experiencing mental illness? What has caused you to have these concerns?
  • Do you have any friends or family members who have had experience with mental illness? If so, how has this influenced your feelings about mental health?
  • Do you think you would enjoy working with individuals with mental illness? On what do you base your response to this question?

Invite students to form small discussion groups to discuss how the caregiver role, whether in the community or a facility, would be different when the client is experiencing a mental health disorder as opposed to a physical health challenge.

What personal and professional caregiver characteristics would be most valuable when working with individuals with mental illness? Encourage them to consider characteristics related to:

  • Personality/temperament
  • Knowledge about mental health
  • Perceptions of people with mental health disorders
  • Ability to form relationships with clients
  • Need for control
  • Ability to work with other health team members
  • Ability to interact with family members
  • Other characteristics that seem important

What legal and ethical issues would be particularly important to be aware of when working with clients experiencing mental illness?

2. Addressing Myths and Stigmas: Promoting Person-Centred Language

As a homework assignment, have students review relevant textbook, online material,[4][5] or other course information describing myth and stigma associated with dementia and mental health.

  1. In class, discuss language and terms that contribute to myth and stigma.
  2. Using the STUDENT HANDOUT below, have students work in partners or small groups and consider the following questions for each scenario:
    1. How does the language and/or actions presented in the scenario contribute to myth and stigma associated with dementia or mental health disorders?
    2. What do you think your immediate reaction to this situation would be?
    3. How could you use assertive communication to respond to the situation?
  3. After coming back together as a class, discuss possible responses to each situation, such as checking the behaviour immediately, paraphrasing back using person-centred language, gently explaining why the language is not appropriate, providing an alternative communication strategy, etc.

Scenarios: Addressing Myths and Stigmas – Promoting Person-Centred Language

DIRECTIONS: Working in partners, read the scenarios and consider the following questions. Prepare to share your answers with the larger group:

  1. How does the language and/or actions presented in the scenario contribute to myth and stigma associated with dementia or mental health disorders?
  2. What do you think your immediate reaction to this situation would be?
  3. How could you use assertive communication to respond to the situation?

You are an HCA working in an acute care setting. Mr. Edwards, a 72-year-old man diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, has been admitted to the unit following a hip fracture. One of your colleagues has limited experience working with people who have dementia; you notice he tends to talk “over” Mr. Edwards instead of including him in conversations. He also uses terms such as “senile” and “demented” when referring to Mr. Edwards.

You are an HCA program graduate who has recently been hired at a residential care facility. When working with your new colleague, Sharon, you notice that she refers to the number of “feeders” that she will be assisting during lunch.

You are an HCA working in an assisted living home. You have been assigned to mentor John, who is an HCA student from a local college. One day while working with John, he refers to Betsy Smith, a client who is living with schizophrenia, as “the schizophrenic.”

You are an HCA student working at your first clinical placement. One day, while working with a staff member, you refer to the client you are working with as a past “user.” The staff member looks alarmed and rebukes you quite sharply for using this term. 

Download Student Handout: Scenarios: Addressing Myths and Stigmas – Promoting Person-Centred Language [PDF].

Suggested Course Assessments

The course learning outcomes may be assessed by the following tasks:

  1. One or more quizzes or examinations that pertain to knowledge of common cognitive or mental health challenges and principles of crisis intervention (Learning Outcomes #1, #2, and #3).
  2. A written assignment, that students will complete individually, based on interactions with a client with cognitive changes (see STUDENT HANDOUT below) (Learning Outcome #1).
  3. Supporting Clients with Dementia or a Mental Health Disorder: Best Practices for HCAs – Group Presentation. Students can research and complete this project in small groups. They should be expected to put together visual material (e.g., a poster or a PowerPoint) and a short written handout to give to the class. The focus should be on how to best communicate with and care for clients with dementia or mental health disorders. The online resources provided for this course will be particularly useful in preparing for this assignment (Learning Outcome #1 and #2). Refer to Section 5: Sample Evaluation Tools.
  4. An assignment where students, working in small groups, research a mental health disorder and present their findings to the class. Each group should be prepared to discuss the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive changes that a person dealing with the particular mental health disorder might face. Each group should also identify community resources and be prepared to discuss the HCA role in supporting individuals experiencing mental health disorders (Learning Outcome #2).

Responding to an Individual Experiencing Cognitive Challenges


  • To help you apply what you have learned in this course to your work with individuals experiencing cognitive challenges.
  • To assist you to identify the consequences of your communications, actions, and interactions.
  • To help you to increase your effectiveness in working with individuals experiencing cognitive challenges.


Choose two separate interactions you have had with individuals experiencing cognitive challenges. Briefly document each interaction, what happened, and how you responded. You may use a table like the one below to document your two interactions.

For each interaction that you document, write your reflections on the incident using a format that’s similar to the outline below and identify what you have learned. This will assist you in future to increase your effectiveness with individuals experiencing cognitive challenges.

EXAMPLE: Documentation of Interactions
Situation My response Consequences of my actions Effectiveness of my actions What the client’s behaviour may have been communicating
Mrs. S. kept asking me over and over where she was and when her husband would be coming to get her. I told her I had already answered her question three times in the past half hour and the answer was still the same. I also reminded her that her husband had died several years ago. Mrs. S. looked distraught and anxious, wringing her hands and pacing about the hallway. Not very because Mrs. S. seemed even more anxious and confused. She kept asking the same question to whomever she encountered. I’m feeling lost. I want to see someone I recognize who will care for me.
Mr. T. kept wiping the kitchen counter over and over again, and it didn’t seem like he was going to
I asked Mr. T. why he kept wiping the counter. Mr. T. looked confused and troubled and continued to wipe the counter for several more minutes. Not very since he kept wiping the counter and seemed even more agitated. Need to expend nervous energy. Unable to stop the behaviour on his own.

For each interaction identify:

  • Why your response was or was not effective. How did you know it was effective or not effective?
  • Make a list of other responses you might have made that would be effective in the situation. Think of as many ideas as you can. Base your suggestions on what you’ve learned in this course and information you have gained from other health team members or other sources.
  • How does knowledge of the person as a unique individual – with a past, present, and future – help you to be more effective when caring for clients experiencing cognitive challenges?
  • Identify what you have learned from these two interactions that will help you be more effective when working with individuals experiencing cognitive challenges.

Download Student Handout: Responding to an Individual Experiencing Cognitive Challenges [PDF].

Resources for Healing 2: Caring for Individuals Experiencing Cognitive and Mental Health Challenges

Online Resources

Alzheimer’s Association. (2021). Aggression and anger. https://www.alz.org/help-support/caregiving/stages-behaviors/agression-anger

Alzheimer’s Association. (2021). How the brain works: A tour of how the mind works. https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-alzheimers/brain_tour

Alzheimer Society. (2019). Ambiguous loss and grief in dementia: A resource for individuals and families. https://alzheimer.ca/sites/default/files/documents/ambiguous-loss-and-grief_for-individuals-and-families.pdf

Alzheimer Society. (n.d.). Communicating with people living with dementia. https://alzheimer.ca/en/help-support/i-have-friend-or-family-member-who-lives-dementia/communicating-people-living-dementia

Alzheimer Society. (n.d.) Communication challenges and helpful strategies. https://alzheimer.ca/en/help-support/im-living-dementia/managing-changes-your-abilities/communication-challenges-helpful

Alzheimer Society. (2011). Guidelines for care: Person-centred care of people living with dementia in care homes. https://alzheimer.ca/sites/default/files/files/national/culture-change/culture_change_framework_e.pdf

Alzheimer Society. (2017). Person-centred language guidelines. https://alzheimer.ca/sites/default/files/documents/Person-centred-language-guidelines_Alzheimer-Society.pdf

Alzheimer Society. (2017). Providing person-centred care. https://alzheimer.ca/en/help-support/im-healthcare-provider/providing-person-centred-care

Alzheimer’s Society. (n.d.). Restlessness or “sundowning.” http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/bc/Living-with-dementia/Caring-for-someone/Understanding-symptoms/Sundowning

Alzheimer Society. (2019). Supporting clients through ambiguous loss and grief. Strategies for healthcare providers. https://alzheimer.ca/sites/default/files/documents/Ambiguous%20Loss%20Health%20Provider%20En-20-FINAL-MD_1.pdf

Alzheimer Society. (2018). Understanding genetics and Alzheimer’s disease. https://alzheimer.ca/sites/default/files/documents/research_understanding-genetics-and-alzheimers-disease.pdf

Alzheimer Society. (2017). Using person-centred language. https://alzheimer.ca/en/take-action/become-dementia-friendly/using-person-centred-language

Alzheimer Society British Columbia. https://alzheimer.ca/bc/en

Alzheimer Society Canada. https://alzheimer.ca/en

B.C. Mental Health and Substance Use Services. (2020). Trauma-informed practice. http://www.bcmhsus.ca/health-professionals/clinical-professional-resources/trauma-informed-practice

B.C. Provincial Mental Health and Substance Use Planning Council. (2013, May). Trauma-informed practice guide. https://bccewh.bc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/2013_TIP-Guide.pdf

B.C. Schizophrenia Society. https://www.bcss.org/

Beattle, E. (2015). BCcampus leads the collaborative development of new and open elder abuse prevention, detection and response resources. https://bccampus.ca/2015/10/20/bccampus-leads-the-collaborative-development-of-new-and-open-elder-abuse-resources/

Canadian Alliance on Mental Illness and Mental Health. https://www.camimh.ca/

Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention. http://suicideprevention.ca/

Canadian Coalition for Senior’s Mental Health. https://ccsmh.ca/

Canadian Mental Health Association. http://www.cmha.ca/

Canadian Mental Health Association: Here to help. (2014). Learn about Alzheimer’s disease [Information sheet]. https://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/sites/default/files/alzheimers-disease.pdf

Canadian Mental Health Association. (2016). Myths about mental illness. http://www.cmha.ca/mental_health/myths-about-mental-illness/

Carreiro, D. (2013, October 15). Suicide rates climb among elderly in Canada. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/suicide-rates-climb-among-elderly-in-canada-1.2054402

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. (2020). Trauma. https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-illness-and-addiction-index/trauma

Chan, P. (2011). Clarifying the confusion about confusion: Current practices in managing geriatric delirium. BCMJ, 53(8). https://bcmj.org/articles/clarifying-confusion-about-confusion-current-practices-managing-geriatric-delirium

Dementia.org. (2016). Dementia grief – Part 3: The three stages. https://www.dementia.org/dementia-grief-3-stages

Government of British Columbia. (n.d.). Protection from elder abuse and neglect. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/family-social-supports/seniors/health-safety/protection-from-elder-abuse-and-neglect

Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Health. (2012, October 25). Best practice guideline for accommodating and managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in residential care. A person-centered interdisciplinary approach. https://www.health.gov.bc.ca/library/publications/year/2012/bpsd-guideline.pdf

HealthLinkBC. (2019). Dementia, British Columbia specific information. https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/uf4984

HealthLinkBC. (2019). Dementia: Helping a person avoid confusion. http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=hw135788

HealthLinkBC. (2019). Elder abuse, British Columbia specific information. http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=aa60933spec

HealthLinkBC. (2018). Preventing abuse and neglect of older adults. https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthlinkbc-files/prevent-abuse-older-adults

Here to Help. (2019). Resource library. http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/self-help-resources

Island Health. (2021). Mental health and substance use resources and education. https://www.islandhealth.ca/learn-about-health/mental-health/mental-health-substance-use-resources-education

Lidhran, G. (2016). OP-ED: Exploring dementia villages and other care models in Canada. SafeCare B.C. http://safecarebc.ca/op-ed-exploring-dementia-villages-and-other-care-models-in-canada

MedicineNet. (2016). What are phobias? Agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, other fears. https://www.medicinenet.com/phobias_picture_slideshow/article.htm

Mental Health ., RSBC 1996, c 288. http://www.bclaws.ca/civix/document/id/complete/statreg/96288_01

Mental Health Commission of Canada. http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/

Mood Disorders Society of Canada. https://mdsc.ca/

National Institute on Aging. (2019). Assessing risk for Alzheimer’s disease. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/assessing-risk-alzheimers-disease

Office of the Seniors Advocate British Columbia. (2016, June). Resident to resident aggression in B.C. care homes. https://www.seniorsadvocatebc.ca/app/uploads/sites/4/2016/06/SA-ResidentToResidentAggressionReview-2016.pdf

PIECES. (n.d.). PIECES. Learning and development model. http://www.piecescanada.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1&Itemid=3

Schizophrenia Society of Canada. http://www.schizophrenia.ca

Seniors First B.C. http://seniorsfirstbc.ca/
(Formerly the B.C. Centre for Elder Advocacy & Support)

Simon Fraser University, Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction. http://www.sfu.ca/content/sfu/carmha.html

Smith, M. (2020). Caregiver stress and burnout. HelpGuide. https://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/caregiver-stress-and-burnout.htm

STA Health Care Communications. (n.d.). Canadian Review of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. http://www.stacommunications.com/adreview.html

University of Waterloo, Murray Alzheimer Research and Education Program. https://uwaterloo.ca/murray-alzheimer-research-and-education-program/

Vancouver Coastal Health. (2020). First Nations ReAct. http://www.vch.ca/Pages/First-Nations-ReAct0131-6129.aspx?res_id=1238

Validation Training Institute Inc. (n.d.). Getting started: Validation to suit your needs. https://vfvalidation.org/get-started/validation-to-suit-your-needs/#ui00c2e24|tab2

Wincer. P. (2020, November 26). What caring for my mum taught me about caring for my son. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/stories-55057440

Wong, S., Gilmour, H. & Ramage-Morin, P. L. (2016). Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in Canada. Health Reports, 27(5), 11–16. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2016005/article/14613-eng.pdf

WorkSafeBC. (2010). Dementia: Understanding risks and preventing violence. https://www.worksafebc.com/en/resources/health-safety/books-guides/dementia-understanding-risks-and-preventing-violence?lang=en

WorkSafeBC. (n.d.) Working with people with dementia. https://www.worksafebc.com/en/health-safety/industries/health-care-social-services/topics/working-with-people-with-dementia

Online Videos

AboutAlzOrg. (2010, October 26). What is Alzheimer’s disease [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_kO6c2NfmE

Alila Medical Media. (2014, September 10). Neuroscience basics: Human brain anatomy and lateralization of brain function, 3D animation [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/owFnH01SD-s

Alzheimer’s Australia VIC. (2015, June 1). Purposeful activities for dementia: Alzheimer’s Australia VIC [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Y6LCpL8HUU

Animated Alzheimer’s Patient. (2021, January 27). Understanding Alzheimer’s disease [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFBTlHfV8Iw

Applewhite, A. (2017, April). Let’s end ageism [Video]. TED2017. https://www.ted.com/talks/ashton_applewhite_let_s_end_ageism

Bartlet, S. & LeRose, M. (2007). Beyond memory: A documentary about dementia [Film]. National Film Board of Canada. https://www.nfb.ca/film/beyond-memory-a-documentary-about-dementia/

Caregiver Stress. (2013, May 17). Family caregiver stress relief [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaonoH1XqNI

CBC News: The National. (2015, October 11). Home recreates past for dementia patients [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rOYmxIWzJI

CBC News: The National. (2015, August 4). Seniors home brings young and old together [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3LGSfgOi9UU

CNN. (2014, June 9). Anderson Cooper tries a schizophrenic simulator [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yL9UJVtgPZY

Creative Connections. (2016, May 17). Delirium awareness video [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPfZgBmcQB8

Crime Beat TV. (2012, August 23). 16×9. The real truth: Senior’s home abuse caught on camera [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIAiMylHT-k

Crime Beat TV. (2014, April 28). Full story: Dementia – The unspooling mind [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkvIZaSfUxc

Dementia Careblazers. (2018, February 4). 5 surprising facts about dementia you may not know [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwtMU5mwGJ4

Dementia Careblazers. (2018, January 28). What are the different stages of dementia? The 3 stage and the 7 stage models explained [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/sGjuX8WHJLk

Education for Rural and Underserved Communities. (2016, April 8). Persons with dementia: Skills for addressing challenging behaviors [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgVMKEnkvHo

havethattalk. (2017, May 3). Reducing stigma [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eio-I8PbdDk

Kujath, J. (2017, November 16). Understanding cycles of abuse [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/0Q0-Eps1ThE

Martin, G. (2015, June 22). How to approach residents with behaviors [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xylQt7TxDwo

Memorybridge. (2009, May 26). Gladys Wilson and Naomi Feil [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrZXz10FcVM

Mental Health at Work. (2016, July 1). What is mental health? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0zJGDokyWQ4

Miller, B. (2015, March). What really matters at the end of life [Video]. TED2015. https://www.ted.com/talks/bj_miller_what_really_matters_at_the_end_of_life

Mmlearn. (2018, September 28). How to talk to someone with dementia: Diane Waugh [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilickabmjww

Music and Memory. (2011, November 18). Man in nursing home reacts to music from his era [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/fyZQf0p73QM

My Alzheimer’s Story. (2015, August 15). 10 ways to de-escalate a crisis with Teepa Snow [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xNznZ2MnV3I

Programs for Elderly. (n.d.). Documentary library [Documentary films available as videos]. http://www.programsforelderly.com/index-documentaries-subpage.php

SafeCare B.C. (2019, February 5). Dementia care teams: Families and continuing care providers working together [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=VxDopCVswmg

Saks, E. (2012, June). A tale of mental illness from the inside [Video]. TEDGlobal2012. https://www.ted.com/talks/elyn_saks_seeing_mental_illness

Senior Helper National. (2013, July 23). Teepa Snow discusses the ten early signs of dementia [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqmqC-702Yg

Seniors First B.C. (n.d.). Finding a future for Ellen [Video]. http://seniorsfirstbc.ca/resources/video/finding-a-future-for-ellen/

Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE). (2011, May 13). Dementia: End of life care [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQXtC3HdCIc

TED. (2017, May 19). What can you do to prevent Alzheimer’s disease: Lisa Genova [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=twG4mr6Jov0

TED-Ed. (2016, June 9). Why do our bodies age? Monica Menesini [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GASaqPv0t0g

TEDx Talks. (2012, October 9). The power of addiction and the addiction of power: Gabor Maté at TEDxRio=20 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66cYcSak6nE

TEDx Talks. (2017, March 27). I am not a monster: Schizophrenia – Cecilia McGough. TEDxPSU [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbagFzcyNiM

Teepa Snow’s Positive Approach to Care. (2017, April 29). Challenging behavior [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZpXeefZ2jAM

Teepa Snow’s Positive Approach to Care. (2019, May 15). Dementia dare – How to redirect hallucinations with Teepa Snow of Positive Approach to Care [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3s0ktYUIn0Y

Therapist Aid. (2014, September 19). How to do deep breathing [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/EYQsRBNYdPk

University of Derby Online Learning. (2015, July 10). Creating a culture of compassion for dementia patients in our society [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIYY4nNHkXo

Validation Theory Institute. (2017, March 13). What is validation – Interview by Naomi Feil [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejVqVKWnDOE

Online Learning Tools

The following materials are ready for use in the classroom. A brief description and estimated time to complete each activity is included for each.

Alzheimer’s Society. (n.d.). Video resources. https://alzheimer.ca/en/help-support/dementia-resources/video-resources#The_Alzheimer_Journey

  • A series of 12 video resources.

Canadian Mental Health Association. (n.d.). Myths about mental illness. http://www.cmha.ca/mental_health/myths-about-mental-illness/

  • A list of 10 common myths and facts about mental illness, along with a brief discussion about what we can do to challenge attitudes and behaviours related to mental illness (15–20 minutes).

Canadian Virtual Hospice. (n.d.). My grief.ca: Because losing someone is hard…. https://www.mygrief.ca/

  • Nine modules about grief, loss, caring for yourself, and where to find help.

Home Instead Senior Care. (2017). Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias CARE: Changing aging through research and education. http://www.helpforalzheimersfamilies.com/alzheimers-dementia-education/

  • A series of online modules that can be used to understand dementia. Each session can be completed within 5–15 minutes.

Island Health. (n.d.). Dementia video series: Practical advice from caregivers, for caregivers. https://www.islandhealth.ca/learn-about-health/seniors/dementia-video-series

  • A variety of videos and resources about dementia and caregiving (approximately 10 minutes per video).

Province of British Columbia. (2015). Elder abuse reduction curricular resource. BCcampus. http://solr.bccampus.ca:8001/bcc/items/8d5b3363-396e-4749-bf18-0590a75c9e6b/1/

  • An instructor’s guide and a presentation for teaching core competencies in elder abuse prevention, detection, and response in British Columbia. Within the guide, there are activities, assignments, online video links, readings and evaluation questions, as well as references to additional resources for some topic areas.

PsychHub. (2021). Videos. https://psychhub.com/videos/

  • A series of over 100 videos about mental health.

Rossato-Bennett, M., McDougald, A., Scully, R. K., Cohen, D., Sacks, O., McFerrin, B., Shur, I. (2014). Alive inside: A story of music and memory. MVD Visual (Film). Available on Netflix.

  • This film can be used as part of a larger discussion on the important of person-centred care, dementia, and music (77 minutes).

Web Services. (2012). Delirium Videos [Videos]. https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=delirium&&view=detail&mid=26A860D4F26C551495B226A860D4F26C551495B2&FORM=VRDGAR

  • A series of videos about delirium.

WorkSafeBC. (2013). Two-person care needs a planned approach [Video]. https://www.worksafebc.com/en/resources/health-safety/videos/two-person-care-needs-a-planned-approach

  • A video and discussion guide about how planning two-person care can reduce risk (10–15 minutes).

WorkSafeBC. (2009). Working with dementia: Safe work practices for caregivers [Videos]. https://www.worksafebc.com/en/resources/health-safety/videos/working-with-dementia-safe-work-practices-for-caregivers/introduction?lang=en

  • A series of six videos and a discussion guide describing how to care for people with dementia (10–15 minutes per video).

  1. The following resource could also be referenced: Alzheimer Society of B.C. (n.d.). Communicating with people living with dementia. http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/bc/Living-with-dementia/Ways-to-communicate
  2. Copyright © 2017, Alzheimer Society of B.C. This is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0)
  3. Copyright © 2017, Alzheimer Society of B.C. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).
  4. Alzheimer Society of Canada (2017). Person-centred language guidelines. https://alzheimer.ca/sites/default/files/documents/culture_exec_summary_e.pdf
  5. Heretohelp (2014). Stigma and discrimination around mental health and substance use problems. http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/factsheet/stigma-and-discrimination-around-mental-health-and-substance-use- problems