Health 1: Interpersonal Communication

Suggested Learning Strategies

Strategies that Focus on Caring

1. Discussion about Effective Interpersonal Communication

Invite students to form small groups to discuss the following:

Think of a time when you really felt comfortable with another person and you were both able to talk freely. What were some of the characteristics of that interaction? Have the groups share their responses with the whole class.

From these discussions, the class can develop a list of the characteristics of effective interpersonal communication which will likely include points such as:

  • There is a feeling of trust between the people involved.
  • There is a sense that the two people involved understand each other and what each is experiencing.
  • Both individuals feel that the other likes or respects them.
  • Often the two people have similar values, ideas, and experiences.

All effective interpersonal communications have one thing in common: each person involved feels valued, respected, and worthwhile.

Based on this understanding of effective interpersonal communication, ask students to discuss some examples of communication approaches they have experienced that they found to be particularly unpleasant, even dehumanizing. Some examples might include:

  • Moralizing, judging, or blaming
  • Threatening
  • Ordering or commanding
  • Shaming
  • Stereotyping
  • Ignoring

Invite students to think of times when they may have used these approaches and the outcomes of these responses. Why do we sometimes use dehumanizing communication?

Application to the workplace: Invite students to discuss how approaches to elderly clients might inadvertently be dehumanizing (ageism). What are some better choices?

2. Discussion about Caring

Questions that could be used to elicit discussion about caring:

  • How are self-caring and self-esteem interrelated? Why is it so difficult to care for oneself? In what ways might a person with healthy self-esteem be a more effective care provider?
  • What is the difference between task-oriented touching and caring touch in a health care environment? In your caregiving role, what are some ways you might appropriately show caring through touch? What are some other non-verbal behaviours you might use to exhibit caring?
  • Consider the following statement: When we make an effort to truly understand the other person, we are exhibiting caring. Do you agree with this statement? How is this related to the interpersonal communications skills you have learned in this course?
  • What are some potential challenges to caring communication in an acute care setting or an acute situation? For example:
    • Not being in the client’s usual home situation may create more barriers, such as unfamiliar sights and sounds.
    • An acute illness may cause fear and increased need for empathetic communications skills.
    • Increased urgency of caregiver tasks may interfere with active listening.
    • A changing client condition requiring immediate action may make caring communication more of a challenge in the moment.
  • Why is assertiveness on the part of the caregiver important to the care of the client? Why is it important and caring for an HCA to say “no” sometimes? How is self-respect related to one’s ability to act assertively? For example, an HCA may be asked to work outside of their role, possibly putting themselves and/or the client at risk. Saying “no” does not have to be absolute. Rather, it could be phrased in the following manner: “I am not comfortable with this and would like to seek further information,” or “I have not been trained to do this task (or do the task in this way).”

3. Unfolding Case Study: Caring for Peter Schulz

  1. Whole Class Review
    • In class, review the characteristics of effective communication and verbal and non-verbal communication. Also consider how cultural and generational differences may impact communication.
  2. Small Group Activity
    • Divide the class into small groups and have the students read the following conversation between Peter and his wife, Eve. Ask the groups to make a list of the communication techniques that Eve uses to connect with Peter during the conversation and be prepared to share their findings with the larger group. See STUDENT HANDOUT below.
  3. Whole Class Debrief
    • Come back together as a class and have each group report on the communication techniques that were used, highlighting any that were not identified. Ask the students to consider how and why this conversation may have been difficult for Eve and discuss how the strategies she used led to positive outcomes. Discuss the role of the HCA in ensuring effective communication with clients.
    • Note: Students could be instructed to add the scenario or notes to the client profile.

STUDENT HANDOUT
Unfolding Case Study: Caring for Peter Schultz
Evaluating Communication Techniques

DIRECTIONS: Read the following conversation between Peter and his wife, Eve. Make a list of the communication techniques that Eve uses to connect with Peter during the conversation and then prepare to share your findings with the larger group.

I found Peter sitting alone on the loveseat just around the corner from the nurses’ station, so I sat down beside him. A couple of HCAs were passing us once in a while as they tended to their duties. Peter didn’t speak and neither did I for quite some time. Then he said, “Do you think you could arrange a wedding for some time in the fall?”

“Oh, who is getting married?”

“I am.”

“Who are you going to marry?”

“The girl next door.”

“Really? What is her name?”

“I don’t remember.”

“Is it Jenny?”

“Yes, that’s her name.”

Aha! Jenny lived across the road from Peter when he was a kid. “You can’t marry her. She is already married.”

He gave me a look of incredulity, but said nothing. A few minutes of silence. Then he said, “Well, do you think you can arrange a wedding for some time in the fall?”

“Peter, how old are you?”

“I am 15 in about half a year.”

“I really think you are too young to get married. A girl might be able to handle it, but it’s really much too young for a man to marry.”

“I’d really like your opinion, though. Do you think she would make a good farmer’s wife?”

“Yes, I do. I’m sure she would make an excellent farmer’s wife. She has lived on a farm all her life, and I’m sure she knows exactly how to be a good farmer’s wife, but I still feel you are both too young to be getting married.”

More silence. “Well, I’d like you to try to arrange a wedding for the fall.”

“But, Peter, do you have a farm?”

“No, I don’t.”

“Well, how can you think of getting married if you don’t have a farm? You would have to live with your parents. That wouldn’t be fair to Jenny.”

He thought that over for a while. “You’re right. I guess I’d better concentrate on getting a farm first.”

Who did Peter think I was as he asked for my opinion? Could it have been his mother or perhaps his elder sister? Soon the snack cart came along. We each enjoyed a cup of coffee and a cookie. I kissed him goodbye and went home smiling, because Jenny was still not married when Peter married me.

Metzger, Z.B. (2010). The Last Lap of the Long Run, Addendum to “On the Long Run”: An Account of our Travels with Dementia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Evaluating Communication Techniques [PDF].

Strategies that Focus on Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making

1. Classroom Debate Activity

Invite students to engage in a debate about a topic discussed in this course. Divide the class into small groups of three to five students and assign two groups to each of the topics outlined; one group will take a pro position towards the topic and the other group will take a con position.

Ask each group to identify two to three reasons to support the position they have been assigned. Then, with the instructor acting as the moderator, the two groups will engage in a debate using the following structure:

  1. Each group provides a brief introduction to their position on the topic.
  2. In alternating format, the two groups present the two or three reasons identified to support their position.
  3. Each group provides a brief closing statement.

After the debate has concluded, briefly come together as a larger group and summarize the positions that were presented. Invite feedback from the students not involved in the debate and discuss further considerations. Alternate groups until each student has participated in a debate.

Debate topics for Health 1: Interpersonal Communication.

  1. Verbal communication is more important than non-verbal communication.
  2. Cell phones should not be used in the workplace.
  3. It is ok to talk about your clinical experience on social media.
  4. It is beneficial for people to talk about their feelings.
  5. Talking to people who are upset is not the job of the HCA.
  6. Disagreement leads to conflict in the workplace.

2. Problem-Solving Exercise

When students are learning about conflict resolution, it might be helpful for them to grasp how a problem-solving process might be applied even (and possibly especially) in situations of heightened emotions.

Using one or more scenarios taken either from clinical practice or personal experience, invite students to work in small groups to analyze the problem, suggest alternative choices, determine the best outcome, and suggest how it will be evaluated.

The STUDENT HANDOUT below could be used to direct this discussion.

STUDENT HANDOUT
Problem-Solving Exercise: Resolving Conflicts

DIRECTIONS: Consider the following problem/dilemma:

Carol and Jason, both in their early 30s, have been living together for less than a year. They have a lot in common and enjoy each other’s company – going to hockey games and movies together, skiing in the mountains in the winter and hiking in the summer. They share responsibilities around the apartment and each contributes equally to the costs.

A conflict has arisen, however, that is causing considerable strife in their relationship. Jason has a small group of buddies that he has socialized with since high school. Carol has made it clear that she does not want to socialize with these friends (all guys). She refers to them as “losers” and “adolescents.” Jason is devoted to his friends and enjoys the crazy and comfortable camaraderie he experiences when he is with them.

Both Carol and Jason had thought that their relationship had potential to blossom into a long-term commitment, even marriage. This conflict is causing them both to reconsider.

  1. Define the Conflict
    • Facts:
      • What is the relevant information here? How might Carol get more information on the rewards that Jason gets from these friends? How can Jason discover exactly what Carol doesn’t like about these friends?
    • Feelings:
      • How might Carol feel when Jason goes out with his buddies?
      • How might Jason feel when Carol refuses to spend time with his buddies?
    • Negative outcome:
      • How might this relationship deteriorate if Jason continues to spend time with his buddies?
      • How might the relationship deteriorate if Carol continues to comment negatively about these friends?
    • Positive benefits:
      • What opportunities might be gained if Jason continues to see these friends without Carol?
      • What is the best thing that could happen?

    Is there further information you need to adequately understand this problem? If so, what is it and where would you get this information?

  2. Examine Possible Solutions
    • Based on your discussion, consider as many possible solutions as you can to this conflict. Try to think of obvious and not-so-obvious alternatives. For each one, consider the positive and negative outcomes – for both Carol and Jason.
      Options Positive Consequences Negative Consequences
  3. Based on your analysis, what is the best choice for Carol and Jason at this time? Some questions to consider: Is this a win-win solution (i.e., do both partners gain) or, alternately, are the losses shared? Is the solution worth the costs to each person and/or to their relationship? Are the costs and rewards evenly distributed between both partners? Might other solutions be more effective?
  4. Evaluate the Solution: What questions would you want to ask to find out if the solution was, in fact, successful?
  5. Self-reflection: Was this a new way for you to come to a decision in a conflict situation? How did it feel to you? What did you learn from the process?

© Province of British Columbia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Problem-Solving Exercise: Resolving Conflicts [PDF].

3. Case Study: Interprofessional Communication

The following case study is used with permission of Island Health[1]

Barbara is an HCA who has been working on the general medicine unit for the past year. Today she is being asked to mentor David, a newly hired HCA. David has been working as a casual in residential care and will be working as a casual HCA on Barbara’s medical unit, as well. Today is David’s first mentorship time with Barbara.

Just as Barbara and David are about to get Mr. Roberts out of bed, Barbara is called by the LPN to offer assistance to Mrs. Jones in the next room. When she returns to Mr. Roberts’ room, she sees David struggling to get Mr. Roberts out of bed. David identifies that the physiotherapy assistant who just popped in the room a few moments ago stated that Mr. Roberts can get out of bed on his own.

Mr. Roberts is an ALC patient and has been on the medical unit for the past 30 days and is well-known to Barbara. A second patient on this unit, also a Mr. Roberts, had been admitted for pneumonia several days ago and is awaiting his discharge.

Discussion Questions:

  1. How might Barbara approach David about his decision to get Mr. Roberts out of bed?
  2. What recommendations should Barbara suggest to David about his future decision-making processes related to patient care?
  3. What other team members should be made aware of this situation?
  4. Identify two ways that interprofessional communication could be improved in this scenario.

Strategies that Focus on Professional Approaches to Practice

A professional approach to practice presupposes an ability to “tune in” and respond appropriately to clients in a variety of situations.

1. Provincial Violence Prevention Curriculum – E-Learning Module Completion

Recognized HCA Program educators are asked to build specific learning opportunities into their programs and confirm students complete the Provincial Violence Prevention e-modules prior to the start of their practice education placements. The curriculum was developed to fill a need for effective, recommended, and provincially recognized violence prevention training. After completing this curriculum, HCA students will have received education and tools to prevent, defuse, and/or deal with potentially violent situations. Given the provincial commitment to health and safety of workers and reducing the risk of violence, an active partnership with health program educators is essential.

The Provincial Violence Prevention curriculum is available online at LearningHub.

A quiz is embedded at the end of each module and students are then able to print their results to provide proof of completion.

The curriculum consists of eight e-learning modules and takes approximately 3.5 to 4 hours to complete. Modules include:

  • Module 1: Introduction to Violence Prevention
  • Module 2: Recognize Risks and Behaviours
  • Module 3: Assess and Plan Part 1 – Complete Point-of-Care Risk Assessments
  • Module 4: Assess and Plan Part 2 – Develop Behavioural Care Plans
  • Module 5: Respond to the Risk Part 1 – Perform De-escalation – Communication
  • Module 6: Respond to the Risk Part 2 – Perform De-escalation Strategies
  • Module 7: Respond to the Risk Part 3 – Determine When and How to Get Help
  • Module 8: Report and Communicate Post-Incident

2. Communication Skills Practise

Good communication skills are invaluable to the effective HCA and these skills need to be practised. Below are several approaches that are aimed at giving students opportunities to practise effective communication.

Practising non-verbal listening skills

Invite students to select partners to practise non-verbal listening skills. While one partner assumes the role of speaker, the other is the listener. The speaker can talk about anything, but a topic that elicits opinions or feelings is best. While the speaker is talking, the listener will practise excellent listening. For example:

  • Face the speaker.
  • Make eye contact whenever possible.
  • Lean slightly toward the speaker.
  • Maintain a relaxed, open posture.
  • Maintain a facial expression appropriate to the content.
  • Nod the head or use other non-verbal ways to indicate that the speaker is being heard.

After 5 or 10 minutes, the interaction stops and the partners change roles. Once both participants have had a chance at both roles, discussion should take place guided by the following:

  • What was it like for you to be a non-verbal listener?
  • Was it easy to listen to this intensely?
  • Was it hard to keep your mind from wandering?
  • What did you learn about the speaker’s opinions, feelings, and ideas?
  • What did you learn about yourself as a listener?
  • What was it like for you to be the speaker?
  • Did you feel that the other person was truly listening to you?
  • Was it helpful for you to clarify your own thoughts, opinions, or feelings?

Practising paraphrasing

Invite students to get into groups of three for a short discussion period. Each member of the group will take on one of these roles:

  • Listener
  • Speaker
  • Observer

The speaker can talk about anything, but may be helped by some suggested topics such as those below:

  • I think that the worst part about being a student is…
  • I think that the best part about coming back to school is…
  • What I enjoy most about my work is…
  • The reason I decided to take the HCA program is because…
  • The things that I am most concerned about in becoming an HCA is…

The process for each group will be as follows:

  1. The speaker makes a comment related to the chosen topic.
  2. The listener must paraphrase what the speaker has said in their own words and must do it to the speaker’s satisfaction. Once the speaker is satisfied that the listener has understood the meaning, then the listener is allowed to take on the speaker role and make a comment.
  3. The observer serves to make sure that the rules are being followed (i.e., the listener may not become the speaker until they have paraphrased the content of the communication to the satisfaction of the speaker).
  4. Take turns in each role.

Following this practice, invite the groups to discuss the difficulties they experienced trying to understand the other person and trying to be understood. Students should identify what they learned from this exercise about speaking and listening.

Practising empathic responding

Invite students to practise empathic responding in two real-life situations. Ask them to pick one person they don’t know well (e.g., a sales person in a store, a new client in the practice setting) and one person they do know well (e.g., a close friend or relative). Instruct the student to initiate a conversation with each person and attempt to tune in to what the other person is saying and what they seem to be feeling. Ask the student to attempt to respond empathically.

At the next class, discuss the following questions:

  • Was it difficult for you to really tune in to the other person? If so, why?
  • Did you find your mind wandering as the other person was speaking?
  • Did you feel ill at ease with the active listening and empathic responding? If yes, why do you think this felt uncomfortable for you? What might make it more comfortable?
  • How did the other person respond?
  • Reviewing what you said, how might you improve your responses in future interactions?
  • Did you feel that you had a better understanding of the other person when the conversation was over?
  • What did you learn about yourself as a result of this exercise?

Practising assertive communication

Ask students to work with a partner and use the scenarios on the STUDENT HANDOUT below to practise assertive communication skills.

STUDENT HANDOUT
Practising Assertive Communication

DIRECTIONS: With a partner, practise using assertive communication. Alternate so each student has an opportunity to practise in the HCA role. Debrief after each scenario.

Student 1 (Team leader):

“Hi                       . I’m going on my lunch break now. Janice will cover this team as team leader while I’m on my break, but she is really busy, so you can go ahead and change Mr. Grey’s IV bag when it’s empty. The new one is on the bedside table all ready to go.”

Student 2 (HCA):

You know this is not in your defined role as an HCA. What will you say to the team leader?


Student 1 (Client’s daughter):

“We are so appreciative of what you do for our father. Please accept this bottle of wine as a thank you from our family.”

Student 2 (HCA):

You know you are not allowed to accept gifts from clients. What will you say?


Student 1 (HCA student on clinical in a complex care facility):

“Excuse me, could you help me to transfer Mrs. Jones? I know that the policy is to always have two people when using the ceiling lift.”

Student 2 (HCA at a complex care facility – acting as a mentor):

“Just do it on your own. We don’t have time to have two of us use the lifts. This is the real world.”

Student 1 (HCA student on clinical in a complex care facility):

How would you respond?


Debrief Questions

  • How comfortable were you saying “no” to the request?
  • Did you use assertive vs. aggressive communication?
  • Consider what you might say if the other party (i.e., team leader, client’s daughter or HCA) said to “just do it anyway?”
    What are possible outcomes of not using assertive communication in these situations (e.g., risk to client and personal safety, etc.)?

© Province of British Columbia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Practising Assertive Communication [PDF].

3. Role Play Activity: Practising Effective Communication Skills

Students will apply effective communication strategies using the scenarios provided below. If available, students may enjoy completing this activity in the lab, with measures taken to simulate a real-life setting. The role play should be used towards the end of the course, as a consolidation activity.

  1. Activity Set Up
    • The instructor could first elicit or list effective communication strategies (e.g., non-verbal listening skills, paraphrasing, responding empathetically, etc.) on the whiteboard and have these displayed for student reference throughout the activity. To increase student engagement and comfort, the instructor could also model the activity (with two students) before tasking the students to work together.
  2. Role Play
    • Have students work in groups of three, with one student taking the role of the HCA, the second student taking the role of the client or co-worker, and the third student acting as an observer/recorder.
    • All three students should read the scenario provided on the STUDENT HANDOUT below. Following this, the student taking the role of the HCA should identify three communication skills that they will apply to the scenario. The students should then act out the scenario, with the student in the role of the HCA applying the communication skills they selected. The student acting as the observer should make notes about the perceived effectiveness of the communication skills that were used during the interaction.
  3. Small Group Discussion after Role Play
    • After each role play is complete, the group should discuss the following:
      • What important information was provided about the client and situation?
      • What three communications skills were applied and why were they chosen for this client and situation?
      • What did the observer/recorder notice about the communication strategies that were used?
      • What worked or didn’t work with the approach that was taken?
      • Were there any other approaches that could have been used?
  4. Whole Class Activity Debrief
    • Come together as a class to discuss the different communication strategies used for each scenario.

STUDENT HANDOUT
Scenarios: Practising Effective Communication Skills

DIRECTIONS: Read the scenarios you have been assigned. The student taking the role of the HCA should first take a few minutes to identify three communication skills that they will apply to the scenario. The students should then act out the scenario, with the student in the role of the HCA using the communication skills they selected. The student acting as the observer should make notes about the perceived effectiveness of the communication skills that were used during the interaction. After each role play, take a few minutes to complete the debrief discussion questions.

You are an HCA working for a home support agency. You have been asked to visit James Smith, a 72-year-old client with diabetes. When you arrive at his home, you notice that he has several candy wrappers at his bedside. You understand that you are required to report this to your supervisor and when you mention this, Mr. Smith becomes upset and shakes his cane at you.


You are an HCA working in a residential care home and have been assigned to care for Mrs. Chan, a 90-year-old lady who has just moved into the care home. Mrs. Chan emigrated from China and has been living in Canada for 10 years. When you enter her room, she is crying because she misses her daughter who is no longer able to care for her at home.


You are an HCA working in acute care. Today has been a challenging day for you; you are nearing the end of your shift and are feeling tired and impatient. Before you leave, the team leader asks you to check on Amit Singh. When you enter the client’s room, his daughter starts to complain about the care Mr. Singh has received from you that day.


You have recently been hired as an HCA in assisted living. Lately, you have noticed that one of the staff members, Jan, seems to be avoiding eye contact with you. One afternoon, when you greet her, Jan does not respond and walks away. A week later, another staff member tells you that Jan has been talking about you in the break room. How should you approach Jan about this situation?


You are an HCA student who has recently started your practicum placement in assisted living. It is flu season and two of the staff members have called in sick. You are helping Mr. Soong get ready for bed, and while he is in the bathroom, the LPN enters the room. “I’m swamped!” she says, setting down Mr. Soong’s medication. “Can you come and report back to me after Mr. Soong takes this Tylenol?” How will you respond to the LPN?


Today is the first day of your clinical placement in multi-level/complex care and you are assigned to shadow Ray, one of the HCAs. While you are assisting with Mr. Alveraz’s morning routine, Ray asks you to help him with the mechanical lift. You politely explain to Ray that you are not permitted to assist with lifts until your instructor has signed you off. Ray sighs loudly, and says, “Oh, brother. I’ve worked with your instructor before. Whenever she brings students here, everything takes twice as long!”


Debrief Discussion (after each role play):

After each role play has been completed, the group should discuss the following:

  • What important information was provided about the client and situation?
  • What three communications skills were applied and why were they chosen for this client/situation?
  • What did the observer/recorder notice about the communication strategies that were used?
  • What worked or didn’t work with the approach that was taken?
  • Were there any other approaches that could have been used?

© Province of British Columbia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Scenarios: Practising Effective Communication Skills [PDF].

Suggested Course Assessments

The course learning outcomes may be assessed by the following tasks:

  1. One or more quizzes or examinations that pertain to knowledge of the concepts and principles underlying effective interpersonal communication (Learning Outcome #1).
  2. An assignment in which students analyze one or more scenarios in which communication was ineffective. They will be asked to identify the barriers to effective communication displayed in the scenario and suggest alternative approaches that might have been more effective (Learning Outcomes #1 and #3).
  3. A written assignment in which students describe a situation in which they used communication skills they learned in this course. Students will describe what they did or said and analyze the outcome, with particular focus on self-reflection and self-appraisal (Learning Outcomes #2, #3 and #4).
  4. A written assignment in which students analyze a video-recorded interaction with a simulated client (other student or actor). Students will identify where they used specific communications skills (paraphrasing, empathic responses, perception checking, etc.) and/or where they could have used these skills to improve the interaction (Learning Outcomes #3 and #4).
  5. An assessment – or series of assessments – of students’ abilities to use the skills learned in the course. This may take place in the classroom where students conduct guided role-playing or it may be assessed as part of the lab or clinical experiences (Learning Outcome #3).

Resources for Health 1: Interpersonal Communications

Online Resources

Amareson, S. (2021, June). 27 conflict resolution skills to use with your team and your customers. Hubspot. https://blog.hubspot.com/service/conflict-resolution-skills

Benjamin, K. (2021, July 6). 6 Steps to conflict resolution in the workplace [Blog post] HR Daily Advisor. https://hrdailyadvisor.blr.com/2013/06/24/6-steps-to-conflict-resolution-in-the-workplace/

British Columbia College of Nurses and Midwives. (n.d.). Taking pictures of clients: Is it ever OK? https://www.bccnm.ca/LPN/learning/confidentiality/Pages/photos_clients.aspx

Pappas, C. (2015, June 6). 10 netiquette tips for online discussions. eLearning Industry. https://elearningindustry.com/10-netiquette-tips-online-discussions

Online Videos

Arnold, R. (2015, February 23). A world of gestures. Culture and nonverbal communication [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRo0gLWqKxI

Academic Skills, The University of Melbourne. (2017, April 5). Giving and receiving effective feedback [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zSEGZaI3fIY

Academy of Social Competency. (2018, April 10). Communication skills: Empathetic listening [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t685WM5R6aM

Ballerz Mixtape. (2020, January 10). Non-verbal communication – the documentary [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ym081ObRtPcClassic

Conversation Sparks. (2017, September 12). How to be a better listener: Paraphrasing [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjUCF_Z146c

Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are [Video]. TED Global. https://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_may_shape_who_you_are/up-next?language=en

The Distilled Man. (2018, April 15). How to be more assertive: 7 tips [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBkvWCmz2W4

EIRMC (Eastern Idaho Regional Medical Center). (2013, November 25). Say this, not that: Patient experience video [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r842Ylpa-nQ&t=267s

Fact and Figures. (2017, January 25). How to show respect in a conversation [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wVw4D5KvVM

GavProVideo. (2013, September 9). Communicate! – Paraphrasing with Denise Besson-Silva [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5JL2iizK2c0

Happify. (2016, January 19). How mindfulness empowers us: An animation narrated by Sharon Salzberg [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzKryaN44ss

Headly, J. (2013, May 22). It’s not about the nail [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4EDhdAHrOg

Health Chronicle. (2017, November 8). How laughter affects our health (and why it’s the best medicine) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DB_cSy0IIOg

Izzo, J. (2014). 5 words that will improve your ability to receive feedback [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BpPtjKpJZM

Kiawans, K. (2013, December 12). The importance of non-verbal cues as told by “Friends.” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvEci5Bjgd4

Kurtzberg, T. (2016, May 26). The unintended consequences of electronic communication [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rH6dMhf_P-w

Lyon, A. (2019, June 11). Communicate with empathy [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tyFJTtzYtY

McAdam, E. (2017, November 2). Empathetic listening: “The hairy eyebrow” and other essential communication skills [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGdgUP8XLwc

MindToolsVideos. (2014, August 19). The Johari window [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skKBI8wcMaA&feature=emb_logo

Richards, L. (2016, October 29). Conflict resolution techniques. A brief overview [Video]. YouTube. Teamworks. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJH0XV9jGIE

RSA. (2013, December 10). Brené Brown on empathy [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Evwgu369Jw&list=PLoLnm0ZhSqhCsQmLI6U4zzDQBleEeyH0t

Santilli, B. (2016, November 6). 5 ways to improve nonverbal communication/body language skills [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQh7t4WRHOk

Sesame Street. (2007, April 20). Ernie and Bert can’t communicate [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kjF4rKCR81o&feature=related

Sesame Street. (2007, September 29). Ernie and Bert “very important note” [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLgJtxCzDmM&feature=related

TEDx Talks. (2015, May 7). Interpersonal communication in the future world with Celine Fitzgerald [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlI2qDO0J6s

TEDx. Talks. (2015). Sheila Heen: How to use others’ feedback to learn and grow [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQNbaKkYk_Q

Van Edwards, V. (2020, January 14). Self-worth: 20 ideas to build your self-esteem [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDqik1-U3is

Winch, G. (2014, November). Why we all need to practice emotional first aid [Video]. TEDxLinnaeusUniversity. https://www.ted.com/talks/guy_winch_why_we_all_need_to_practice_emotional_first_aid/up-next

Online Learning Tools

The following materials are ready for use in the classroom. A brief description and estimated time to complete each activity is included for each.

LearningHub. Provincial Violence Prevention Curriculum [E-learning modules]. https://learninghub.phsa.ca/Courses/7558/provincial-violence-prevention-for-medium-and-high-risk-departments-8-modules

  • Students complete independently and print out a module quiz at the end to demonstrate successful completion. Eight e-learning modules (approximately 30 minutes per module.

Social Care Institute for Excellence. (2014). Dignity in care: Communication [Video]. http://www.scie.org.uk/socialcaretv/video-player.asp?v=communication

  • A video and messages for practice that illustrate how effective communication with clients and the health care team supports a person-centred approach to care (15–20 minutes for review and discussion).

  1. Island Health (2012).