Health and Healing: Concepts for Practice

Suggested Learning Strategies

Strategies that Focus on Caring

1. Caring and Caregiving Discussion

Invite students to work in small groups to discuss situations in which they have felt cared for or cared about and situations in which they did not feel cared about.

  • Ask the groups to describe the characteristics of each experience. Also, ask them to identify the emotions experienced related to the differing situations. How did they feel about themselves in each situation? How did they feel about the other person?

2. Characteristics of Caring and Caregiving Discussion

Invite students to read the Values, Beliefs, and Principles section in the Introduction to the HCA Program Provincial Curriculum Guide 2015, with particular emphasis on the section about Caring and Caregiving. Encourage them to identify as many characteristics of caring as they can from their reading.

Now ask students if they can identify other characteristics of caring based on their own experience. Ask students to see if the characteristics of caring can be grouped (i.e., themes that come through).

Possible groupings might include:

  • Knowing and understanding the other person.
  • Respecting and trusting the other person.
  • Respecting and trusting oneself.
  • Recognizing the connectedness or similarities between ourselves and others.

3. Person-Centred Care

Invite students to work in small groups to examine two or more situations. For each situation, ask the group to consider: What is there about this situation that reflects person-centred care and what does not? Could the situation have been handled differently? If so, how? Refer to situations included on the STUDENT HANDOUT below.

Situations: Reflections on Person-Centred Care

DIRECTIONS: Review and discuss the following situations. What is there about each situation that reflects person-centred care and what does not? Could the situation have been handled differently? If so, how?

Joan is a Health Care Assistant working in a complex care facility. She enjoys her work a lot – especially, as she says, “working with my sweet little old ladies.” Joan is well-organized and makes every effort to assure that the clients in her care are safe, clean, and comfortable. Today, when she completed bathing Mrs. DeVito, Joan dressed her in a flowery dress and placed a bright red bow in Mrs. DeVito’s white hair, saying, “There you go, dearie. You look so cute.” Mrs. DeVito is deaf so she didn’t hear Joan’s comment. She just smiled and nodded.

The instructor enters a room where a student, Evira, is giving a client a bed bath. The instructor stands on the opposite side of the bed from Evira and talks directly to her, saying, “We will have our group meeting at 11:00 a.m., Evira. See you then.” The instructor immediately hurries out of the room.

An HCA, Alex Ipe, is working for a home support service in a small city. He was recently assigned to provide care for a rather cantankerous older gentleman named Gordon. After his first two visits to Gordon’s small apartment, Alex feels frustrated and discouraged because he can’t seem to please Gordon. Alex decides to talk with an experienced colleague, Viv, in hopes of getting some helpful advice. After hearing his concerns, Viv responds by saying, “Well, you know how it is with these old guys. They are all like children – just so picky and needing attention. It can be pretty frustrating, I know, but you mustn’t let it get to you.”

© Province of British Columbia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Situations: Reflections on Person-Centred Care [PDF].

4. Unfolding Case Study: Caring for Peter Schultz

As a homework assignment, have students read their textbook and other relevant course or online materials describing the five principles of compassionate, person-centred care (dignity, independence, preferences, privacy, and safety).

  1. Whole Class Activity and Discussion
    • In class, briefly review the principles and list them on the whiteboard for reference throughout the activity.
  2. Pairs Activity
    • Divide the class into pairs and ask each student to read the STUDENT HANDOUT below introducing the situation and providing a client profile for Peter Schultz. After reading the client profile, the pairs should complete a proposed schedule.
  3. Whole Class Debrief
    • After students have completed the pairs activity, briefly come together as a class to share how the schedule they developed reflects the principles of compassionate care. Be sure to emphasize the importance of a flexible approach and easily adapted activities. As relevant, bring forward examples of how other client needs could be met or addressed at appropriate intervals (e.g., toileting before going out in the garden for a walk).

Note: Students could be instructed to add a copy of the client profile and schedule to their client portfolio for Peter Schultz.

Unfolding Case Study: Caring for Peter Schultz
Providing Person-Centred Care

DIRECTIONS: You are an HCA working as a home support worker. You have been assigned to provide respite care to Peter for a four-hour period from 3:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. while his wife, Eve, attends an event. Keeping in mind the five principles of compassionate care, use the information provided about Peter to develop a schedule for how you could spend your time with him.

Client Profile: Peter Schultz

Peter was born on January 1, 1918. When he was seven years old, Peter emigrated from the former Yugoslavia to a small town in Alberta. After completing grade nine, Peter left school and worked as a farmer and logger. In the 1950s, Peter moved with his wife, Eve, and their family to the Lower Mainland of B.C., where he worked in construction, life insurance, and real estate. During the 1970s, Peter owned and operated a small hobby farm. He retired at the age of 75 and moved to a small city near Vancouver, B.C.

Born into a large family, Peter was the second oldest of eight siblings. Peter and Eve have two sons and three daughters, 17 grandchildren, and over 30 great-grandchildren. With the exception of one daughter who lives in Alberta, Peter’s children live within one hour of driving distance from him and his wife.

Peter comes from an ethnic German family and German culture and traditions are important to him. As a child, Peter learned to speak German, Serbian, and English. He learned many German songs, hymns, and poems and often recites his favourites. Peter also enjoys traditional German cooking. Peter is a Lutheran Christian and has been active in his faith since childhood. During his adulthood, Peter was involved in church leadership and is well regarded in his faith community. Until recently, Peter acted as Bible study leader.

Peter has always been a social and outgoing person. As a young man, he enjoyed going to community events and was known to be an excellent dancer. Peter and Eve entertained regularly and enjoyed playing pool, cards, and Scrabble with their guests. He and his wife were both avid gardeners. Peter always enjoyed large and small building projects. After retirement, Peter built simple furniture and made latch hook rugs for his grandchildren.

Recently, he has been unable to participate in these activities due to increasing confusion and an inability to make the calculations necessary to complete these projects.

Other than back problems resulting from physical work, Peter has always been healthy and active. When he was 77 years old, Peter experienced a stroke, also known as a cerebral vascular accident (CVA), which resulted in short-term speech difficulties and affected his swallowing ability. Following the CVA, Peter’s wife began to notice changes in his cognition, personality, and behaviour. He progressively lost the ability to participate in activities that he previously enjoyed. Approximately five years following the CVA, Peter started to receive community-based health services.

A Proposed Respite Care Schedule
Time Proposed/Possible Activity Rationale for Activities Principle of Person-Centred Care
3:00–4:00 p.m. Greeting and conversation about life and family; propose ideas for time together Create comfort and ease with client Independence and preference – so client can suggest and choose activities that interest him
4:00–5:00 p.m. Walk in garden
5:00–6:00 p.m.
7:00–8:00 p.m.

Metzger, Z. B. (2010). The Last Lap of the Long Run, Addendum to “On the Long Run”: An Account of our Travels with Dementia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Providing Person-Centred Care [PDF].

Strategies that Focus on Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making

1. Problem-Solving Process

Since this course is the first time students will be presented with the concept of a systemic problem-solving process as it relates to the HCA role, it is important that they grasp how important it is that a careful analysis of the situation precedes decisions.

Ask students to work in small groups. Give them a fictitious problem that they can relate to. For example, “Imagine you have taken the first major exam in the HCA program and received a failing grade.”

In analyzing this problem students should ask:

  • Why has this problem arisen?
  • What caused it?
  • Who is involved?
  • What is my goal (i.e., how will I know when the problem is “solved”)?
  • What feelings am I experiencing?

Once the problem has been analyzed, have students (again, in small groups) identify as many options or choices as possible. For each option, ask them to identify the positive and negative consequences of that particular action. For example:

Option Positive Consequence Negative Consequence
Withdraw from the program
  • No more study stress
  • Possibly more money (if I could get a job)
  • Would feel like a quitter
  • Would miss the group
  • Wouldn’t be able to work as an HCA
  • I’d disappoint my family

Once the students have completed their analysis of the problem, have them decide on the “best” decision or solution. How did the analysis help them come to a decision?

Could a different decision be “better” for other people or situations?

Have students discuss how HCAs can best help others to analyze problems and look at possible options before jumping to a solution. Have them discuss the ways in which problem-solving can be a caring process.

Have students, individually, conduct the same analysis using a real problem from their own lives (see STUDENT HANDOUT below for use with this exercise). This process could be used as an assignment for this course.

Problem-Solving/Decision-Making Exercise

DIRECTIONS: Select a problem you now face and use the problem-solving, decision-making process you’ve learned in class to analyze the situation and come to a decision. Follow the points below and use the template on the next page to document your processes and outcomes.

  1. Describe a personal problem you now face.
  2. Analyze the problem:
    • Describe the problem.
    • Why does it exist? What caused it? Who is involved?
    • What is your goal or desired outcome (i.e., how will you know when the problem is “solved”)?
    • What options do you have? What are the consequences, positive and negative, of each of these options?
    • Are there people or resources that might give you assistance – either in analyzing the problem, considering alternatives, or deciding on the best course of action?
  3. Decide on the best course of action for YOU. Why is this the best course of action?
  4. Carry out your decision. What steps would you need to follow in order to carry out the plan?
  5. Evaluate: How did it turn out? What criteria would you use to evaluate your plan?

Self-Reflect: Was this a new way for you to deal with a problem? How did it feel to you? Were you happy with the outcome? What did you learn from the process?

Problem-Solving Exercise: Template for Report




Options Positive Consequences Negative Consequences




Download Student Handout: Problem-Solving/Decision-Making Exercise [PDF].

2. Problem-Solving and Decision-Making in a Clinical Situation

The following steps for decision-making regarding care provision are used with permission of Island Health.[1] The “Six Steps” below provide a framework for decision-making by the HCA and could be used in a variety of situations. The case study on the STUDENT HANDOUT below outlines how these steps can be applied and could also be used in Healing 3: Personal Care and Assistance.

Six Steps

  1. Confirm instructions
  2. Gather information
  3. Perform activity
  4. Observe responses
  5. Report
  6. Record

A Case Example: Assisting a Patient to Mobilize with Oxygen in Acute Care

Ms. Jackson lives in an assisted living residence and is 87 years old. She receives assistance with housekeeping and meals, which are taken in the common dining room. She has a history of COPD and uses a four-wheeled walker. The walker is outfitted with a portable oxygen tank for use in the dining room, as well as for outings into the community.

Twelve days ago, Ms. Jackson had a fall in her home getting up to go to the bathroom at night. As a result of the fall, she fractured her hip and required a dynamic hip screw surgery. She is now recovering in acute care and is being encouraged to mobilize daily. Her goal is to be walking independently with her four-wheeled walker, so that she is able to walk the 75 feet necessary to get to the dining room when she gets home. When walking, she is permitted to put her full weight, as tolerated, on her operated side. She is currently using 2.0 L of oxygen by nasal prongs. She is mobilizing with a two-wheeled walker and requires stand-by assistance for safety. As the HCA, you have been asked to assist Ms. Jackson with her mobilization routine, which involves walking up and down the hospital corridor.

The six steps below highlight some factors to consider.

  1. Confirm instructions
    • Determine who is asking you to complete this mobilization: the Registered Nurse (RN), the Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), the Physiotherapist (PT), or the Occupational Therapist (OT). Determine the method to communicate should problems or issues arise.
    • Consider if you have the training or experience to complete this task. Have you ever assisted someone with a two-wheeled walker and oxygen? If not, you may need to ask for assistance and guidance.
    • Clarify the distance you are expected to assist with walking. Are there any breaks to be planned into the walk? If so, where? How does this line up with Ms. Jackson’s treatment goals at discharge (working towards ability to walk the 75 feet at home).
    • Ask if there are any specific details or techniques you should be reinforcing? (e.g., proper technique with a two-wheeled walker or positioning of the oxygen tank).
  2. Gather information
    • Look in the patient chart, nursing flow sheets, and/or walking board to see how Ms. Jackson did with her mobilizing on the previous shift. Was any additional assistance required? Did she sleep well? Did she have any confusion?
    • Confirm current weight-bearing status (full weight bearing) as well as expected oxygen delivery method. Does she have any movement precautions?
    • Ask nursing staff if there are any medications required prior to mobilizing that may increase Ms. Jackson’s comfort while walking.
    • See if Ms. Jackson has any other scheduled appointments that may conflict with her ability to complete mobilization at a certain time (e.g., medical imaging, group activity sessions).
  3. Perform activity
    • Have a member of the health care team check the oxygen delivery system (how it is applied, the rate of flow to the portable tank) and Ms. Jackson’s status prior to ambulating.
    • Complete a pre-handling checklist (or other pre-mobility assessment) to determine if Ms. Jackson is safe to ambulate. Health care team members can assist with this.
    • Ensure oxygen tubing (or other lines and tubes) does not pose a tripping hazard, but still has enough slack to allow for ease of movement. Depending on the portable oxygen tank, it may or may not be attached to the walker. Assist as necessary.
  4. Observe responses
    • Look for any of the following during the activity:
      • Signs of distress or discomfort
      • Signs of infection
      • Signs of change in anticipated performance level
  5. Report
    • Report back to the health care team member who requested that you assist with the mobilization.
    • Provide information regarding such factors as distance travelled, any observed changes in comfort, or performance, and any assistance offered to Ms. Jackson for handling the oxygen delivery system and/or mobility equipment.
  6. Record
    • Depending on the unit, there may be specific locations where you record that you completed the mobilization and any observed responses. Examples may be a walking communication clipboard or whiteboard, the patient chart, or a flow sheet.

Evaluate your performance and consider the following:

  • What worked well?
  • What didn’t work? Why? How would you approach this type of situation differently in the future?
  • Are there any areas where you may need to seek additional support? Who could you speak to get this support?

© Province of British Columbia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: A Case Example: Assisting a Patient to Mobilize with Oxygen in Acute Care [PDF].

3. Classroom Debate Activity

Invite students to engage in a debate about a topic discussed in this course. Divide the class into small groups of three to five students and assign two groups to each of the topics outlined; one group will take a pro position towards the topic and the other group will take a con position.

Ask each group to identify two to three reasons to support the position they have been assigned. Then, with the instructor acting as the moderator, the two groups will engage in a debate using the following structure:

  • Each group provides a brief introduction to their position on the topic.
  • In alternating format, the two groups present the two or three reasons identified to support their position.
  • Each group provides a brief closing statement.

After the debate has concluded, briefly come together as a larger group and summarize the positions that were presented. Invite feedback from the students not involved in the debate and discuss further considerations. Alternate groups until each student has participated in a debate.

Debate topics for Health and Healing: Concepts for Practice:

  1. Couples should receive priority to live together in care.
  2. Clients are better supported by HCAs who share their culture, values and/or beliefs.
  3. Clients are better supported by family and friends than by employed HCAs.
  4. Working in a community setting requires HCAs to use critical thinking skills more often than working in a facility setting.
  5. HCAs should support the use of medical marijuana as an alternative form of health care.
  6. HCAs should allow their clients to live at risk (e.g., refuse to use a walker).

Strategies that Focus on Professional Approaches to Practice

Have students, in groups, use the STUDENT HANDOUT below to consider the case studies and how they are related to key course concepts.

Case Studies: Working with Diverse Clients and Families

DIRECTIONS: In groups, consider the following case studies and respond to the discussion questions below:

Juliana is an HCA who was recently hired by a home support agency. One of the first clients she is assigned to visit is Mr. James Johnson. Jim is a 63-year-old man and former intravenous drug user who is living with HIV and is receiving end-of-life care for Stage 4 liver cancer. He has been prescribed medical marijuana to manage his pain.

Jim’s wife, Karen, cares for him 24 hours per day. Juliana is assigned to visit for respite care, four hours, twice per week. On this first visit, Karen does not want to leave the house because she doesn’t know Juliana and is concerned Juliana won’t know what Jim wants or needs. Karen shows Juliana around the house and is friendly towards her, but spends most of the time sitting by Jim’s bedside, frequently patting his hand or hugging him. 

Juliana’s training did not include much information on HIV, drug use, or medical marijuana. Her personal values and beliefs make her uncomfortable with the situation. She is polite, but makes sure to wear gloves whenever she touches Jim, any of his belongings, or even when she shakes hands with Karen. When it is time to leave, she tells Karen that maybe another HCA will come for the next visit.

Manpreet works as a home support worker and is assigned to work with Mr. Brent Mead. Brent is a 43-year-old man who is paralyzed from the waist down as the result of a motor vehicle accident. Brent works as a freelance writer and lives with his husband, Jordan. Manpreet is assigned to assist with personal care, for two hours, five mornings per week.

On the first visit, Brent and Jordan show Manpreet the morning routine. This is Manpreet’s first time working with a gay couple and she hasn’t received much education about sexual diversity. Brent and Jordan are friendly towards Manpreet, but she feels uncomfortable and is unsure of how to respond when Brent and Jordan are affectionate towards one another. Manpreet avoids eye contact with Brent and Jordan and is quiet and reserved during the visit. She considers contacting her employer to ask if she can be excused from this assignment.

For each scenario, discuss:

  • Did the HCA exhibit professional behaviour? Why or why not?
  • Consider and discuss major concepts of this course that could help the HCA to act professionally. For example:
    • Providing person-centred care
    • Supporting personal preferences and choices of the client
    • Respecting individuality
    • Working with families
    • Valuing diversity
    • Respecting choice of alternative medicines and treatments
    • Protecting personal safety
  • As an HCA, how should you respond when you encounter a situation that is not in alignment with your personal values or beliefs?
  • As an HCA, how should you respond to a situation you are not familiar with? Where can you seek support to increase your understanding?
  • As an HCA, do you have the right to refuse an assignment? On what basis (if any) might this be possible?

© Province of British Columbia. This material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Download Student Handout: Case Studies: Working with Diverse Clients and Families [PDF].

Suggested Course Assessments

The course learning outcomes may be assessed by the following tasks:

  1. One or more quizzes or examinations that pertain to knowledge of human needs, human development, and safety and protection (Learning Outcomes #1, #2, and #4).
  2. An individual project that uses problem-solving and decision-making processes in a caregiving context. Students could be provided with a scenario from a practice environment and then directed to use a systematic problem-solving process to come to a decision (Learning Outcome #3).
  3. An elder-awareness project. Each student will conduct an interview with an elder (i.e., someone who is over the age of 75), preferably someone who is also different from the student in gender, culture, ethnicity, and/or socio-economic level. Students will be invited to share their interviews with their student peers in small groups. Students will also be invited to discuss what these interviews tell them about generational differences, diversity, and changing family structures. Students will be expected to submit this exercise as a project paper (Learning Outcomes #1 and #5).
  4. An occupational health and safety awareness project. WorkSafeBC accepts time-loss claims from about 50,000 injured workers each year. About 9,000 of those claims originate in health care and social services workplaces, more than any other sector in B.C. The workers at greatest risk of injury are those who provide direct care. HCAs are the most injured workers in the province, with about 3,000 claims accepted annually. The greatest hazards they face are from lifting and transferring, as well as exposure to violence and infectious disease, all of which are directly related to the people they are caring for.In order for students to get a better sense of the hazards facing them in the workplace, they could complete an assignment that requires them to go to the WorkSafeBC website health care section and research a topic to increase their awareness related to hazards and safety. Specific hazards to research (with most relevance to HCA safety) are: patient handling, slips and trips, violence prevention, and infectious disease. Students could be required to select and review a publication or watch a video related to one of the top health care hazards. They could describe the potential hazard, discuss possible ways to minimize the risk of injury, and recommend possible responses when facing that hazard. Additionally, they could describe how the hazard they face could also impact the person being cared for (Learning Outcome #4).

Resources for Health and Healing: Concepts for Practice

Online Resources

Anderson, J. (2016, March 21). 14 ways to help seniors avoid isolation. A Place for Mom.

Baillie, L., Gallagher, A., & Wainwright, P. (2008).  Defending dignity: Challenges and opportunities for nursing. Royal College of Nursing.

Battams, N. (2018). A Snapshot of Family Diversity in Canada. Vanier Institute of Canada.

B.C. Care Providers Association. (2020). Aging with pride. pride/

Campion-Smith, B. (2012, Sept 20). Canadian families growing more diverse, Census data shows. Toronto Star.

Canadian Human Rights Commission. (Nov, 2020) What is discrimination?

CBC Radio. (2014). Gay and grey: LGBT seniors fear care facilities, and Bridget Coll and Chris Morrisson’s story. [Radio special series]. CBC.

Culo, S. (2011, October). Risk assessment and intervention for vulnerable older adults. BCMJ, 53, (8), October 2011, 421-425.

Earle, L. (2011). Traditional Aboriginal diets and health. National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health, University of Northern British Columbia.

Eden Alternative.

First Nations Health Authority. (n.d.). Creating a climate for change.

First Nations Health Authority. (2020). Cultural safety and humility.

First Nations Health Authority. (2015). Declaration of commitment.

First Nations Health Authority. (n.d.). Traditional healing.

Government of British Columbia. About B.C.’s health care system.

Government of British Columbia. Caring for seniors.

Government of British Columbia. Gender equity in B.C.

Government of British Columbia. Self care.

Government of British Columbia (2015) Seniors.

Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Health. (2015). The British Columbia patient-centered care framework.

Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Health. (2011). Director of licensing standard of practice: Incident reporting of aggressive or unusual behaviour in adult residential care facilities.

Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Health Services Policy Communique. (2011). Standardized hospital colour codes.

Government of British Columbia, WelcomeBC. (2020). Multicultural B.C.

Government of Canada. (2017). Indigenous peoples and communities.

HealthCareCAN. (2016). Issue brief: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Health-related recommendations.


HealthLinkBC. (2019). Sexual orientation.

Island Health. (n.d.). Developing inclusive and affirming care for LGBTQ2+ seniors toolkit.

Killermann, S. (2020). Breaking through the binary: Gender explained using continuums.

Mas, S. (2015). Truth and Reconciliation offers 94 “calls to action. CBC News.

McLeod, S. A. (2020, March 20). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simply psychology.

Public Guardian and Trustee of British Columbia.

Paul, R. & Eider, L. (2006). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools. The Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Provincial Health Services Authority in B.C. (n.d.). San’yas Indigenous cultural safety training.

QMUNITY. (2018). Queer terminology from A to Q.


Revera Inc. and International Federation on Ageing. (2014). Revera report on ageism.


SafeCareBC. Violence prevention.

Simon Fraser University, Gerontology Research Centre.

Social Care Institute for Excellence. (2015, January). Promoting independence in care homes [Video and messages].

Statistics Canada. (2020). Older adults and population aging statistics.

Thompson, S. (2017, August 17). Cultural differences in body language to be aware of. Virtual Speech.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Truth and reconciliation commission of Canada: Calls to action.

University of Victoria, Equity and Human Rights. (2020). Unconscious biases.

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.) Medicine ways: Traditional healers and healing. In Native Voices: Native Peoples’ Concepts of Health and Illness [Online exhibition].

Ward, C., Branch, C., Fridkin, A. (2016). What is Indigenous cultural safety – and why should I care about it? Visions Journal, 11(4), 29.

WorkSafeBC. (2006). Home and community health worker handbook.

WorkSafeBC. What’s wrong with these photos (home care aide) [Photographs].

Online Videos and Films

AgeismComs369. (2012, November 30). Representation of seniors in popular media [Video]. YouTube.

CBC News. (2017, June 1). How to talk about Indigenous people [Video]. YouTube.

CNN. (2013, July 30). CNN’s world’s untold stories: Dementia village [Video]. YouTube.

Crashcourse. (2012, August 6). Digestive system: Crashcourse biology #58 [Video]. YouTube. (2017, November 6). What is: Maslow’s pyramid – The hierarchy of needs [Video]. YouTube.

The Health Foundation. (2014, December 10).  Compassion, dignity and respect in health care [Video]. YouTube.

The Health Foundation. (2015, February 2). Person-centred care made simple [Video]. YouTube.

Knovva Academy. (2018, March). Me or we? Cultural difference between East and West [Video]. YouTube.

LanaLoutfy. (2013, February 3). Hierarchy of needs in Ratatouille [Video]. YouTube.

Learn My Test. (2019, May 24). Erik Erickson’s theory of psychological development [Video]. YouTube.

Media Partners. (2017, September 13). Unconscious bias [Video]. YouTube.

National Association to Stop Guardian Abuse. (2008, August 23). A cry for help [Video]. YouTube.

Nucleus Medical Media. (2011, March 1). Pressure sores [Video]. YouTube.

Phil Rice Productions (2018, February 28). The workplace safety news: Injury and hazard reporting [Video]. YouTube.

Psych Hub. (2020, January 28). Prevent caregiver burnout [Video]. YouTube.

Royal Liverpool Hospitals. (2018, April 12). Managing risks, Part 1 [Video]. YouTube.

Royal Liverpool Hospitals. (2018, April 12). Managing risks, Part 2 [Video]. YouTube.

Safety Memos. (2014, November 14). Caregiver safety – 30 second inspection –Safety training video [Video]. YouTube.

The School of Life. (2019, April 10). Why Maslow’s hierarchy of needs matter [Video]. YouTube.

Sprouts. (2017, April 23). 8 stages of development by Erik Erikson [Video]. YouTube.

Sprouts. (2018, August 1). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development [Video]. YouTube.

Ted-Ed. (2017, December 14). How the digestive system works – Emma Bryce [Video]. YouTube.

Tiffanyx93.2010, June 2) Up and the hierarchy of needs [Video]. YouTube.

WorkSafeBC. (2012, June 2). Dialogue on dementia (5 parts) [Video]. YouTube.

WorkSafeBC. (2008, May 23). Leave when it’s unsafe [Video]. YouTube.

WorkSafeBC. (2018, July 17). Point-of-care risk assessments in long-term care [Video]. YouTube.

Wright, L. Mr. Nobody. National Film Board [Film].

Online Learning Tools

The following materials are ready for use in the classroom. A brief description and estimated time to complete each activity is included for each.

Sagan, A. (2015, May 3). Canada’s version of Hogewey dementia village recreates “normal” life. CBC News.

  • A short article describing Hogewey dementia village and application of related principles at a care home in Ontario (15 minutes for review and discussion).

Social Care Institute for Excellence. (2014). Choice and control: Dignity in care [Video].

  • A video and messages for practice to illustrate how offering choice and control supports a person-centred approach to care (20 minutes for review and discussion).

Social Care Institute for Excellence. ( 2014). Social inclusion: Dignity in care [Video].

  • A video and messages for practice to illustrate how social inclusion supports a person- centred approach to care (20–25 minutes for review and discussion).

  1. Island Health Authority, the B.C. Health Education Foundation and the Ministry of Health Services are acknowledged for granting permission to adapt material from the Island Health Transitional Learning Continuum, Health Care Assistant in Acute Care Curriculum (2012).