Adapt an Existing Open Textbook

6 6 Steps to Adapting an Open Textbook

Once you have made the decision to adopt an open textbook, you may wish to adapt, or customize, that textbook to fit your specific needs.

The following list is a modified list that appears in the article Why Remix Open Educational Resources? created by Liam Green-Hughes. It is used under a CC-BY license and describes reasons why you may want to adapt an open textbook.

  1. Adapt the material to make it more accessible for people with different disabilities
  2. Insert cultural specific references to make a concept easier to understand
  3. Translate it into another language
  4. Correct any errors or inaccuracies
  5. Update the book to add the latest discoveries or theories
  6. Insert more media or links to other resources
  7. Chop the book into smaller chunks that might be easier to learn from, or could be reused elsewhere
  8. Adapt it for a different audience
  9. Change the target educational level
  10. Add input and participation from students who might be using the textbook
  11. Expand the textbook by adding in other information
  12. Insert a different point of view to that originally given in the material
  13. Adapt it for different teaching situations

For example, maybe you find a textbook that is pretty good, but could be stronger with the addition of case studies, or maybe the case studies could use a Canadian perspective. Those would make great open textbook adaptations.

How easy or difficult this will be depends on a number of factors, including;

  • How much content do you wish to change? Do you want to remove chapters, or rewrite entire chapters of content?
  • What technical format is the original textbook in? A Word document is much easier to modify than a PDF document.
  • What type of license is the content released under? Does it have a Creative Commons license that allows for modification or adaptation of the content?
  • How comfortable are you with using technology and creating content?

Some General Considerations

  • Whatever tools you choose to work with, remember that students prefer format flexibility with their textbook. For the BCcampus Open Textbook project, each book adapted or created will be made available in PDF, ePub and HTML (website) formats. If you use a tool that does not output those formats by default, you will need to find additional conversion tools to convert your final textbook to those formats.
  • If you wish to edit or create graphics, images, charts, and/or multimedia content, you will need to use additional, specialized tools to create those beyond the tools listed here. The tools listed here are primarily designed to modify text or (in the case of LaTeX) scientific or mathematical formulas.
  • A good rule of thumb is to keep it simple, especially if you are approaching a remix project for the first time. While it may be tempting to make a number of major changes to a textbook before releasing it to your students, think of the textbook as a living resource that you can improve incrementally over time.

Here are 6 steps to consider before adapting an existing textbook.

Step 1: Check the license

First, check the license to make sure you have the permission to modify the contents. As long as the Creative Commons license does not have a No Derivatives clause, you are able to change the contents of the book. See Creative Commons for more information on licenses.


For the B.C. Open Textbook project, we do not recommend textbooks that contain the No Derivatives (ND) restriction as part of the Creative Commons license, i.e., CC-BY-ND.

If you are unsure as to the license, please contact the BC Open Textbook project for assistance.

Step 2: The format of the textbook

If you wish to adapt an open textbook, you need to be able to have the textbook in a technical format that you can work with. This usually means the original source files used to create the textbook.

Common source formats for open textbooks that you should look for are:

  • HTML files (webpages)
  • Word or OpenOffice documents
  • Text files
  • ePub
  • LaTex files (if the original book includes math or science formulas and equations).

What tools you will use to create your version of the textbook will depend greatly on what format you find the original textbook in and what you feel comfortable working with.

Avoid PDF documents.

It is common that open textbooks may only be available as a PDF document. PDF documents are not editable. If you want to adapt an open textbook that is only available in PDF format, you will need to convert the PDF document to one of the formats above.

Before you consider converting a PDF version of the textbook, you should contact the original author and ask for a copy of the textbook source files.


Converting a PDF document to an editable format is a difficult, time consuming and an imprecise process.

Step 3: Tools for editing an open textbook

Once you have a source format that you can edit, you can then begin to adapt the textbook. What tools you will use to do this will depend greatly on what editable format you are working with, and your comfort level with working with that format.


One of the tools we recommend for the BC Open Textbook project is PressBooks. PressBooks is a web-based authoring tool based on the popular WordPress authoring platform. Working in PressBooks is similar to working within a Learning Management Systems like Moodle or Desire2Learn.

You can import a number of different formats into PressBooks for editing, including Word, ePub and HTML. PressBooks will output the textbook as a mobile-friendly website, an ePub document (for use in e-readers), and a PDF (for printing).

For the BC Open Textbook project, we are using a self hosted installation of PressBooks, but you can try out PressBooks for free using their hosted service.

Other editing tools

The chart below shows you some of the tool options you have for working with the various file formats. Note that this is not an exhaustive list. You may have a tool that works for you that you wish to use to create your open textbook.

Original Format

Possible Editing Tools (Web-based)

Possible Editing Tools (Desktop)

Word or OpenOffice Google Docs, PressBooks Microsoft Word, OpenOffice
ePub PressBooks Sigil, Calibre
Text Google Docs, PressBooks Word, OpenOffice
LaTex  ScribeTex TeXworks, Texmaker
HTML Google Docs, PressBooks, MediaWiki Dreamweaver, MS Expression Web
OpenStax College Connexions n/a

Step 4: Choosing a license

Once you have finished creating your own version (i.e. adapting an existing version) of the textbook, you should decide on which Creative Commons license you will use to license your book. This will depend a great deal on how the original textbook was licensed.

For example, if the original textbook was licensed with SA (Share Alike) license, then you must release your book with the same license as the original source material to ensure it is fully compliant with the original CC terms of use.


CC licensing at this stage can be a complicated process. For assistance, feel free to contact the BC Open Textbook project for consultation on how the various CC licenses work together.

Step 5: Output

Students like flexibility when it comes to their textbooks. Some may prefer printed versions of the textbook, others will prefer using a website. Still others will like to use an e-reader or e-reading software.

To make your book as accessible as possible, consider making your textbook available in multiple formats so students have the ability to choose the format that works for them. At a minimum, the BCcampus Open Textbook project will make textbooks available as a website (HTML),  ePub document for e-readers, and PDF document which students can print or choose to have printed via a print on demand service.

Step 6: Hosting your book (or how do my students get my textbook?)

Once you have adapted your version of the textbook, you will need a place to put your textbook where your students can access it.

If you are part of the BCcampus Open Textbook project and have used PressBooks to create your textbook then BCcampus will provide hosting for your textbook as part of the project on the website. Simply direct your students to the URL for your book on the website and let them choose which format is most convenient for them.

Introduction to Psychology-1st Canadian Edition is an example of how your open textbook would appear on  This particular book is available in PDF, ePub (for most e-readers), and mobi (Kindle) formats. Additionally, there is a link to take students to a mobile friendly website version of this textbook.

If you have chosen not to use PressBooks for your adaptation and instead have chosen to use a different platform, your book page will look similar to the Introduction to Psychology-1st Canadian Edition page, minus the link to the website version. If you do have a website version of the book and have it hosted somewhere other than BCcampus, a link to that site can be included on the book page.