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Introduction

Main Body

Chapter 1

Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics

Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units

Physics: An Introduction

Physical Quantities and Units

Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures

Approximation

Kinematics

Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics

Displacement

Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems

Time, Velocity, and Speed

Acceleration

Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension

Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics

Falling Objects

Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

Two-Dimensional Kinematics

Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics

Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction

Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods

Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods

Projectile Motion

Addition of Velocities

Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion

Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion

Development of Force Concept

Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia

Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System

Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces

Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces

Problem-Solving Strategies

Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion

Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity

Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws

Friction

Drag Forces

Elasticity: Stress and Strain

Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation

Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation

Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity

Centripetal Acceleration

Centripetal Force

Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force

Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation

Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

Work, Energy, and Energy Resources

Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources

Work: The Scientific Definition

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem

Gravitational Potential Energy

Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

Nonconservative Forces

Conservation of Energy

Power

Work, Energy, and Power in Humans

World Energy Use

Linear Momentum and Collisions

Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions

Linear Momentum and Force

Impulse

Conservation of Momentum

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension

Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions

Introduction to Rocket Propulsion

Statics and Torque

Introduction to Statics and Torque

The First Condition for Equilibrium

The Second Condition for Equilibrium

Stability

Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies

Simple Machines

Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints

Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

Angular Acceleration

Kinematics of Rotational Motion

Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia

Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited

Angular Momentum and Its Conservation

Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions

Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

Fluid Statics

Introduction to Fluid Statics

What Is a Fluid?

Density

Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid

Pascal’s Principle

Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement

Archimedes’ Principle

Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action

Pressures in the Body

Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications

Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications

Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity

Bernoulli’s Equation

The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law

The Onset of Turbulence

Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid

Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws

Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws

Temperature

Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

The Ideal Gas Law

Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

Phase Changes

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

Heat and Heat Transfer Methods

Introduction to Heat and Heat Transfer Methods

Heat

Temperature Change and Heat Capacity

Phase Change and Latent Heat

Heat Transfer Methods

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Thermodynamics

Introduction to Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes

Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency

Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated

Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

Oscillatory Motion and Waves

Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves

Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited

Period and Frequency in Oscillations

Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion

The Simple Pendulum

Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion

Damped Harmonic Motion

Forced Oscillations and Resonance

Waves

Superposition and Interference

Energy in Waves: Intensity

Physics of Hearing

Introduction to the Physics of Hearing

Sound

Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength

Sound Intensity and Sound Level

Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms

Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns

Hearing

Ultrasound

Electric Charge and Electric Field

Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field

Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge

Conductors and Insulators

Coulomb’s Law

Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited

Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges

Electric Forces in Biology

Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium

Applications of Electrostatics

Electric Potential and Electric Field

Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy

Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference

Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field

Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge

Equipotential Lines

Capacitors and Dielectrics

Capacitors in Series and Parallel

Energy Stored in Capacitors

Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law

Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law

Current

Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits

Resistance and Resistivity

Electric Power and Energy

Alternating Current versus Direct Current

Electric Hazards and the Human Body

Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms

Circuits and DC Instruments

Introduction to Circuits and DC Instruments

Resistors in Series and Parallel

Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage

Kirchhoff’s Rules

DC Voltmeters and Ammeters

Null Measurements

DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors

Magnetism

Introduction to Magnetism

Magnets

Ferromagnets and Electromagnets

Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines

Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications

The Hall Effect

Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor

Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters

Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law

Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors

More Applications of Magnetism

Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies

Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies

Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux

Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law

Motional Emf

Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping

Electric Generators

Back Emf

Transformers

Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices

Inductance

RL Circuits

Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive

RLC Series AC Circuits

Electromagnetic Waves

Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed

Production of Electromagnetic Waves

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

Geometric Optics

Introduction to Geometric Optics

The Ray Aspect of Light

The Law of Reflection

The Law of Refraction

Total Internal Reflection

Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms

Image Formation by Lenses

Image Formation by Mirrors

Vision and Optical Instruments

Introduction to Vision and Optical Instruments

Physics of the Eye

Vision Correction

Color and Color Vision

Microscopes

Telescopes

Aberrations

Wave Optics

Introduction to Wave Optics

The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference

Huygens's Principle: Diffraction

Young’s Double Slit Experiment

Multiple Slit Diffraction

Single Slit Diffraction

Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion

Thin Film Interference

Polarization

*Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

Special Relativity

Introduction to Special Relativity

Einstein’s Postulates

Simultaneity And Time Dilation

Length Contraction

Relativistic Addition of Velocities

Relativistic Momentum

Relativistic Energy

Introduction to Quantum Physics

Introduction to Quantum Physics

Quantization of Energy

The Photoelectric Effect

Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Photon Momentum

The Particle-Wave Duality

The Wave Nature of Matter

Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed

Atomic Physics

Introduction to Atomic Physics

Discovery of the Atom

Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei

Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications

Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations

The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization

Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization

Quantum Numbers and Rules

The Pauli Exclusion Principle

Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

Nuclear Radioactivity

Radiation Detection and Detectors

Substructure of the Nucleus

Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws

Half-Life and Activity

Binding Energy

Tunneling

Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Applications of Nuclear Physics

Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation

Food Irradiation

Fusion

Fission

Nuclear Weapons

Particle Physics

Introduction to Particle Physics

The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited

The Four Basic Forces

Accelerators Create Matter from Energy

Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws

Quarks: Is That All There Is?

GUTs: The Unification of Forces

Frontiers of Physics

Introduction to Frontiers of Physics

Cosmology and Particle Physics

General Relativity and Quantum Gravity

Superstrings

Dark Matter and Closure

Complexity and Chaos

High-temperature Superconductors

Some Questions We Know to Ask

Appendix