Adult Literacy Fundamental Mathematics: Book 1 - 2nd Edition by Wendy Tagami and Liz Girard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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- Accessibility Statement
- For Students: How to Access and Use this Textbook
- About BCcampus Open Education
- Acknowledgments
- To the Learner
- Unit 1: Number Sense
- Topic A: Emotions and Learning
- Topic B: Counting
- Topic C: Place Value
- Topic D: Ordering Numerals
- Topic E: Rounding Numbers
- Topic F: More Counting
- Unit 1 Review: Number Sense
- Unit 2: Addition
- Topic A: Addition
- Topic B: Addition of Three or More Numbers
- Topic C: Addition of Larger Numbers
- Unit 2 Review: Addition
- Unit 3: Subtraction
- Topic A: Subtraction
- Topic B: Subtraction of Larger Numbers
- Unit 3 Review: Subtraction
- Unit 4: Estimating, Time, and Shapes
- Topic A: Estimating
- Topic B: Time
- Topic C: Shapes
- Unit 4 Review: Estimating, Time, and Shapes
- Book 1 Review
- Versioning History

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*Adult Literacy Fundamental Mathematics: Book 1* *– 2nd Editio*n by Wendy Tagami and Liz Girard was funded by BCcampus Open Education.

BCcampus Open Education began in 2012 as the B.C. Open Textbook Project with the goal of making post-secondary education in British Columbia more accessible by reducing students’ costs through the use of open textbooks and other OER. BCcampus supports the post-secondary institutions of British Columbia as they adapt and evolve their teaching and learning practices to enable powerful learning opportunities for the students of B.C. BCcampus Open Education is funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Training and the Hewlett Foundation.

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This book was produced using the following styles: ABE ALF Book 1 Style Sheet [Word file].

Liz Girard, North Island College

Wendy Tagami, Selkirk College

Jill Auchinachie, Camosun College

Leanne Caillier-Smith, College of the Rockies

Mercedes de la Nuez, Northwest Community College

Barbara Stirsky, University of the Fraser Valley

Jan Weiten, Vancouver Community College

Stephanie Jewell, Vancouver Community College

Vivian Hermansen, North Island College

Lyle Olsen, Selkirk College

Allison Alder, Selkirk College

Cheryl Porter, North Island College

Stephen & Jennifer Marks, Layout Editors

You have the skills you need to be a strong student in this class. Adult math learners have many skills. They have a lot of life experience. They also use math in their everyday lives. This means that adult math learners may already know some of what is being taught in this book. Use what you already know with confidence!

This textbook has:

- A
**Table of Contents**listing the units, the major topics and subtopics. - A
**Glossary**giving definitions for mathematical vocabulary used in the course. - A
**Grades Record**to keep track of your marks.

The textbook has many exercises; some are quite short, but others have a great number of questions. You do not have to do every single question!

- Do as many questions as you feel are necessary for you to be confident in your skill. It is best to do all the word problems.
- If you leave out some questions, try doing every second or every third question. Always do some questions from the end of each exercise because the questions usually get harder at the end. You might use the skipped questions for review before a test.
- If you are working on a difficult skill or concept, do half the exercise one day and finish the exercise the next day. That is a much better way to learn.

**Self-tests** at the end of most topics have an **Aim** at the top. If you do not meet the aim, talk to your instructor, find what is causing the trouble, and do some more review before you go on.

A **Review and Extra Practice** section is at the end of each unit. If there is an area of the unit that you need extra practice in, you can use this. Or, if you want, you can use the section for more review.

A **Practice Test** is available for each unit. You may:

- Write the practice test after you have studied the unit as a practice for the end-of-chapter test, OR
- you might want to write it before you start the unit to find what you already know and which areas you need to work on.

**Unit Tests** are written after each unit. Again, you must reach the Aim before you begin the next unit. If you do not reach the aim, the instructor will assist you in finding and practising the difficult areas. When you are ready, you can write a B test to show that you have mastered the skills.

A **Final Test** is to be written when you have finished the book. This final test will assess your skills from the whole book. You have mastered the skills in each unit and then kept using many of them throughout the course. The test reviews all those skills.

You have also been given a sheet to write down your grades. After each test, you can write in the mark. This way you can keep track of your grades as you go through the course. This is a good idea to use in all your courses.

Unit | Practice Test | Date of Test A | Test A | Date of Test B | Test B |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Example | September 4, 2020 | 25/33 | September 7, 2020 | 25/33 | |

1 | |||||

2 | |||||

3 | |||||

4 | |||||

Final Test |

Emotions, or what we feel about something, play a big part in how we learn. If we are calm, we learn well. If we are afraid or stressed, we do not learn as well. Many people are afraid of math. They fear making a mistake. “Math anxiety” is the fear of math.

People who suffer from math anxiety may get headaches, sick stomachs, cold hands, or they may just sweat a lot or just feel scared.

Read the list below and put a check mark beside the ones you feel.

- Are your palms moist?
- Is your stomach fluttering?
- Do you feel like you can’t think clearly?
- Do you feel like you would rather do anything else than learn math?
- Are you breathing faster than normal?
- Is your heart pounding?
- Do you feel cold?

Add any other feelings.

“Math anxiety,” or the fear of math, is a learned habit. If it is learned, it can be unlearned. Most math anxiety comes from bad memories while learning math. It may be from doing badly on a test or asking a question then being made fun of. These bad memories can make learning math hard.

Everyone can learn math. There is no special talent for math. There are some people who are better at math than others, but even these people had to learn to be good at math.

How to Deal with Math Anxiety

Anyone can feel anxiety that will slow down learning. The key to learning is to be the “boss” of your anxiety.

One way to be the “boss” is to relax. Try this breaking exercise.

Start by breathing slowly to the count of four. It may help to close your eyes and count. Now hold your breath for four counts and then let your breath out slowly to the count of four. The counting is silent and should follow this pattern:

“Breath in, two, three, four. Hold, two, three, four. Breath out, two, three, four. Wait, two, three, four.”

With practice, the number of counts can be increased. This is an easy and good way to relax.

Now, try this exercise quietly and repeat it five times slowly.

To learn to read, you first need to learn the letters of the alphabet. Once you know the alphabet, you put the letters together to make words, then sentences, then paragraphs and then stories.

Those letters become the “tools” used to write everything.

The same is true for math. In math we use digits. The digits are:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Digits are named after our fingers. Our fingers are also called digits. The mathematics term comes from the days of counting on our fingers. We have ten fingers and there are ten digits. We use the letters of the alphabet to make up words, and we use digits to make up numbers. There are two ways to write numbers. You can write them as numerals. You can write them using word names.

Numeral | Word Name |
---|---|

0 | zero |

1 | one |

2 | two |

3 | three |

4 | four |

5 | five |

6 | six |

7 | seven |

8 | eight |

9 | nine |

Counting is matching the number name to the things being counted. You see a bowl of apples on the table. You want to know how many apples are in the bowl. You answer that question by saying, “There are one, two, three, four apples.” You are giving the number names “one”, “two”, “three,” and “four” to the apples. The last number you say is the total number of apples.

Exercise 1

Count the number of shapes in each picture. Then write the numeral and the word name. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

Picture | Answer |
---|---|

Numeral: 3 Word name: Three | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: | |

Numeral: Word name: |

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 2, two
- 6, six
- 8, eight
- 9, nine
- 1, one
- 5, five
- 7, seven
- 4, four

Exercise 2

Here are the numerals from one to ten.

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 |

Practice writing them below.

Now practice writing the numerals from one to ten in the following. Try to do them without looking. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

a.

1 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 9 |

b.

2 | 4 | 6 | 8 | 10 |

c.

1 | 4 | 7 |

d.

3 | 6 | 9 |

**Answers to Exercise 2**

a.

2 | 4 | 6 | 8 | 10 |

b.

1 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 9 |

c.

2 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 8 | 9 | 10 |

d.

1 | 2 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 8 | 10 |

**Mark /18 Aim 15/18**

- Count the number of things in each picture, then write the numeral and the word name.
- Write the numerals from one to ten.

**Answers to Topic B Self-Test**

- 0, zero
- 6, six
- 8, eight
- 9, nine

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Emotions Check

How are you feeling?

- Are your palms moist?
- How is your breathing?

Take control. Be the boss. If you are feeling anxious, practice your breathing exercise.

Remember: Breathe in slowly to the count of four. Hold it for the count of four.

As you know, we count much higher than ten in our world. Each place in a number has a value.

The ones place tells how many ones there are.

- 3 means 3 ones.
- 0 means 0 ones
- 9 means 9 ones

9 is the largest amount that we can express (write or say) with one digit.

The tens place shows how many tens there are. The ones place must have a digit in it before there can be a digit in the tens place.

Every ten is ten ones.

43 means 4 tens and 3 ones.

20 means 2 tens and 0 ones. The zero holds the ones place.

99 means 9 tens and 9 ones. 99 is the largest amount that we can express (write or say) using only two digits.

Exercise 1

Fill in the blanks to make each sentence true. Draw a picture for questions c, f, h, and j like the examples. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Ask your instructor to check your sketches.

**Example**

49 means **4** tens and **9** ones.

- 37 means tens and ones.
- 65 means tens and ones.
- 56 means tens and ones.
- 87 means tens and ones
- 33 means tens and ones.
- 60 means tens and ones.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 3 tens, 7 ones
- 6 tens, 5 ones
- 5 tens, 6 ones
- 8 tens, 7 ones
- 3 tens, 3 ones
- 6 tens, 0 ones

The place to the left of the tens place is the **hundreds place**. It shows how many hundreds there are. A number written using three whole digits has a hundreds place, a tens place, and a ones place.

Every hundred is the same as ten tens, and every hundred is the same as one hundred ones.

Every hundred is ten tens – every hundred is the same as one hundred ones.

100 100 100

425 means 4 hundreds, 2 tens, and 5 ones

354 means 3 hundreds, 5 tens, and 4 ones

Exercise 2

Fill in the blanks to make each sentence true. Draw a picture for questions **b,** **c, d, and e, **like the examples. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Ask your instructor to check your sketches.

- 190 =
__1__hundreds,__9__tens,__0__ones. - 555 = hundreds, tens, ones.
- 309 = hundreds, tens, ones.
- 499 = hundreds, tens, ones.
- 480 = hundreds, tens, ones.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 5 hundreds, 5 tines, 5 ones
- 3 hundreds, 0 tens, 9 ones
- 4 hundreds, 9 tens, 9 ones
- 4 hundreds, 8 tens, 0 ones

Exercise 3

Count the hundreds, tens, and ones shown in the drawings. The pictures will help you understand the quantity of a number. Then write the numeral. The first one is done for you. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 2 hundreds, 0 tens, 3 ones = 203

- hundreds, tens, ones =

- hundreds, tens, ones =

- hundreds, tens, ones =

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 4 hundreds, 3 tens, 1 ones
- 1 hundreds, 8 tens, 0 ones
- 2 hundreds, 0 tens, 3 ones

Need more practice?

Ask your instructor for some fake money. Using the one, ten, and hundred dollar bills, practice trading ten of one type of bill for one of the next value.

Exercise 4

Write the place value name (ones, tens, hundreds) for each underlined digit. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 622 hundreds
- 468 tens
- 920
- 920
- 648
- 426
- 534
- 555
- 451
- 901
- 226
- 486

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- ones
- hundreds
- tens
- ones
- hundreds
- tens
- tens
- ones
- hundreds
- ones

Exercise 5

Underline the digit for the place value named. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- hundreds, 416
- tens, 368
- tens, 364
- hundreds, 456
- ones, 206
- ones, 634

**Answers to Exercise 5**

- 4
- 6
- 6
- 4
- 6
- 4

Emotions Check

How are you feeling?

- Are your palms moist?
- How is your breathing?

Take control. Be the boss. If you are feeling anxious, practice your breathing exercise.

Remember: Breathe in slowly to the count of four, hold it for the count of four.

You know that the **digits **are 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 and that digits are arranged in different places so we can count larger amounts than our ten fingers!

When we use **digits, **we call what we write the **numeral.**

- 328 is a numeral
- 46 is a numeral
- 3 is a numeral

We use numerals to represent **numbers**.

If we think about language instead of mathematics it will be clearer.

**Letters **are used to make **words. **We respond to the **meaning **of words.

- Digits are the “letters” of math.
- Numerals are the “words” of math.
- Numbers are the “meaning” of math.

Now you know the place value of digits up to three places. Next you will learn to read and write numerals and number words. Some of the words to read and spell may be new to you.

The numerals from 1 to 12 have special words. These are:

Numeral | Word Name |
---|---|

0 | zero |

1 | one |

2 | two |

3 | three |

4 | four |

5 | five |

6 | six |

7 | seven |

8 | eight |

9 | nine |

10 | ten |

11 | eleven |

12 | twelve |

The number names for numerals from 13 to 19 are made up of two parts. The first part tells us **how many units**. The second part (“teen”) tells us there is also **1 ten**.

Numeral | Word Name | Meaning |
---|---|---|

13 | thirteen | three units and 1 ten |

14 | fourteen | four units and 1 ten |

15 | fifteen | five units and 1 ten |

16 | sixteen | six units and 1 ten |

17 | seventeen | seven units and 1 ten |

18 | eighteen | eight units and 1 ten |

19 | nineteen | nine units and 1 ten |

Exercise 6

Write the word name for each number. Try not to look at the list. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 6
- 17
- 4
- 14
- 12
- 13

**Answers to Exercise 6**

- six
- seventeen
- four
- fourteen
- twelve
- thirteen

The word names for the numbers 20 to 90 are also made up of two parts. The first part tells us **how many groups of tens**. The second part (“ty”) tells us we are counting **groups of tens **and not something else. The “-ty” may have come from a shortening of the word “ten”.

Number | Word Name | Meaning |
---|---|---|

20 | twenty | two tens |

30 | thirty | three tens |

40 | forty | four tens |

50 | fifty | five tens |

60 | sixty | six tens |

70 | seventy | seven tens |

80 | eighty | eight tens |

90 | ninety | nine tens |

The names for the numbers **between **groups of tens also follow a pattern. The first number tells us how many tens. The second number tells us how many ones.

Tens Ones | Tens Ones | Tens Ones |
---|---|---|

20 twenty | 30 thirty | 40 forty |

21 twenty-one | 31 thirty-one | 41 forty-one |

22 twenty-two | 32 thirty-two | 42 forty-two |

23 twenty-three | 33 thirty-three | 43 forty-three |

24 twenty-four | 34 thirty-four | 44 forty-four |

25 twenty-five | 35 thirty-five | 45 forty-five |

26 twenty-six | 36 thirty-six | 46 forty-six |

27 twenty-seven | 37 thirty-seven | 47 forty-seven |

28 twenty-eight | 38 thirty-eight | 48 forty-eight |

29 twenty-nine | 39 thirty-nine | 49 forty-nine |

The written names for numbers that have tens and ones are written with a hyphen (-) between them. This pattern with the hyphen continues up to ninety-nine (99).

Exercise 7

Write the word names for these numbers. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 24 twenty-four
- 35 thirty-five
- 83
- 46
- 59
- 20
- 53
- 25
- 15
- 38

**Answers to Exercise 7**

- eighty-three
- forty-six
- fifty-nine
- twenty
- fifty-three
- twenty-five
- fifteen
- thirty-eight

Exercise 8

Write the numerals for these word names. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- ninety-nine 99
- sixty-seven 67
- eighty-one
- eighteen
- twenty-six
- thirteen
- thirty
- forty-three

**Answers to Exercise 8**

- 81
- 18
- 26
- 13
- 30
- 43

When we write hundreds in words, we need two words. The first word tells us how many hundreds. The second word tells us we are counting hundreds.

200 two hundred

You now know how to write numbers in words up to 999.

Remember

- hyphen (-) between the tens and units
- no hyphen anywhere else
- no “s” on the hundred
- no “and” between the hundreds place and the tens place

**Here is another example. Watch out for the empty space!**

**Here is another example. Watch out for the empty space!**

**Here is another example. Watch out for the empty space!**

Remember

Empty spaces are not written in words.

Exercise 9

Write the word names for these numerals. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**623**is made of:

Each is written:

Put the parts together:**364**is made of:

Each is written:

Put the parts together:**213**is made of:

Each is written:

Put the parts together:**405**is made of:

Each is written:

Put the parts together:

Now, write the word name for each number. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 704
- 470
- 993
- 100
- 972

**Answers to Exercise 9**

**623**is made of: 6 hundreds, 2 tens, 3 ones

Each is written: six hundred, twenty, three

Put the parts together: six hundred twenty-three**364**is made of:3 hundreds, 6 tens, 4 ones

Each is written: three hundred, sixty, four

Put the parts together: three hundred sixty-four**213**is made of: 2 hundreds. 1 ten, 3 ones

Each is written: two hundred, thirteen

Put the parts together: two hundred thirteen**405**is made of:4 hundreds, 0 tens, 5 ones

Each is written: four hundred, five

Put the parts together: four hundred five- seven hundred four
- four hundred seventy
- nine hundred ninety-three
- one hundred
- nine hundred seventy-two

**Mark /17 Aim 14/17**

- Write the place value for the underlined digit. (6 marks)
- 765
- 903
- 479
- 185
- 732
- 397

- Write the word names for these numerals. (6 marks)
- 79
- 492
- 378
- 820
- 405
- 583

- Write the numerals for these word names. (5 marks)
- five hundred forty-seven
- three hundred eighty
- two hundred seventy-five
- four hundred sixteen
- nine hundred twenty-three

**Answers to Topic C Self-Test**

- tens
- tens
- hundreds
- ones
- ones
- hundreds

- seventy-nine
- four hundred ninety-two
- three hundred seventy-eight
- eight hundred twenty
- four hundred five
- five hundred eighty-three

- 547
- 380
- 275
- 416
- 923

We arrange **numerals **in order from smallest to largest. Sorting numbered papers such as order forms, arranging items by the date and comparing prices are some of the ways you use this skill.

Look at two numerals and tell which one is larger. How do you do this?

Exercise 1

Draw a line under the larger numeral in each pair.

- 43, 48
- 27, 21
- 64, 63
- 24, 35
- 92, 89
- 72, 81

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 27
- 64
- 35
- 92
- 81

To compare numerals, look at the place with the largest value.

**Example A: Compare 63 and 59**

Look at the tens place.

- 63 has a 6 in the tens place
- 59 has a 5 in the tens place.
- 63 is larger than 59.

**Example B: Compare 496 and 476**

Look at the hundreds place.

- Both have 4’s.

Look at the tens place.

- 496 has a 9 in the tens place
- 476 has a 7 in the tens place.
- 496 is larger than 476.

**Note:** Numerals with one digit are always less than numerals with two digits. Numerals with two digits are always less than numerals with three digits, and so on.

- 9 is less than 15
- 87 is less than 107
- 999 is less than 1 001

Exercise 2

Draw a line under the larger numeral in each pair. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 36, 46
- 580, 59
- 87, 67
- 716, 116
- 429, 449
- 289, 283
- 471, 422
- 316, 322
- 876, 318

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 580
- 87
- 716
- 449
- 289
- 471
- 322
- 876

Exercise 3

Draw a line under the larger numeral in each pair. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 148, 151
- 129, 132
- 34, 37
- 325, 236
- 118, 13
- 489 423
- 471, 422
- 316, 322
- 876, 319

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 132
- 37
- 325
- 118
- 489
- 471
- 322
- 876

Now use the same ideas to arrange more than two numerals in order. For example, to arrange **6, 616, 1, 66, 666, 61**, and **16** in order from **smallest** to **largest**, use the following method.

First, sort the numerals with the same number of digits into groups:

- 6, 1
- 66, 61, 16, and
- 616, 666

The group of one digit numerals contains 6 and 1. As 1 is smaller than 6, the list starts with 1, then 6.

The group of two-digit numerals contains 66, 61, and 16. Use your skills in ordering numerals to see that 16 is smallest, then 61, and 66 is the largest of this group. The list now reads, 1, 6, 16, 61, 66.

Finally, look at the three-digit numerals, 616 and 666. As 616 is smaller than 666, it will come first. The list now reads: 1, 6, 16, 61, 66, 616, 666.

Exercise 4

Arrange these numbers in order from smallest to largest. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 323, 32, 332, 33, 3, 322, 2
- 44, 7, 474, 47, 744, 74, 77
- 123, 135, 152, 125
- 472, 427, 452, 475

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 2, 3, 32, 33, 322, 323, 332
- 7, 44, 47, 74, 77, 474, 744
- 123, 125, 135, 152
- 427, 452, 472, 475

The sign < means “is less than” (smaller than).

The sign >** **means “is greater than” (bigger than).

The **greater than **and **less than **signs always point to the smaller number. That is, the point or the tip of the sign is close to the small number.

- 5 < 12 means 5 is less than 12
- 6 > 3 means 6 is greater than 3

The sign = means “**equals**” and is used when two amounts are the same.

Remember

The hungry mouth goes to the biggest number.

Exercise 5

Write <, >, or = in each blank as needed. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 3 < 5
- 8 > 7
- 12 9
- 28 28
- 48 84
- 376 376
- 520 530
- 582 521
- 674 296
- 214 251
- 879 900
- 784 784

**Answers to Exercise 5**

- >
- =
- <
- =
- <
- >
- >
- <
- <
- =

**Mark /12 Aim 10/12**

- Box the larger number of each pair. (6 marks)
- 978, 789
- 566, 556
- 120, 142
- 701, 710
- 430, 403
- 879, 987

- Arrange these numerals in order from smallest to largest. (2 marks)
- 75, 754, 475, 47, 747, 574, 775
- 18, 237, 429, 824, 37, 994, 112

- Write >, <. or = in each blank to make a true statement. (4 marks)
- 678 768
- 102 100
- 463 846
- 101 101

**Answers to Topic D Self Test**

- 978
- 566
- 142
- 710
- 430
- 987

- 47, 75, 475, 574, 747, 754, 775
- 18, 37, 112, 237, 429, 824, 994

- <
- >
- <
- =

We use numbers a lot in our everyday lives. List some of the ways you use numbers.

You may have written money, shopping, time, and counting as part of your answer.

Think about time. Let’s say it takes eight minutes to walk to the bus. If someone asks you how long it takes, you will probably say, “About ten minutes.”

If you buy a sweater that cost $29, you may say, “Oh, it was around thirty dollars.”

How far is it from Vancouver to Prince George? The map says 796 km, but we would probably say, “About 800 kilometres.”

You have just read examples of **rounding numbers.**

We round numbers for many reasons:

- We may not know the exact number.
- The exact number may not be important for what we are doing.
- We may need a
**quick way to figure**something out.

When you are rounding numbers, use zeros to hold the places at the end of the number. Work through the following examples and exercises carefully. **Rounding is an important skill.**

Here is a short method to round to the nearest ten. When rounding to the nearest ten, do this:

- Underline the tens digit. 83
- Look at the digit following in the ones place. 83
- If the digit in the ones place is less than 5, write a 0 in the ones place. Leave the tens digit as it is.
- 42, rounds to 40 (42 is nearer to 40 than to 50)
- 14, rounds to 10
- 83, rounds to 80

- If the digit in the ones place is 5 or more, write a 0 in the ones place. Add one more ten to the tens place.
- 36, rounds to
**4**0 (36 is nearer to 40 than to 30) - 25, rounds to
**3**0 - 98, rounds to
**10**0 (one more ten than nine tens is ten tens)

- 36, rounds to

**Note**: If you are rounding to the nearest ten, single digits are rounded like this:

- 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 all round to
**0**. - 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 all round to
**10**.

A number rounded to the nearest ten will have a zero in the ones place.

The number will end with

0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90.

When you round a number, use the sign that means “approximately equal” ≈.

Exercise 1

Round each number to the nearest 10. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**47**is between tens and tens.

**47**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .**81**is between tens and tens.

**81**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .**14**is between tens and tens.

**14**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .**26**is between tens and tens.

**26**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .**98**is between tens and tens.

**98**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .**57**is between tens and tens.

**57**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .**73**is between tens and tens.

**73**is closest to tens.

Rounded number is .

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 4 tens, 5 tens

5 tens

50 - 8 tens, 9 tens

8 tens

80 - 1 tens, 2 tens

1 ten

10 - 2 tens, 3 tens

3 tens

30 - 9 tens. 10 tens

10 tens

100 - 5 tens, 6 tens

6 tens

60 - 7 tens, 8 tens

7 tens

70

Exercise 2

Round each number to the nearest ten. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 22 ≈ 20
- 86 ≈ 90
- 31 ≈
- 96 ≈
- 84 ≈
- 55 ≈
- 8 ≈
- 2 ≈
- 63 ≈
- 49 ≈
- 25 ≈
- 71 ≈
- 38 ≈
- 51 ≈
- 88 ≈

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 30
- 100
- 80
- 60
- 10
- 0
- 60
- 50
- 30
- 70
- 40
- 50
- 90

Numbers of any size can be rounded to the nearest ten using the method you have just learned.

Exercise 3

Round each number to the nearest ten. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 424 ≈
- 867 ≈
- 499 ≈
- 132 ≈
- 278 ≈
- 617 ≈
- 208 ≈
- 851 ≈
- 124 ≈
- 576 ≈
- 315 ≈
- 742 ≈
- 397 ≈
- 952 ≈
- 639 ≈

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 420
- 870
- 500
- 130
- 280
- 620
- 210
- 850
- 120
- 580
- 320
- 740
- 400
- 950
- 640

Exercise 4

For each problem, round the numbers to the nearest ten. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Example: **

Mei Ling has just moved into a new apartment. She bought the following items. Round each amount to the nearest ten.

Item | Cost | Rounded to nearest ten |
---|---|---|

Towels | $14 | $10 |

Dishes | $32 | $30 |

Saucepan | $43 | $40 |

Microwave | $109 | $110 |

Carving knife | $18 | $20 |

- Akkul walked 12 kilometres on Monday, 26 kilometres on Tuesday and 6 kilometres on Wednesday. Round each number to the nearest ten.

Day Number Rounded Number Monday 12 Tuesday 26 Wednesday 6 - Werner is a keen bird watcher. On Monday, he saw 57 birds, on Tuesday he saw 124 birds, on Wednesday he saw 31 birds and on Thursday he saw 75 birds. Round each number to the nearest ten.

Day Number Rounded Number Monday 57 Tuesday 124 Wednesday 31 Thursday 75 - Jamir drove 678 kilometres, 493 kilometres, 387 kilometres and 914 kilometres in one week. Round each mileage to the nearest ten.

Day Kilometres Rounded Number #1 678 #2 493 #3 387 #4 914

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 10, 30, 10
- 60, 120, 30, 80
- 680, 490, 390, 910

**Mark /12 Aim 10/12**

- Round your answer to the nearest ten. (8 marks)
- 47 ≈
- 123 ≈
- 4 ≈
- 945 ≈
- 329 ≈
- 481 ≈
- 865 ≈
- 916 ≈

- Round each number to the nearest ten. (4 marks)

Mary scored 78, 91, 79, 67 and 102 on her arithmetic test. Round her scores to the nearest ten.Score Rounded Score 78 91 79 67 102

**Answers to Topic E Self-Test**

- 50
- 120
- 0
- 950
- 330
- 480
- 870
- 920

- 80, 90, 80, 70, 100

Practice your counting by filling in the counting chart. Have your instructor check your chart when you are done.

0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |

10 | |||||||||

If you had a pile of pennies or loonies, you would count by ones in order to find out how much money you have.

Use your counting chart and start at 1. Write down every second number.

0 | 1 | 3 | 5 | ||||||

The numbers above are called **odd **numbers.

Use your counting chart and starting at 0. Write down every second number.

0 | 2 | 4 | 6 | ||||||

The numbers above are called the **even** numbers. If you had a pile of toonies, you could count by twos to find out how much money you have.

Use your counting chart and start at 0. Count five and write down that number.

0 | 5 | 10 | |||||||

If you had a pile of nickels or five dollar bills and wanted to know how much money you have, you would count by 5s.

Use your counting chart and starting at 0. Count ten and write down that number.

0 | 10 | 20 |

If you had a pile of dimes or ten dollar bills and wanted to know how much money you have, you would count by 10s.

Exercise 1

Count how much money you have. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Example:**

How many nickels? 3

How much money do you have? 15 cents

- How many toonies do you have?

How much money do you have? dollars. - How many dimes do you have?

How much money do you have? cents. - How many nickels do you have?

How much money do you have? cents. - How many dimes do you have?

How much money do you have? cents. - How many nickels do you have?

How much money do you have? cents. - How many toonies do you have?

How much money do you have? dollars. - How many dimes do you have?

How much money do you have? cents.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 4 toonies, 8 dollars
- 7 dimes, 70 cents
- 9 nickels, 45 cents
- 4 dimes, 40 cents
- 10 nickels, 50 cents
- 13 toonies, 26 dollars
- 9 dimes, 90 cents

**Mark /16 Aim 13/16**

- Write the first 10 odd numbers starting with 1. (5 marks)
- Write the first 10 even numbers starting at 2. (5 marks)
- How much money do you have? (6 marks, 2 marks each)
- How much money do you have? cents.
- How much money do you have? dollars.
- How much money do you have? cents.

**Answers to Topic F Self-Test **

- 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 17, 19

- 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20

- 75 cents
- 38 dollars
- 80 cents

Emotions Check

How are you feeling?

- Are your palms moist?
- How is your breathing?

Take control. Be the boss. If you are feeling anxious, practice your breathing exercise.

Remember: Breathe in slowly to the count of four, hold it for the count of four.

You will now practice all the skills you learned in Unit 1. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the review.

- Count the number of things in each picture. Write the number and word name.

Picture Answer Numeral:

Word Name:Numeral:

Word Name:Numeral:

Word Name:Numeral:

Word Name:Numeral:

Word Name: - Fill in the blanks to make each sentence true. Draw a picture for questions b and e.
- 46 means tens and ones.
- 25 means tens and ones. Draw your picture below.
- means tens and ones.

- 138 = hundreds, tens, ones.
- 231 = hundreds, tens, ones. Draw your picture below.
- hundreds tens ones =

- Write the place value names (ones, tens, hundreds) for each individual digit.
- 821
- 294
- 638
- 417
- 346
- 573

- Underline the digit for the place value named.
- hundreds, 164
- tens, 892
- tens, 250
- hundreds, 371
- ones, 485
- ones, 743

- Write the word names for the numbers.
- 73
- 14
- 5
- 39
- 52
- 496
- 803
- 640

- Write the numerals for these word names.
- forty-seven
- nineteen
- sixty-five
- thirty-eight
- twenty-four
- five hundred thirty-five
- three hundred sixty
- two hundred four

- Arrange these numbers in order from smallest to largest.
- 258, 32, 23, 282, 345, 534
- 452, 208, 27, 335, 635, 155

- Write <, > or = in each blank as needed.
- 37 52
- 4 0
- 349 394
- 67 67

- Round each number to the nearest ten.
- 37 ≈
- 344 ≈
- 68 ≈
- 25 ≈
- 51 ≈
- 876 ≈

- How much money do you have?
- cents
- dollars
- cents

- Word problems.
- Hussein’s fruit stand sold 114 watermelons, 287 honeydew melons and 345 cantaloupes. Round each number to the nearest ten.

Melon Number Rounded Number Watermelons Honeydews Cantaloupes - Yi-Min drove her delivery van 106 kilometres on Saturday, 187 kilometres on Sunday and 285 kilometres on Monday. Round each number to the nearest ten.

Kilometres Number Rounded Number Saturday Sunday Monday

- Hussein’s fruit stand sold 114 watermelons, 287 honeydew melons and 345 cantaloupes. Round each number to the nearest ten.

- 9, nine
- 7, seven
- 6, six
- 8, eight
- 5, five

- 4 tens, 6 ones
- 2 tens, 5 ones
- 63, 6 tens, 3 ones
- 1 hundred, 3 tens, 8 ones
- 2 hundreds, 3 tens, 1 one
- 325, 3 hundreds, 2 tens, 5 ones

- hundreds
- tens
- ones
- hundreds
- tens
- ones

- 164
- 892
- 250
- 371
- 485
- 743

- seventy-three
- fourteen
- five
- thirty-nine
- fifty-two
- four hundred ninety-six
- eight hundred three
- six hundred forty

- 47
- 19
- 65
- 38
- 24
- 535
- 360
- 204

- 23, 32, 258, 282, 345, 534
- 27, 155, 208, 335, 452, 635

- <
- >
- <
- =

- 40
- 340
- 70
- 30

- 70 cents
- 26 dollars
- 90 cents

Melon Number Rounded Number Watermelons 114 110 Honeydews 287 290 Cantaloupes 345 350 Kilometres Number Rounded Number Saturday 106 110 Sunday 187 190 Monday 285 290

CONGRATULATIONS!!

Now you have finished Unit 1.

TEST TIME!

Ask your instructor for the Practice Test for this unit.

Once you’ve done the Practice Test,

You need to do the Unit 1 Test.

Again, ask your instructor for this.

GOOD LUCK!

**Addition **puts amounts together. The answer of addition is called the **sum **or the **total.**

The **plus sign ****+ **means to add.

says “three plus two equals five” or “three and two is five”.

The **sum **is 5.

You can count on your fingers to get the answers to addition questions but counting takes too long.

**Addition facts **are a tool that you use to do adding questions.

Exercise 1

Check out your **addition facts** by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total** or **sum** (what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 9. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 6
- 4
- 3
- 7
- 4
- 5
- 7
- 6
- 2
- 9
- 8
- 3
- 8
- 7
- 5
- 9

Exercise 2

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 9. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 9
- 9
- 8
- 6
- 0
- 5
- 8
- 9
- 6
- 2
- 7
- 2
- 9
- 1
- 8
- 6

Exercise 3

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 9. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 9
- 9
- 5
- 9
- 4
- 7
- 6
- 7
- 4
- 9
- 5
- 5

Exercise 4

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 12. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 11
- 10
- 8
- 12
- 7
- 8
- 10
- 12
- 12
- 9
- 9
- 10
- 9
- 8
- 12
- 11

Exercise 5

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 12. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 5**

- 11
- 10
- 11
- 7
- 11
- 11
- 9
- 10
- 10
- 12
- 12
- 8
- 9
- 3
- 9
- 9

Exercise 6

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 12. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 6**

- 12
- 8
- 10
- 7
- 11
- 10
- 10
- 12
- 11
- 7
- 12
- 11

Need more practice?

Practice your addition facts using a set of dice.

Roll the dice and add the amounts on the dice.

Exercise 7

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 7**

- 13
- 14
- 13
- 12
- 16
- 19
- 15
- 10
- 15
- 17
- 10
- 16
- 11
- 8
- 9
- 9

Exercise 8

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 8**

- 11
- 14
- 18
- 15
- 10
- 11
- 11
- 13
- 7
- 12
- 17
- 10

Exercise 9

Check out your **addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 9**

- 13
- 9
- 10
- 9
- 16
- 13
- 15
- 12
- 10
- 12
- 10
- 15
- 10
- 13
- 16
- 12

Exercise 10

**addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 10**

- 17
- 14
- 16
- 11
- 10
- 13
- 11
- 11
- 11
- 15
- 14
- 14

Exercise 11

**addition facts **by doing this exercise as quickly as possible without counting on your fingers. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 11**

- 9
- 8
- 8
- 10
- 9
- 15
- 4
- 2
- 13
- 11
- 5
- 16

Need some extra practice?

Find a partner and play the following card game. You will use a regular deck of cards

- Take out the jacks, queens and kings.
- Shuffle the cards and deal them out.
- Do not look at your cards. Leave them in a pile in from of you.
- Each player flips over a card.
- Take turns adding the numbers on the cards.
- If the person whose turn it is gets the right answer that person gets to keep the cards.
- If the person whose turn it is gets the wrong answer the other player gets the cards.
- The person who collects all the cards is the winner.
- You could also set a time limit and the person with the most cards when time is up is the winner.

Exercise 12

Here are some extra questions if you need more practice. The highest **total **or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise. Then, make a list of any addition facts you do not know, or which are slow, practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 12**

- 13
- 11
- 6
- 15
- 3
- 10
- 13
- 7
- 13
- 3
- 16
- 9
- 8
- 8
- 10
- 9

So far you have only been adding numbers when they are **up and down **or **vertical.**

**Example:**

Another way to add numbers is **across **or **horizontally. **

4 + 5 = 9

In math, sometimes you will need to work from left to right.

Exercise 13

Practice adding across or horizontally. The highest total or **sum **(what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 10 + 0 =
- 2 + 2 =
- 5 + 3 =
- 1 + 1 =
- 8 + 4 =
- 7 + 1 =
- 0 + 4 =
- 6 + 3 =
- 3 + 2 =
- 1 + 10 =
- 9 + 3 =
- 4 + 9 =
- 3 + 7 =
- 4 + 8 =

**Answers to Exercise 13**

- 10
- 4
- 8
- 2
- 12
- 8
- 4
- 9
- 5
- 11
- 12
- 13
- 10
- 12

Exercise 14

Practice adding across or horizontally. The highest **total** or **sum** (what the numbers add up to) for these number facts is 20. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 9 + 6 =
- 8 + 9 =
- 9 + 9 =
- 2 + 3 =
- 7 + 3 =
- 10 + 8 =
- 9 + 7 =
- 8 + 8 =
- 8 + 10 =
- 3 + 9 =
- 9 + 2 =
- 4 + 4 =

**Answers to Exercise 14**

- 15
- 17
- 18
- 5
- 10
- 18
- 16
- 16
- 18
- 12
- 11
- 8

Learning addition facts is very important. Once you know them all, you can use them to solve word problems.

Word such as:

- more than
- plus
- added to
- sum
- total
- have altogether
- in all

tell you to add the numbers together.

Look for these words when reading word problems and underline them before trying to solve a problem. Circle the information that is given.

**Example:**

Before lunch Jane read 2 pages. After lunch she read 9 pages. How many pages did she read in all?

Before lunch Jane read 2 pages. After lunch she read 9 pages. How many pages did she read in all?

- You have circled 2 pages and 9 pages. This is the information you will use to find the answer.
- You have underlined “in all”. These words tell you to add.

Jane read 11 pages in all.

Exercise 15

Solve each of the following word problems. Be sure to underline the words that tell you to add. Circle the information that is given. Have your instructor check your underlining and circling.

- Sven bought 7 cans of juice on Monday. He bought 9 cans of juice on Wednesday. How many cans of juice did he buy altogether?
- During the hockey game, Ewan took 8 shots from the blue line and 4 shots from in front of the net. How many shots did he take in all?
- Marlene noticed that there were 4 people in her math class. The next day 6 more people were in her math class. What is the total number of people in Marlene’s math class?
- The Blue Jays played two baseball games in a row. They got 10 runs in the first game and 7 runs in the second game. How many runs did they score altogether?
- Jaswinder had 9 apples in her grocery cart. She added 5 more different apples. How many apples did she have in total?

**Answers to Exercise 15**

- 16 cans
- 12 shots
- 10 people
- 17 runs
- 14 apples

**Mark /22 Aim 19/22**

- Find the sums. Be sure to check your answers. (12 marks)
- Find the sums. Be sure to check your answers. (4 marks)
- 6 + 7 =
- 3 + 8 =
- 4 + 6 =
- 8 + 5 =

- Solve each of the following word problems. Be sure to include the unit of measure in your answer. Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.(6 marks, 2 marks each)
- Paco worked 5 hours on Monday and 9 hours on Tuesday. How many hours did Paco work in total?
- In the park, Ming-Mai counted 6 robins in the morning. In the afternoon, she counted 8 more robins. How many robins in all did Ming-Mai count?
- Omari bought 3 bananas on Monday. He bought 5 bananas on Tuesday. How many bananas did he buy altogether?

**Answers to Topic A Self Test**

- 15
- 13
- 6
- 13
- 8
- 10
- 5
- 10
- 9
- 17
- 11
- 11

- 13
- 11
- 10
- 13

- 14 hours
- 14 robins
- 8 bananas

To add three or more numbers together, use the following steps.

- Add the first two numbers together.
- Add that sum to the next number.
- Add that sum to the next number (if needed).

**Example A:**

- Add the first two numbers together.

- Add that sum to the next number.

The sum of:

**Example B: **

- Add the first two numbers together.

- Add that sum to the third number.

The sum of:

Exercise 1

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 8
- 11
- 14
- 14
- 13
- 17
- 13
- 14
- 12
- 18
- 12
- 14
- 14
- 10
- 13
- 13

Exercise 2

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 15
- 16
- 14
- 11
- 13
- 11
- 11
- 11
- 14
- 18
- 11
- 16

Exercise 3

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 13
- 7
- 8
- 11
- 7
- 8
- 17
- 12
- 16
- 8
- 15
- 9
- 8
- 17
- 12
- 6

Exercise 4

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 13
- 15
- 17
- 15
- 9
- 9
- 9
- 13
- 13
- 11
- 7
- 9

Did you spot the fact that each answer in the word problems before had a **unit of measure**? A **unit of measure **just tells you what you measured. **Units of measure **can be pages, fish, cans, kilometres, meters, centimetres, litres, millilitres, grams, or kilograms. When you answer a word problem, you must include the **unit of measure **in your answer.

Try the following questions. Be sure to include the unit of measure in your answer.

**Perimeter **means **distance around**. To find the **perimeter **of a shape, find the lengths of the sides and add them together.

**Example: Rectangle**

To find the perimeter, add the lengths of the sides of the rectangle.

- Perimeter = 3 + 2 + 3 + 2
- Perimeter = 10 meters

Exercise 5

Find the perimeter of each figure. Be sure to include the units of measure in your answer. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- Find the perimeter of the swimming pool.

- Find the perimeter of the garden.

- Find the perimeter of the greenhouse.

- Find the perimeter of the sign.

**Answers to Exercise 5**

- 14 metres
- 13 metres
- 12 metres
- 10 metres

**Mark /18 Aim 15/18**

- Find the sums. Be sure to check your answers. (12 marks)
- Solve each of the following word problems. Be sure to include the unit of measure in your answer. Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.(6 marks, 2 marks each)
- It took the cleanup crew 4 hours on Monday, 3 hours on Tuesday and 9 hours on Wednesday to clean the factory after each day’s work. How many hours in total did it take to clean the factory?
- Nella wants to put a fence around her garden. The garden measures 5 metres, 3 metres and 1 metre. How much fence does she need?
- Find the perimeter of the garden.

**Answers to Topic B Self-Test**

- 12
- 18
- 17
- 7
- 16
- 17
- 11
- 16
- 17
- 12
- 16
- 14

- 16 hours
- 9 metres
- 12 metres

Use these steps to complete each addition question.

- Add the ones to the ones.
- Add the tens to the tens.
- Add the hundreds to the hundreds.

**Example A:**

- Add the ones to the ones. 3 ones + 6 ones = 9 ones. Write the answer in line with the ones in the equation.

- Add the tens. 2 tens + 5 tens = 7 tens

The sum of 23 + 56 = 79

**Example B: **

- Add the ones. 2 ones + 5 ones = 7 ones

- Add the tens. 7 tens + 1 ten = 8 tens

- Add the hundreds. 3 hundreds + 4 hundreds = 7 hundreds

The sum of 372 + 415 = 789

Exercise 1

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 79
- 89
- 79
- 75
- 87
- 98
- 85
- 58
- 46
- 39
- 90
- 69
- 64
- 39
- 79
- 51

Exercise 2

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 98
- 89
- 99
- 96
- 95
- 77
- 89
- 89
- 69
- 97
- 99
- 99

Exercise 3

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 96
- 77
- 84
- 94
- 77
- 96
- 99
- 58
- 79
- 67
- 79
- 99
- 57
- 77
- 76
- 36

Exercise 4

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 799
- 899
- 698
- 864
- 893
- 988
- 888
- 350
- 887

Exercise 5

Find the sums. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 5**

- 572
- 867
- 748
- 597
- 387
- 925
- 873
- 838
- 654

- Find the sums. Be sure to check your answers. (12 marks)
- Solve each of the following word problems. Be sure to include the unit of measure in your answer. Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.(6 marks, 2 marks each)
- Mahala’s dad worked 45 hours one week and 52 hours the next week. How many hours did he work during those two weeks?
- A trucker drove 526 kilometers on the first trip and 341 kilometers on the next. How many kilometers did the trucker drive altogether?
- Find the perimeter of the garden.

**Answers to Topic C Self-Test**

- 69
- 45
- 97
- 68
- 99
- 76
- 587
- 697
- 898
- 738
- 689
- 779

- 97 hours
- 867 kilometres
- 46 metres

Emotions Check

How are you feeling?

- Are your palms moist?
- How is your breathing?

Take control. Be the boss. If you are feeling anxious, practice your breathing exercise.

Remember: Breathe in slowly to the count of four, hold it for the count of four.

You will now practice all the skills you learned in Unit 2. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the review.

- Check out your addition facts.
- Add across or horizontally.
- 8 + 7 =
- 0 + 3 =
- 8 + 10 =
- 5 + 2 =
- 2 + 2 =
- 7 + 5 =
- 9 + 8 =
- 3 + 6 =
- 9 + 5 =
- 1 + 5 =

- Find the sums.
- Find the sums.
- Find the sums.
- Word problems. Find the perimeter of the shape. Be sure to put the unit of measure in your answer. Write the name of the shape below the picture.
- The CN Tower in Toronto is 554 metres high. On top of the tower is a TV mast that is 122 metres high. What is the total height of the tower and TV mast?
- Seung weighs 36 kilograms. His father weighs 62 kilograms. How much do they weigh altogether?

- 11
- 10
- 7
- 16
- 17
- 14
- 13
- 5
- 12
- 6
- 18
- 9
- 3
- 4
- 15
- 8

- 15
- 3
- 18
- 7
- 4
- 12
- 17
- 9
- 14
- 6

- 12
- 8
- 16
- 12
- 9
- 17
- 13
- 13
- 17

- 56
- 99
- 76
- 113
- 96
- 88
- 85
- 76
- 95
- 67
- 107
- 78

- 865
- 867
- 779
- 597
- 598
- 447
- 778
- 966
- 849
- 869
- 586
- 956

- 8 metres, rectangle
- 20 metres, square
- 676 metres
- 98 kilograms

CONGRATULATIONS!!

Now you have finished Unit 2.

TEST TIME!

Ask your instructor for the Practice Test for this unit.

Once you’ve done the Practice Test,

You need to do the Unit 2 Test.

Again, ask your instructor for this.

GOOD LUCK!

**Subtraction **takes an amount **away **from another amount. The result of subtraction is called the **difference.**

The **minus sign** − means to subtract.

says nine minus three equals six **or **nine take away three is six.

The **difference **between 9 and 3 is 6.

Subtraction is the opposite of addition.

**Look at the examples:**

**Subtraction facts** are a tool that you will use to do subtraction questions.

Exercise 1

Check out your **subtraction facts **by doing the following exercises as quickly as you can. Use your addition facts to help find the subtraction facts. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercises. Then, make a list of any subtraction facts you do not know or which are slow for you and practice them.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 1
- 1
- 0
- 1
- 6
- 2
- 1
- 5
- 5
- 0
- 1
- 1

Exercise 2

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 4
- 8
- 2
- 2
- 5
- 3
- 2
- 3
- 5
- 1
- 0
- 9

Exercise 3

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 4
- 0
- 1
- 1
- 0
- 3
- 1
- 7
- 9
- 1
- 0
- 2
- 0
- 2
- 5
- 1

Exercise 4

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 4
- 6
- 5
- 2
- 2
- 3
- 6
- 4

Exercise 5

**Answers to Exercise 5**

- 9
- 3
- 2
- 5
- 0
- 6
- 8
- 1

Exercise 6

**Answers to Exercise 6**

- 4
- 6
- 1
- 5
- 7
- 6
- 2
- 4
- 4
- 2
- 1
- 5

Exercise 6

**Answers to Exercise 6**

- 4
- 6
- 1
- 5
- 7
- 6
- 2
- 4
- 4
- 2
- 4
- 5

Exercise 7

**Answers to Exercise 7**

- 8
- 9
- 5
- 1
- 0
- 8
- 4
- 3
- 9
- 5
- 6
- 2

Practice your subtraction facts using dominoes. Place all the dominoes face down.

Exercise 8

**Answers to Exercise 8**

- 9
- 4
- 6
- 2
- 1
- 7
- 7
- 9
- 1
- 3
- 7
- 5
- 6
- 2
- 6
- 6

Need some extra practice?

- Find a partner and play this card game.
- Using a regular deck of cards, a jack will be eleven, a queen will be twelve and a king will be thirteen.
- Shuffle the cards and deal them out. Keep your cards in a pile in front of you.
- Each player flips over a card.
- Take turns subtracting the numbers on the cards. If the person gets the right answer that person gets to keep the cards. If the person get the wrong answer the other player gets the cards.
- The person who collects all the cards is the winner.
- You could also set a time limit and the person with the most cards when time is up is the winner.

So far you have only been subtracting numbers when they are **up and down **or **vertical.**

**Example:**

Another way to subtract numbers is **across **or **horizontally.**

9 − 5 = 4

When you subtract numbers across, you work from left to right.

Exercise 9

Practice subtracting across or horizontally. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 6 − 3 =
- 12 − 8 =
- 4 − 1 =
- 8 − 6 =
- 18 − 9 =
- 11 − 4 =
- 7 − 2 =
- 16 − 7 =
- 10 − 5 =
- 2 − 0 =
- 9 − 5 =
- 17 − 8 =

**Answers to Exercise 9**

- 3
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 9
- 7
- 5
- 9
- 5
- 2
- 4
- 9

Exercise 10

Practice subtracting across or horizontally. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 9 − 6 =
- 14 − 5 =
- 8 − 4 =
- 7 − 1 =
- 11 − 7 =
- 5 − 0 =
- 4 − 3 =
- 15 − 8 =
- 11 − 9 =
- 10 − 2 =
- 9 − 2 =
- 8 − 3 =

**Answers to Exercise 10**

- 3
- 9
- 4
- 6
- 4
- 5
- 1
- 7
- 2
- 8
- 7
- 5

Exercise 11

Practice subtracting across or horizontally. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

- 3 − 2 =
- 17 − 9 =
- 14 − 7 =
- 9 − 3 =
- 12 − 5 =
- 8 − 8 =
- 6 − 1 =
- 13 − 4 =
- 11 − 6 =
- 4 − 0 =
- 8 − 1 =
- 16 − 9 =
- 7 − 0 =
- 13 − 8 =
- 12 − 3 =
- 9 − 4 =
- 15 − 7 =
- 10 − 6 =
- 11 − 5 =
- 5 − 2 =

**Answers to Exercise 11**

- 1
- 8
- 7
- 6
- 7
- 0
- 5
- 9
- 5
- 4
- 7
- 7
- 7
- 5
- 9
- 5
- 8
- 4
- 6
- 3

Learning subtraction facts is very important because once you know them all they become a tool to use when solving problems.

Words such as:

- less than
- minus
- subtracted from
- how many more
- how much more, and
- difference

tell you to subtract the numbers.

Look for these words when reading word problems and underline them before trying to solve a problem. Circle the information that is given.

**Example: **

There were 14 nails in a box. Lu used 7 of them. How many nails were still in the box?

There were 14 nails in a box. Lu used 7 of them. How many nails were still in the box?

You have circled 14 nails and 7. This is the information you will use to find the answer.

You have underlined “how many”. These words tell you to subtract.

Exercise 12

- Wolfgang walked 11 blocks. Ingrid walked 6 blocks. Wolfgang walked how much farther than Ingrid?
- Mika and her father went fishing. Mika caught 18 fish and her father caught 9 fish. How many more fish did Mika catch?
- Kuan-Lin was making moon cakes for the class party. She needed 15 cakes for the party. On Monday she had made 7 moon cakes. How many moon cakes did she still need to make?
- Malik counted 12 cars in the parking lot where he worked. One hour later, he counted only 4 cars. How many cars left?

**Answers to Exercise 12**

- 5 blocks
- 9 fish
- 8 moon cakes
- 8 cars

**Mark /21 Aim 18/27**

- Find the difference. Be sure to check your answers. (9 marks)
- Find the difference. Be sure to check your answers. (6 marks)
- 3 − 2 =
- 17 − 9 =
- 14 − 7 =
- 9 − 3 =
- 12 − 5 =
- 8 − 8 =

- Solve each of the following word problems. Be sure to include the unit of measure in your answer. Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.(6 marks, 2 marks each)
- Shada caught 17 fish. She gave 8 fish to her grandmother. How many fish did she have left?
- Yuan went to the store with $15 to buy some rice. The rice cost $6. How much did he have left?
- Carlo had 13 metres of fencing. He used 8 metres around his flower garden. How many metres did he have left?

**Answers to Topic A Self-Test**

- 8
- 9
- 6
- 7
- 6
- 8
- 4
- 2
- 9

- 1
- 8
- 7
- 6
- 7
- 0

- 9 fish
- $9
- 5 metres

You can find the difference between two large numbers using the basic subtraction facts you have been practicing. Always **take away **or subtract the **number after the minus sign.**

Use these steps to complete each subtraction question.

- Subtract the ones from the ones.
- Subtract the tens from the tens.
- Subtract the hundreds from the hundreds.

**Example A:**

- Subtract the ones from the ones. 7 ones − 6 ones = 1 one. Write the answer in line with the ones in the question.

- Subtract the tens from the tens. 5 tens – 2 tens = 3 tens

The **difference **between 57 and 26 is **31**.

**Example B:**

- Subtract the ones from the ones. 8 ones – 4 ones = 4 ones. Write the answer in line with the ones in the question.

- Subtract the tens. 2 tens – 2 tens = 0 tens.

- Subtract the hundreds. 6 hundreds – 5 hundreds = 1 hundred.

Write the answer in line with the hundreds in the question. The **difference **between 628 and 524 is **104**.

Exercise 1

Find the differences. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 51
- 8
- 8
- 36
- 30
- 53
- 71
- 31
- 61
- 31
- 22
- 30
- 45
- 24
- 73
- 12

Exercise 2

Find the differences. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 23
- 23
- 32
- 33
- 13
- 16
- 43
- 11
- 27
- 31
- 24
- 75
- 50
- 15
- 49
- 34

Exercise 3

Find the differences. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 12
- 32
- 12
- 45
- 11
- 23
- 20
- 62
- 71
- 12
- 41
- 16
- 10
- 34
- 73
- 11

Exercise 4

Find the differences. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- 63
- 313
- 205
- 623
- 105
- 543
- 446
- 364
- 353
- 345
- 555
- 445
- 222
- 333
- 824

**Mark /27 Aim 23/27**

- Find the difference. Be sure to check your answers. (6 marks)
- Find the difference. Be sure to check your answers. (6 marks)
- Solve each of the following word problems. Be sure to include the unit of measure in your answer. Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.(6 marks, 2 marks each)
- At noon the temperature was 34 degrees Celsius. At nine o’clock in the evening, it was 12 degrees Celsius. How many degrees did the temperature drop?
- Misha’s family is on a 179 kilometer trip. They have already gone 123 kilometers. How much farther to they have to go?
- The Burj Khalifa in Dubai is one of the tallest buildings in the world at 828 metres. The Eiffel Tower in Paris is 324 metres tall. How much taller is the Burj Khalifa than the Eiffel Tower?

**Answers to Topic B Self Test**

- 8
- 9
- 6
- 7
- 6
- 8

- 474
- 257
- 231
- 234
- 211
- 412

- 22 degrees Celsius
- 56 kilometres
- 504 metres

You will now practice all the skills you learned in Unit 3. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the review.

- Check out your subtraction facts.
- Subtract across or horizontally.
- 8 − 6 =
- 12 − 5 =
- 10 − 10 =
- 9 − 8 =
- 11 − 6 =
- 8 − 4 =
- 7 − 3 =
- 14 − 9 =

- Find the differences.
- Find the differences.
- Word problems.
- One week, Tiago changed 258 light bulbs in the building. The next week, Tiago changed 141 light bulbs. How many more bulbs did Tiago change the first week?
- Anoki drove 769 kilometres while his friend Dasan drove 534 kilometres on their trip. How many more kilometres did Anoki drive?

- 3
- 1
- 2
- 4
- 9
- 7
- 8
- 5
- 0
- 6
- 9
- 3
- 8
- 6
- 7
- 7

- 2
- 7
- 0
- 1
- 5
- 4
- 4
- 5

- 22
- 63
- 32
- 47
- 57
- 26
- 51
- 53
- 62

- 420
- 534
- 324
- 441
- 726
- 145
- 522
- 510
- 222
- 651
- 431
- 205

- 117 light bulbs
- 235 kilometres

CONGRATULATIONS!!

Now you have finished Unit 3.

TEST TIME!

Ask your instructor for the Practice Test for this unit.

Once you’ve done the Practice Test,

You need to do the Unit 3 Test.

Again, ask your instructor for this.

GOOD LUCK!

You use numbers in your everyday life. You often use **estimating **in your everyday life.

You go shopping and you only have twenty dollars, you may need to **estimate **how much your groceries are going to cost before you go to pay for them.

You commute by bus each day to work and it takes thirty-three minutes going to work and thirty-three minutes coming home at the end of the day. You would say that it takes you about one hour on the bus.

These are examples of **estimating.**

You have already learned about **rounding **numbers. You need to be able to round numbers in order to be able to **estimate**.

When you solve math problems, it is a good idea to **estimate **what the answer may be. **Estimating **the answer means finding an answer that is close to the real answer. **Estimating **helps you to see if the real answer is sensible. To **estimate **an answer, you need to round the numbers then add or subtract the rounded numbers. Remember to round to the nearest ten.

Example | Estimate |
---|---|

Exercise 1

Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 60
- 90
- 60
- 60
- 60
- 60
- 90
- 70
- 90
- 80
- 70
- 50
- 740
- 880
- 660
- 990

Exercise 2

Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 20
- 40
- 50
- 30
- 20
- 30
- 20
- 40
- 0
- 20
- 30
- 40
- 410
- 330
- 250
- 340

Exercise 3

Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest ten before adding or subtracting.

Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.

Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Example:**

There are 186 people living in my apartment building. If 103 are children, how many are adults?

There are 186 people living in my apartment building. If 103 are children, how many are adults?

Estimate:

About 90 people are adults.

- The bus has 84 passenger seats. All the seats are filled and 39 passengers are standing. How many passengers are on the bus?
- Trisha counted 67 boxes on one shelf. She counted 78 boxes on the next shelf. How many boxes were there altogether?
- The library loaned out 157 books on Monday. It loaned out 118 books on Tuesday. How many books did it loan on both days?
- Ryan worked on the computer for 78 minutes. Helen worked on the computer for 54 minutes. How much longer did Ryan work on the computer?
- The Ludlow factory has 73 people working in the factory. The Watson factory has 48 people working in their factory. How many more people work in the Ludlow factory?
- Mr. Martinez needs 257 metres of fencing. He has 125 metres. How much more fencing does he need to buy?

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 120 passengers
- 150 boxes
- 280 books
- 30 minutes
- 20 people
- 130 metres

The ancient Babylonians used a number system based on 60. We still use their number system when we talk about time.

There are 60 minutes in an hour, and there are 60 seconds in a minute.

- 60 minutes = 1 hour
- 60 seconds = 1 minute

Time is written in a standard format.

Hours: Minutes: Seconds

**Example:**

12 noon

would be written as 12:00:00

or 12:00 (without the seconds)

**Example: **

4 o’clock

would be written as 4:00:00

or 4:00 (without the seconds)

**Example:**

8 hours, 47 minutes, 3 seconds

would be written as 8:47:03

**Note:** When there is only one number, put in a zero to hold the tens place.

**Example:**

3 hours, 9 minutes, 3 seconds

would be written as 3:09:03

Exercise 1

Write the following times in standard format. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Example:**

2 hours, 7 minutes, 31 seconds. 2:07:31

- 3 hours, 56 minutes, 42 seconds
- 12 hours, 2 minutes, 29 seconds
- 1 hour, 23 minutes, 54 seconds
- 6 hours, 7 minutes, 39 seconds
- 11 hours, 41 minutes
- 7 hours, 14 minutes, 59 seconds
- 21 hours, 36 minutes
- 1 hour, 51 minutes, 41 seconds
- 5 hours, 18 minutes, 10 seconds

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- 3:56:42
- 12:02:29
- 1:23:54
- 6:07:39
- 11:41
- 7:14:59
- 21:36
- 1:51:41
- 5:18:10

You need to go to the dentist at 9:00 a.m. This is in the morning because of the **a.m. **The abbreviation **a.m. **means **ante meridiem **or **before noon. **We use a.m. for any times between 12 midnight and 12 noon.

You are meeting friends for dinner at 6:00 p.m. This is at night because of the **p.m. **The abbreviation **p.m. **means **post meridiem **or **after noon**. We use p.m. for any times between 12 noon and 12 midnight.

**Example:**

You catch the bus at 7 o’clock in the morning.

The time would be written as 7:00 a.m.

**Example:**

You are meeting friends to go fishing at 6:30 at night.

The time would be written as 6:30 p.m.

Exercise 2

Write the following times using a.m. or p.m. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Example:**

The sun rises at 7:07 in the morning.

7:07 a.m.

- Your shift at work starts at 8:30 in the morning.
- Your class starts at 1:00 in the afternoon.
- Your son has soccer practice at 4:00 in the afternoon.
- You catch your bus at 6:15 in the morning.
- You need to go to the doctor at 3:20 in the afternoon.

**Answers to Exercise 2**

- 8:30 a.m.
- 1:00 p.m.
- 4:00 p.m.
- 6:15 a.m.
- 3:20 p.m.

When you round time, if the minutes are more than thirty, you round up to the next number of hours. If the minutes are less than thirty, you remain at the same number of hours.

**Example:**

If it took 45 minutes to drive to school, you would round that to one hour because 45 minutes is greater than 30 minutes.

**Example:**

If it took one hour and 15 minutes to get to school by bus, you would round that to one hour because 15 minutes is less than 30 minutes.

**Example:**

If it took 8 hours and 37 minutes to complete the painting job, you would round that to 9 hours because 37 minutes is greater than 30 minutes.

Exercise 3

Round the following times to the nearest hour. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the exercise.

**Example:**

The movie lasted 3 hours and 13 minutes.

3 hours.

- You needed 2 hours and 15 minutes for grocery shopping.
- It took 1 hour and 50 minutes to cook dinner.
- You drove for 9 hours and 23 minutes.
- Your baby slept for 1 hour and 47 minutes.
- You visited with friends for 3 hours and 11 minutes.
- It took 2 hours and 35 minutes to play the hockey game.
- You rode on the bus for 1 hour and 28 minutes.
- You walked to work in 38 minutes.
- How long does it take you to get to school?

**Answers to Exercise 3**

- 2 hours
- 2 hours
- 9 hours
- 2 hours
- 3 hours
- 3 hours
- 1 hour
- 1 hour
- Check with your instructor.

The circle is a shape we all know.

These objects suggest the idea of a circle:

- rim of coffee cups and glasses
- top of lamp shades top of cans of food
- compact discs
- the ends of pipes and hoses (called the cross-section)
- the coloured part of your eye (the iris)

Add some examples of your own.

A **triangle **is a three-sided shape. Triangles have **three sides **and **three angles**.

Draw some different sized triangles here.

A **rectangle **is a four-sided shape. Rectangles have four sides and four **right **angles (square corners).

Can you think of anything that has a rectangle shape? Write it here.

A **square **is a special kind of rectangle. Squares have square corners and all four sides are the same length.

Can you think of anything that has a square shape? Write it here.

Exercise 1

The following things give the idea of a shape. Write the name of the shape in each blank. Then draw the shape.

**Example: **

A cookie is a circle.

- A door is a .
- This page is a .
- A yield sign is a .
- A room is usually a .
- A coin is a .
- A ten dollar bill is a .
- The rim of a jar is a .
- This warning sign is a .
- A pizza is a .

**Answers to Exercise 1**

- rectangle
- rectangle
- triangle
- rectangle
- circle
- rectangle
- circle
- triangle
- circle

Exercise 2

Look around the room and find each of the following shapes. Write the name on the line. Have your instructor check your answers.

**Example:**

A rectangle door.

- A circle .
- A rectangle .
- A square .
- A triangle .

Exercise 3

Circle the correct shape in each line. Have your instructor check your answers.

- A rectangle

- A circle
- A square
- A triangle

Exercise 4

What shape are the following things? Write **triangle, square, rectangle or circle**.

**Answers to Exercise 4**

- circle
- triangle
- rectangle
- square
- rectangle or triangle
- circle
- square
- rectangle

You will now practice all the skills you learned in Unit 4. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the review.

- Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding.
- Estimate the following sums. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding.
- Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before subtracting.
- Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before subtracting.
- Write the following times in standard format.
- 10 hours, 20 minutes, 12 seconds
- 8 hours,45 minutes, 6 seconds
- 5 hours, 32 minutes, 45 seconds
- 1 hour, 7 minutes, 28 seconds
- 12 hours, 55 minutes
- 6 hours, 5 minutes, 39 seconds

- Write the following times using a.m. or p.m.
- The movie starts at 6:45 in the evening.
- Your friend calls and wakes you up at 3:23 in the morning.
- Your dog barks at the mailman at 2:35 in the afternoon.
- Your morning break is at 10:15.

- Round the following times to the nearest hour.
- You took a walk for 47 minutes.
- Your round trip (there and back) to the mall took 2 hours and 12 minutes.

- Circle the correct shape in each line.
- A triangle
- A square

- The following things give the idea of a shape. Write the name of the shape in each blank.
- A window is a .
- A checkerboard is a .
- A watch is a .
- A yield sign is a .

- Word Problems. Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding or subtracting. Be sure to circle the information and underline what’s being asked.
- The Sears Tower is 443 metres tall. It has a 105 metre TV antenna on top. Estimate the height of the building and the antenna.
- A restaurant used 76 kilograms of potatoes and 68 kilograms of meat. Estimate how many kilograms of potatoes and meat the restaurant used altogether.
- Paolo’s father weighs 78 kilograms. Paolo weighs 29 kilograms. Estimate how much more Paolo’s father weighs.
- Chi bought 54 litres of gasoline on Tuesday. He ought 38 litres of gasoline on Friday. Estimate how many litres of gas he bought altogether.

- 50
- 90
- 60
- 90
- 90
- 60
- 60
- 50

- 880
- 760
- 490
- 780
- 680
- 1090
- 950
- 570

- 10
- 30
- 20
- 60
- 40
- 30
- 40
- 60

- 220
- 500
- 850
- 620
- 420
- 200
- 270
- 740

- 10:20:12
- 8:45:06
- 5:32:45
- 1:07:28
- 12:55
- 6:05:39

- 6:45 p.m.
- 3:23 a.m.
- 2:35 p.m.
- 10:15 a.m.

- 1 hour
- 2 hours

- rectangle
- square
- circle
- triangle

- 550 metres
- 50 kilograms
- 150 kilograms
- 90 litres

You will now practice all the skills you learned in Book 1. Check your work using the answer key at the end of the review.

**If you can’t remember how to do a question**, go back to the lesson on this topic to refresh your memory. The unit and topic for where each question came from is listed next to the question.

**Example:** **1-B **means Unit 1, Topic B

- Count the number of things in each picture. Write the number and word name.

Picture Answer Numeral: Word Name:

Numeral: Word Name:

Numeral: Word Name:

Numeral: Word Name:

- Fill in the blanks to make each sentence true. Draw a picture for B and D.
- 58 means tens and ones.
- 18 means tens and ones.
- 471 means hundreds, tens and ones.
- 127 means hundreds, tens and ones.

- Write the place value names (ones, tens, hundreds) for each underlined digit.
- 564
- 239
- 986
- 534

- Name the digit for the place value named from the number 5782.
- Ten
- Hundreds

- Write the word names for the numbers.
- 17
- 342
- 625

- Write numerals for these word names.
- seventy-five
- nineteen
- seven hundred fifty
- nine hundred five
- eight hundred seventy-three

- Place a box around the larger number.
- 452, 245
- 678, 687

- H. Arrange these numbers in order from smallest to largest.
- 86, 668, 886, 686, 868, 66, 866
- 23, 323, 223, 33, 332, 322, 232

- Write <, > or = in each blank as needed.
- 23 34
- 118 118
- 667 576
- 405 450

- Round each number to the nearest ten.
- 52
- 123
- 178
- 89

- Word problems. For each problem, round the numbers to the nearest 10.
- The polar bear can weigh 1 002 kilograms, a koala bear can weigh 14 kilograms, a panda bear can weigh 113 kilograms, a Kodiak bear can weigh 679 kilograms and a black bear can weigh 272 kilograms. Round each number to the nearest 10.

Bear Number Rounded Number Polar Bear Koala Bear Panda Bear Kodiak Bear Black Bear

- The polar bear can weigh 1 002 kilograms, a koala bear can weigh 14 kilograms, a panda bear can weigh 113 kilograms, a Kodiak bear can weigh 679 kilograms and a black bear can weigh 272 kilograms. Round each number to the nearest 10.
- How much money do you have?
- cents

- dollars

- cents

- Check out your addition facts.
- Add across or horizontally.
- 7 + 4 =
- 3 + 0 =
- 2 + 9 =
- 9 + 8 =
- 6 + 2 =
- 5 + 6 =
- 8 + 9 =
- 4 + 2 =

- Find the sums.
- Find the sums.
- Find the perimeter of the shape. Be sure to put the unit of measure in your answer. Write the name of the shape below the picture.
- Find the sums.
- Word problems.
- Seven cars were in the first row. Four cars were in the second row. How many cars are there in the first two rows?
- One bicycle stored ordered 56 bikes. Another store ordered 72 bikes. How many bikes did both stores order?
- A mail carrier walked 51 kilometres in a week. The next week she walked 48 kilometres the next week. How far did she walk in two weeks?

- Check out your subtraction facts.
- Subtract across or horizontally
- 4 − 1 =
- 8 − 2 =
- 17 − 8 =
- 11 − 6 =
- 6 − 4 =
- 11 − 3 =

- Find the differences.
- Word problems. Solve each work problem.
- There were 18 roses in a bouquet. Milton gave 9 roses away. How many roses were left?
- A city has 89 mail carriers. One day only 54 were at work. How many were not at work?
- Mariko and Stefan went 5-pin bowling. Mariko scored 274 points while Stefan scored 152. How many more points did Mariko score?

- Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding.
- Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before subtracting.
- Word problems. Estimate the following answers. Be sure to round to the nearest 10 before adding or subtracting.
- Mr. Han worked in his store for 33 years. Before owning a store, he had worked in a bank for 24 years. How many years has Mr. Han worked?
- The longest span of the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver is 473 metres. The longest span of the Confederation Bridge in Prince Edward Island is 247 metres. What is the difference?

- Write the following times in standard format.
- 3 h, 22 min, 51 s
- 8 h, 38 min, 9 s
- 10 h, 18 min, 23 s
- 7 h, 43 min, 34 s

- Write the following times using a.m. or p.m.
- The movie begins at 8:30 in the evening.
- The coffee shop opens at 5:15 in the morning.
- The shopping mall closes at 10:00 at night.

- Round the following times to the nearest hour.
- The running time for the movie was 2 hours and 25 minutes.
- It took 5 hours and 53 minutes to go the hockey and return home after the game.

- The following things give the idea of a shape. Write the name of the shape in each blank.
- A tree is a .
- A swimming pool is a .
- A quarter is a .

- What shape are the following things? Write triangle, square, rectangle or circle.

- 4, four
- 3, three
- 8, eight
- 6, six

- 5 tens, 8 ones
- 1 ten, 8 ones
- 4 hundreds, 7 tens, 1 one
- 1 hundred, 2 tens, 7 ones

- tens
- ones
- tens
- hundreds

- 8
- 7

- seventeen
- three hundred forty-two
- six hundred twenty-five

- 75
- 19
- 750
- 905
- 873

- 452
- 687

- 66, 86, 668, 686, 866, 868, 886
- 23, 33, 223, 232, 322, 323, 332

- <
- =
- >
- <

- 50
- 120
- 180
- 90

Bear Number Rounded Number Polar Bear 1002 1000 Koala Bear 14 10 Panda Bear 113 110 Kodiak Bear 679 680 Black Bear 272 270

- 40 cents
- 12 dollars

- 8
- 5
- 10
- 5
- 5
- 14
- 13
- 9

- 11
- 3
- 11
- 17
- 8
- 11
- 17
- 6

- 12
- 17
- 14
- 17
- 8
- 12

- 14
- 16
- 6
- 8
- 11
- 15

- 10 metres, rectangle
- 12 metres, triangle
- 8 metres, square

- 79
- 128
- 138
- 108
- 1599
- 1248

- 11 cars
- 128 bikes
- 99 kilometres

- 4
- 3
- 9
- 7
- 5
- 9
- 7
- 6

- 3
- 6
- 9
- 5
- 2
- 8

- 51
- 41
- 21
- 53
- 531
- 139

- 9 roses
- 35 mail carriers
- 122 points

- 80 + 70 = 150
- 50 + 40 = 90
- 40 + 70 = 110
- 730 + 720 = 1450
- 910 + 450 = 1360
- 620 + 910 = 1530

- 80 − 60 = 20
- 70 − 40 = 30
- 60 − 20 = 40
- 970 − 430 = 540
- 580 − 170 = 410
- 740 − 530 = 210

- 50 years
- 220 metres

- 3:22:51
- 8:38:09
- 10:18:23
- 7:43:34

- 8:30 p.m.
- 5:15 a.m.
- 10:00 p.m.

- 2 hours
- 6 hours

- triangle
- rectangle
- circle

- rectangle
- square

This page provides a record of edits and changes made to this book since its initial publication. Whenever edits or updates are made in the text, we provide a record and description of those changes here. If the change is minor, the version number increases by 0.01. If the edits involve substantial updates, the version number increases to the next full number.

The files posted by this book always reflect the most recent version. If you find an error in this book, please fill out the Report an Error form.

Version | Date | Change | Details |
---|---|---|---|

1.00 | October 3, 2014 | Book initially published in the BC Open Textbook Collection. | |

2.00 | September 22, 2021 | Book updated and republished in Pressbooks as the second edition. |