Two Spirit, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer (or Questioning), Intersex, Asexual. The ‘+’ recognizes the growth in awareness of sexual orientations and gender diversity and the intentional placement of Two Spirit (2S) is to distinguish that Indigenous Peoples are the first peoples of the land and their understanding of gender and sexuality precedes colonization. (2)

Academic Freedom

The freedom to teach and conduct research as part of the academic mandate of institutions to pursue truth, educate, and disseminate knowledge and understanding. (4)

Anti-Asian Racism

Beliefs, attitudes, prejudice, stereotyping and/or discrimination that is directed at people of Asian descent based on others’ assumptions about their ethnicity and nationality. The overt and covert racism exist at individual and systemic levels and requires ongoing and active processes of dismantling such forms of racism, unequal treatment and forms of hate. (5)

Anti-Black Racism

Beliefs, attitudes, prejudice, stereotyping and/or discrimination that is directed at people of Black-African descent and is rooted in a history and experience of enslavement and colonization. The overt and covert racism that is both structural and systemic across policies, practices, institutions, ideologies and sectors towards people of Black-African descent requires an ongoing and active process of dismantling such reinforced and perpetuated systems of oppression. (5) (8)

Anti-Indigenous Racism

The ongoing race-based discrimination, negative stereotyping and injustice experienced by Indigenous Peoples and is rooted in a history of genocide, colonization and violence through evident discrimination in Canadian federal policies such as the Indian Act and the residential school system. The overt and covert racism perpetuates power imbalance, systemic racism, inequity and hostility and violence directed at Indigenous Peoples that requires ongoing and active re-addressment and dismantling in light of decolonization, truth and reconciliation. (5) (6)


A perception of Jews which is expressed as overt hostility, hatred or blame that is directed at Jewish people and results in incidents of discrimination and hate because of their religion, ethnicity and culture. (5) (6)


An unconscious way of thinking that can be explicitly or implicitly based on a stereotype or perspectives of a group of people. (1)


The invasion, dispossession and suppression of a group of individuals by another group that results in an unequal distribution of power and privilege. (2)


The ongoing process of identifying and removing forms of colonization at the structural, systemic and individual level. (1)


The unfair treatment of an individual or group that results in placing a burden on them, denying them of a privilege, benefit or opportunity that is enjoyed by others, because of race, citizenship, family status, disability, sex, etc. (1)


Differences in lived experiences, perspectives or understanding of people that is related to race, ethnicity, colour, culture, ancestry, geographical locations of origin, political beliefs, religion, class, etc. (2)


Refers to an intentional process that considers power, access, opportunities, treatment, impact and outcomes of a group that has been historically, systemically and persistently marginalized. (2)


Refers to behaviours, actions or words that can be offensive and hurtful and leave the targeted group/person feeling traumatized, excluded, unsafe, uncomfortable and sad. (1)

Hate Crime

A criminal offense against a person, group or property that is based on hate or prejudice towards an identifiable group outlined in the Criminal Code of Canada in which that hate/prejudice is based on the group’s race, colour, ethnicity, language, religion, age, mental or physical disability, sex or sexual orientation. (1)

Hate Speech

Occurring in many forms, hate speech includes different types of hatred rooted in racism, misogyny, homophobia, transphobia, anti-Semitism, Islamophobia and white supremacy. The Criminal Code of Canada and BC Human Rights Code describe three main components: the expression of speech occurs in a public sphere, it targets a person or group of people with a protected characteristic such as race, religion or sexual orientation, and the language is extreme. (1)


The unfair treatment of an individual or group that results in placing a burden on them, denying them of a privilege, benefit or opportunity that is enjoyed by others, because of race, citizenship, family status, disability, sex, etc. (1)


This term derived from the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples encompasses First Nations, Métis and Inuit people, individually or collectively. (2)


Recognizes the interconnected and overlapping nature of categorizations such as race, ethnicity, religion, class, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, that apply to individuals or groups. The interdependence of each impact the power, privilege and systems of discrimination or disadvantage that is experienced by such individuals or groups. (8) (9)


Includes racism, stereotypes, prejudice, fear or acts of hostility directed as Muslims or believers of Islam. From acts of intolerance, racial profiling to the treatment of being viewed as a security threat, such acts are institutional and systemic and require dismantling to ensure Muslims can live peacefully without such negative perspectives. (5) (6)


Refers to the systemic subjugation one group over another that results in the attainment of power, dominance and privilege and prejudice towards the group being oppressed. (2)


A state of mind that is conscious or unconscious and strongly held attitudes about a person/group that is often absent of legitimate evidence. (5)


Viewed as a social construct, individuals become divided based on factors such as geography, history, culture, economy, social, politics and physical traits even though none of these can be legitimately used to classify groups of individuals. (3)


Is a set of mistaken assumptions, opinions and actions that is based on a belief that one group of people characterized by a specific colour of skin or shared ancestry is inherently superior to another. Expressed as jokes, slurs, hate speech or actions, racism is deeply rooted in entrenched institutions, systems, policies, programs, practices and attitudes.  (3) (8)

White Supremacy

The idea that white people and the ideas, thoughts, beliefs and actions of White people are superior to People of Colour and their ideas, thoughts, beliefs and actions. This privilege results in white People enjoying structural advantages and rights while People of Colour do not. White supremacy is deeply rooted in entrenched individual, collective and systemic levels. (9)