Chapter 3. The Self
Social psychologists think about the self in the same way that they think about any other social phenomenon—in terms of affect, behavior, and cognition, and in terms of the person-situation interaction. Our focus in this chapter has been on the cognitive, affective, and social aspects of the self and on the remarkable extent to which the self is created by the social situation in which we find ourselves.
Take a moment and use this new knowledge about how social psychologists think about the self to consider your own self. Think carefully (and as fairly as you can) about how you think and feel about yourself. What constructs did you list when you tried the Twenty Statements Test in section 10, “The Cognitive Self: The Self-Concept”? Which of your physical characteristics were most accessible for you? And what about your social identities and your traits? Do you now have a better insight into the characteristics that are most important to you?
Now consider the complexity and consistency of your self-concept. Do you think it would be better if it was more complex or consistent? Do you think you should seek out more dimensions to round it out? Or perhaps you feel that you already have a healthy and complex self-concept. In any case, you might want to keep this concept in mind as you think about yourself in the future.
Self-esteem is one of the most important aspects of the self. Do you feel that you have relatively high or low self-esteem? What about other people you know? Does their level of self-esteem influence how you relate to them? And how do the aspects of your own self help (or potentially harm) your relations with others?
And what about your relations with the social groups you belong to? Do you derive a lot of your self-esteem from your group memberships? Which groups provide you with social identities, and are there group memberships that may potentially not provide you with high social identity? When and how do you use self-presentation and reputation management in your daily life?
Finally, take a moment and consider your online behavior. How do you think it both reflects, and influences how you see yourself?
In sum, the self is the fundamental part of human psychology and will form the basis of all our analyses of social behavior. We have already seen this in previous topics, and will continue to see it going forward.
H5P: Test your Learning: Chapter 3 True or False Quiz
How well do you now understand the topic of the self? One way to find out is to take this brief true or false quiz. Good luck!
- Priya’s self-complexity is high, so when she fails in one area, it is less likely to affect her overall self-esteem.
- Different aspects of our identities can become more salient in different social situations.
- Sierra often compares her performance on exams to other students who have done worse than she has, This is an example of upward social comparison.
- The self-presentational strategy where we try to make others like us is called self-promotion.
- Having higher rather than lower levels of self-esteem causes more positive outcomes.