Search Results for: special IV

    10.3 Nasogastric Tubes

    Using a Nasogastric Tube A nasogastric (NG) tube is a flexible plastic tube inserted through the nostrils, down the nasopharynx, and into the stomach or the upper portion of the small intestine. Placement of NG tubes is always confirmed with an X-ray prior to use (Perry, Potter, & Ostendorf, 2014). NG tubes are used to: Read more »

    10.1 Introduction

    Patients in acute care and community settings often have various tubes and attachments to assist their recovery from surgeries, medical conditions, or procedures. Health care providers must understand how these devices work — their purpose, function, insertion, or removal — and how to prevent complications from these various tubes and attachments. Learning Objectives Describe principles Read more »

    9.2 Glucometer Use

    People with diabetes require regular monitoring of their blood glucose to help them achieve as close to normal blood glucose levels as possible for as much of the time as possible. The benefits of maintaining a blood glucose level that is consistently within the range of 4-7 mmol/L will reduce the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia as well as the occurrence rate and Read more »

    8.2 Intravenous Fluid Therapy

    Intravenous therapy is treatment that infuses intravenous solutions, medications, blood, or blood products directly into a vein (Perry, Potter, & Ostendorf, 2014). Intravenous therapy is an effective and fast-acting way to administer fluid or medication treatment in an emergency situation, and for patients who are unable to take medications orally. Approximately 80% of all patients in Read more »

    6.6 Administering Inhaled Medications

    Medications administered through inhalation are dispersed via an aerosol spray, mist, or powder that patients inhale into their airways. Although the primary effect of inhaled medications is respiratory, there are likely to be systemic effects as well. Most patients taking medication by inhaler have asthma or chronic respiratory disease and should learn how to administer Read more »

    7.1 Introduction

    Parenteral medications are medications administered directly into body tissue or the circulatory system (according to Merriam-Webster, “parenteral” is a term taken from the Greeks meaning “to avoid the intestines”). They are synonymous with “injectables,” as syringes and needles are used to administer these medications by subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, and intravenous routes. Injections are a direct Read more »

    7.7 Complications Related to Parenteral Medications and Management of Complications

    Safe medication administration requires special attention to transition points where medication errors are more likely to occur. For example, many errors occur in the ordering and preparing phase. Many parenteral medications are considered high-alert medications because of the potential significant harm when used in error. Therefore, these medications require special safeguards to reduce the risk Read more »

    7.2 Parenteral Medications and Preparing Medications from Ampules and Vials

    Parenteral refers to the path by which medication comes in contact with the body. Parenteral medications enter the body by injection through the tissue and circulatory system. Injection medications are absorbed more quickly and are used with patients who are nauseated, vomiting, restricted from taking oral fluids, or unable to swallow. Parenteral medications can be effective Read more »

    7.8 Summary

    Parenteral medication administration is an effective method of delivering medication to patients, and can be safely accomplished by utilizing the appropriate guidelines and policies in place to keep patients safe from harm. IV medications have a higher risk of harm than non-parenteral medication. The ever-increasing complexity of the health care environment increases the risk of Read more »

    7.4 Intramuscular Injections

    Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications into the muscle fascia, which has a rich blood supply, allowing medications to be absorbed faster through muscle fibres than they are through the subcutaneous route (Malkin, 2008; Ogston-Tuck, 2014a; Perry et al., 2014). The IM site is used for medications that require a quick absorption rate but also a Read more »