Front Matter

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About BCcampus Open Education

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I. The Victorian Era 1832–1901

  • Archaeology and Imperialism:
  • British Empire:
  • Child Labor:
  • Dover Beach:
  • Gender Ideology & Separate Spheres:
  • Gender Matters:
  • Great Exhibition:
  • Industrialism:
  • Kipling’s Imperialism:
  • Norton Topics: “Victorian Imperialism”:
  • English 410 Resources Page:
  • Social Darwinism:
  • Suffragists:
  • The British Empire:
  • The Crystal Palace, or The Great Exhibition of 1851: An Overview”:
  • The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England:
  • The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies:
  • The Nature of Women:
  • ‘The Personal is Political’: Gender in Private & Public Life:
  • The Reform Acts:
  • The Woman Question:
  • The 1833 Reform Act:
  • The 1870 Education Act:
  • Uberindustrialism:
  • “Victorian Britain: A Divided Nation?”:
  • Victorian Geology:
  • Victorian Science & Religion.:
  • Victorian Technology:
  • 1832 Reform Act:

II. Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806–1861)

  • Academy of American Poets:
  • Amoretti:
  • Astrophil and Stella:
  • Shakespeare Sonnet 1:
  • Study Questions for “Cry of the Children” and “The Runaway Slave”:
  • Testimony Gathered by Ashley’s Mines Commission:
  • The Chimney Sweeper:

III. Robert Browning (1812–1889)

  • About the poems of Robert Browning:
  • Browning’s Porphyria’s Lover:
  • The Canonization:
  • The Flea:

IV. Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892)

  • Alfred Lord Tennyson: A Memoir, I, 305:
  • A Key to Lord Tennyson’s ‘In Memoriam’ by Alfred Gatty:
  • BBC Radio In Our Time “In Memoriam”:
  • BBC Radio In Our Time “Charge of the Light Brigade”
  • Florence Boos’ notes on In Memoriam:
  • In Memoriam:
  • Musical Adaption of “The Lady of Shalott” by Loreena McKennitt:
  • Numerous articles from Victorian Web on In Memoriam:
  • Princess Ida – from Tennyson to Gilbert:
  • The Defense of Lucknow:
  • The Lady of Shalott (1833 & 1842 Versions):
  • The Man Behind the Lady:
  • The Times/1854/News/The Charge of the Light Brigade:

V. Charles Dickens (1812–1870)

  • A Walk in a Workhouse:
  • Biography written by Gregor Brdnik:
  • Dickens in Context:
  • Film Adaptation of A Christmas Carol:
  • George Landow’s article on Sabbatarianism:
  • The origins of A Christmas Carol
  • The Story of the Goblin Who Stole a Sexton:
  • “The Story of the Goblin Who Stole a Sexton” audio adaption:

VI. Christina Rossetti (1830–1894)

  • “Adulterations Detected”: Food and Fraud in Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market. By: Rebecca F. Stern:
  • BBC “In Our Time” podcast on Christina Rossetti:
  • In the Bleak Mid-Winter:
  • Katja Brandt’s 2006 Ph.D dissertation:
  • Overview of Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market”:
  • Painting of Christina Rossetti by her brother Dante Gabriel Rossetti:
  • The Eve of St. Agnes:

VII. Henry James (1843-1916)

  • Henry James Biography:

VIII. Oscar Wilde (1854–1900)

  • “If You’re Anxious for to Shine:
  • Internet Definition of Dandy:
  • Photo of Reading Gaol:
  • Study Guide to the play:
  • The Importance of Being Earnest (1952 Film):

IX. Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936)

  • Florence Boos’ Study Questions:
  • McClure’s Magazine:
  • Original Publication of The White Man’s Burden:
  • The Black Man’s Burden:
  • The Poor Man’s Burden:

X. Thomas Hardy (1840–1928)

  • Sample Student Essay on “Hap”:

XI. George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950)

  • Bernard Shaw: A brief Biography:
  • British and Irish Drama: 1890-1950. A very good overview of Major Barbara:
  • Major Barbara Study Guide:
  • Preface to Major Barbara:
  • The Grand Inquisitor:

XIV. A.E. Housman (1859–1936)

  • A Shropshire Lad eBook:
  • A Shropshire Lad XXXI (“On Wenlock Edge”):
  • Small pamphlet by Peter Cash A Shropshire Lad:
  • Unpublished correspondences between A. E. Housman and Moses Jackman:
  • Wenlock Edge by Alice Munro:

XV. Hector Hugh Munro (Saki) (1870–1916)

  • The Open Doors:
  • The Schartz- Metterklume Method:

XVI. World War I Poetry

  • BBC World War One:
  • Draft version of “The General”:
  • First World – Women and WW1:
  • Oxford University’s online tutorial on major poets of World War One:
  • “Perhaps” by Vera Brittain:
  • Seminar Introduction, “What is War Poetry?”
  • Seminar Map:
  • The Twentieth Century: Topics – Representing the Great War: Overview:
  • Trailer for the 2015 film Testament of Youth:
  • Women’s Poetry and Verse:
  • World War I Wikipedia:

XVII. Wilfred Owen (1893–1918)

  • Definition and discussion of acronyms:
  • Dr. Stuart Lee’s Background to “Dulce et Decorum Est.”
  • Exposure:
  • First World War Digital Archive:
  • Ian Brinton’s Booklet on Wilfred Owen:
  • Insensibility:
  • The Modernism Lab site at Yale University on “Dulce et Decorum Est”:
  • Oxford Tutorial Dulce et Decorum Est:
  • Oxford Tutorial Wilfred Owen:
  • Regeneration (1977 Film):
  • Strange Meeting:
  • The Send-Off:
  • WW1 Recruitment Poster “Will they never come?”:

XVIII. Siegfried Sassoon (1886–1967)

  • Absolution:
  • Base Detail:
  • BBC In Our Time podcast on Siegfried Sassoon:
  • BBC UK World War One Recruitment Posters:
  • Counter-Attack and Other Poems (Project Bartleby):
  • Declaration against the war:
  • Does it Matter?:
  • Essays on Sassoon from Modernism Lab, Yale University:
  • “From Mametz Wood to the General” Podcast:
  • Glory of Women:
  • Ian Brinton’s Pamphlet on Sassoon:
  • Oxford First World War Poetry unit on Sassoon’s “Counter-Attack”:
  • Oxford First World War Poetry unit on Sassoon’s “The Death Bed”:
  • Oxford First World War Poetry unit on Siegfried Sassoon:
  • Sample student essay on a Sassoon poem (“Glory of Women”):
  • The Colossus painting:

XIX. Isaac Rosenberg (1890–1918)

  • A brief guide to Imaginism:
  • About Ezra Pound:
  • About Isaac Rosenberg:
  • About John Keats:
  • About Percy Bysshe Shelley:
  • About Robert Graves:
  • About Rupert Brooke:
  • About Wilfred Owen:
  • Audio Clip of Break of Day in the Trenches:
  • Break of Day in the Trenches:
  • ‘Break of Day in the Trenches’ Hypermedia Edition:
  • Collecting Isaac Rosenberg:
  • Dead Man’s Dump Early Version:
  • Isaac Rosenberg letter to Edward Marsh:
  • National Archive Exhibit on Isaac Rosenberg:
  • Oxford First World War Poetry unit on Rosenberg:
  • Romanticism:

XX. Rupert Brooke (1887–1915)

  • Oxford Tutorial on Rupert Brooke:

XXI. Sean O’Casey (1880–1964)

  • British Drama 1890-1950 by Richard F Dietrich:
  • Dublin Trilogy, The Shadow of a Gunman:
  • Plough and the Stars Full Text:
  • Recording of Juno and the Paycock:
  • Resource pack from the Abbey Theater for their 2012 production of The Plough and the Stars:
  • Sean O’Casey Early Plays as Larkinite Stage Parables by Mary Elizabeth Papke:
  • Shadow of a Gunman Full Text:
  • The Easter Rebellion of 1916:
  • Undercover operation:
  • (Yes,) Let Me Like a Soldier Fall:
  • Young Cassidy:
  • 1930 film adaptation of Juno and the Paycock:
  • 1988 production of Juno and the Paycock at the University of British Columbia:

XXII. Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)

  • Professions for Women:
  • The Angel in the House:
  • The Light House pdf:

XXIII. James Joyce (1882-1941)

  • Dubliners and Biography of James Joyce:
  • Dubliners Teacher’s Guide:
  • John McCormick “I’ll Sing Thee Songs of Araby.” :
  • “Joyce’s Dublin,” a web talk by Irene Togher:
  • Liner Notes “I’ll Sing Thee Songs of Araby.”:
  • Lyrics of “I’ll Sing Thee Songs of Araby.”:
  • Notes on the musical allusion in Eveline:
  • Michael Groden’s “Notes on Ulysses
    • “Chapter 1 “Telemachus”:
    • “Chapter 4 “Calypso”:
    • “Chapter 18 “Penelope”:
  • Podcasts on Joyce’s “The Dead.” the final story in Dubliners:
  • Reading of “Araby”:
  • Reading of “Eveline”:
  • The James Joyce Centre, Dublin:
  • Ulysses 1967 Film:

XXIV. D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930)

  • Film Adaptation Rocking Horse Winner:

XXV. T.S. Eliot (1888–1965)

  • A Hypertext version of T. S. Elliot’s “The Hollow Man”:
  • T”he Journey of the Magi”:
  • “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”:
  • “The Waste Land”:
  • “Voices and Visions” A useful video documentary on T. S. Eliot:

XXVI. Katherine Mansfield (1888–1923)

  • Bliss: the Beginning of Katherine Mansfield:
  • Colin Norman’s essay “Prufrock Freud, and the Late Colonel’s Daughters: New Light on the Genesis of a Mansfield Story”:
  • Film adaptation of Miss Brill:
  • Monograph on Mansfield’s Representation of single women:
  • Online Documentary on Katherine Mansfield:
  • The Garden Party

XXVII. Aldous Huxley (1894–1963)

  • “A Modern Utopia” by H. G. Wells:
  • “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802” by William Wordsworth:,-September-3,-1802
  • “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” by Thomas Gray:
  • Ernest Jones interpretation of Hamlet in light of the Freudian Oedipus complex:
  • Frederick Winslow Taylor from Wikipedia:
  • Freud’s whore-madonna theory:
  • “Hard Times” by Charles Dickens:
  • Le Corbusier Wikipedia:
  • “Men like Gods” by H. G. Wells:
  • “Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College” by Thomas Gray:
  • “Preludes” by T. S. Eliot:
  • “Sophistication of Mass Production”:
  • The Grand Inquisitor Wikipedia:
  • “When the Sleeper Wakes” by Aldous Huxley:

XXVIII. George Orwell (1903-1950)

  • “Animal Farm” film 1954:
  • George Orwell (John Freeman) “Why Socialists Don’t Believe In Fun”:
  • George Orwell’s essay on Kipling, 1936:
  • George Orwell’s longer essay on Kipling, published in 1942:
  • Nineteen Eighty-Four (1954 BBC Adaptation Nigel Kneale):
  • Oxford 2011 Orwell vs Kipling:

Back Matter

Appendix 1: A Mini-Casebook on The Turn of the Screw

  • A Closer Look at “The Turn of the Screw” Lamar University Critical Edition:
  • Book Drum Turn of Screw annotations:
  • “Déjà vu in The Turn of the Screw” by Max Duperray:
  • “Give the Screw Another Turn—A Cultural Re-Reading of The Turn of the Screw.”
  •  “Hallucinations or Realities: The Ghosts in Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw.” byAl-Qurani, Shonayfa Mohammed:
  • “Non-apparitionist reading of Turn of Screw” by James Sexton (1976):
  • “Raising Veils and other Bold Acts: The Heroine’s Agency in Female Gothic Novels” by Kyra Kramer:
  • Shadows of Shadows – Techniques of Ambiguity in Three Film Adaptations of “The Turn of the Screw”: J. Clayton’s The Innocents (1961), D. Curtis’s The Turn of the Screw (1974), and A. Aloy’s Presence of Mind (1999):
  • “The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw.” by R. Heilman:
  • The Gothic:
  • “The Role of the Governess in The Turn of the Screw” by Raul Valino:
  • “The Role of Repression in Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw.” Student essay.
  • The Romantic Period – The Gothic Overview:
  • “The Turn of the Screw”:
  • “The Turn of the Screw” film 1974:
  • “The Turn of the Screw” film 1999:
  • “The Turn of the Screw” film

Appendix 2: A Mini-Casebook on Brave New World

  • “Aldous Huxley’s Americanization of the Brave New World Typescript.”:
  • “Aldous Huxley’s Bokanovsky” from Science Fiction Studies):
  • “Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World as a Parody and Satire of Wells, Ford, Freud and Behaviourism”:
  • “Brave New World Revisited Revisited: Huxley’s Evolving View of Behaviorism.”:
  • BBC RADIO 45 Minute documentary “Brave New World”:
  • BBC Podcast on Modernist Utopias:
  • “Brave New World and the Anthropologists: Primitivism in A.F. 632” by Jerome Meckier:
  • “Brave New World and the Rationalization of Industry” from English Studies in Canada:
  • Brave New World article Wikipedia:
  • “‘Brave New World,’ The Feelies, and Elinor Glyn.”:
  • “Community, Identity, Stability”: The Scientific Society and the Future of Religion in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World.” by Brad Congdon:
  • Daedalus: or Science and the Future by J. B. S. Haldane:
  • “Dickens’ Hard Times as Dystopia”:
  • “Huxley’s Hopi Sources” by David Leon Higdon:
  • Introduction to The Grand Inquisitor. by Ann Fremantle:
  • Los Hermanos Penitentes:
  • Margaret Atwood’s essay on Brave New World”My Life and Work” by Henry Ford
  • Miranda
  • Moki Snake Dance by Walter Hough:
  • Political figures important to BNW:
  •  “Remarks on the Savages of North America.” by Franklin, Benjamin:
  • “Sight-seeing in Alien Englands” by Aldous Huxley:
  • The “Grand Inquisitor Chapter” from Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov:
  • The Mind and Face of Bolshevism byRené Fülop-Miller:\
  • “The Tissue-Culture King.” by Julian Huxley:
  • “The Utopian Tradition and Aldous Huxley” by William Matter:
  • “Utopias Positive and Negative Afterword” by James Sexton:
  • “Utopias, Positive and Negative” by Aldous Huxley (1963):
  • Zuni Religion:

Appendix 3: A Mini-Casebook on Heart of Darkness

  • “’A Bloody Racist’: About Achebe’s View of Conrad.”:
  • “Achebe on Racism in Heart of Darkness” by Rachel Teisch:
  • “A Guide to Heart of Darkness” by Allen Kromer:
  • “ An Ashy Halo: Woman as Symbol in ‘Heart of Darkness'” by Edward Geary:
  • “An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s ‘Heart of Darkness'” by Chinua Achebe:
  • BBC In Our Time podcast on Heart of Darkness:
  • Bookdrum: Heart of Darkness by Gordon Knox:
  • “Culture and Imperialism” by Edward Said:
  • “Conrad’s Bloody Imperialism: Achebe, Said, and What Conrad Really Wrote.” by Stephen Zelnick:
  • “Conrad’s Critique of Imperialism in Heart of Darkness” by Hunt Hawkins:
  • “Critical responses to Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness” by Svensson, M.
  • Heart of Darkness“: “Anti-Imperialism, Racism, or Impressionism?” by Patrick Brantlinger:
  • “Heart of Darkness” by Peter Cash:
  • “Imperialism: Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.” by Jonah Raskin:
  • “Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and the World of Western Women” by John Peters:
  • “Kurtz as a Symbol of Imperialism.” by Tesi di Laurea:
  • Modern Language Association:
  • Postcolonial Criticism of Heart of Darkness: A Casebook:
  • “Racism and the Heart of Darkness” by C. P. Sarvan:
  • “Reading Race and Gender in Conrad’s Dark Continent.” by Bette London:
  • “Revisiting Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness: Women, Symbolism and Resistance.” by Katherine Smith:
  • “Sexism in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.” by Haydar Ali:
  • “The Women Do Not Travel: Gender, Difference, and Incommensurability in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.” by Gabrielle McIntire:
  • Victorian History British Empire:
  • “White Lies and Whited Sepulchres in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.” by Philip Allingham:

Appendix 4: Glossary of Literary Terms

  • “Epic hero” literary term definition:
  • “Genre” literary term definition:
  • “in medias res” literary term definition:
  • The Indo-European Family of Languages:
  • “Theme” Literary Devices definition:
  • “Tropes” literary term definition:

Appendix 5: Writing an Analysis of a Poem, Story, or Play

  • Base Detail by Siegfried Sassoon:
  • “Oxford World War I Poets” on Sassoon:

Appendix 6: Documenting Essays in MLA Style

  • MLA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University:
  • MLA Tutorial from Hunter College:
  • Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting – The Basics:

Versioning History

  • Report an Open Textbook Error:


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English Literature: Victorians and Moderns Copyright © 2014 by James Sexton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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