Appendix A: Indigenous Research Protocols, Policies, and Declarations Timeline
Indian Control of Indian Education policy paper
States that research must benefit and support First Nations communities’ decisions and planning. Academic researchers are responsible to First Nations communities, and communities must have control of information.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples implements Ethical Guidelines for Research
Signifies a change in relationship by implementing research protocols to work with the consent of “Aboriginal Peoples” rather than conduct research about Aboriginal Peoples. Over 350 research projects were conducted between 1991 and 1994 to support the commission’s report.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Report released (five volumes)
Recommends the development of research relationships with Aboriginal Peoples to support self-determination.
Ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) standards established
First instance of research standards created by First Nations health professionals for health researchers for ownership, control, access, and possession of data.
Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS)
Section 6: Research Involving Aboriginal Peoples is included as a consideration for “good practices” when conducting research on Indigenous Peoples in Canada.
Stolen Lands, Broken Promises: Researching the Indian Land Question in British Columbia
The Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs Research Department publishes Stolen Lands, Broken Promises: Researching the Indian Land Question in British Columbia.
Practical, hands-on resource for Indigenous community members wanting to conduct research on a variety of issues affecting traditional territory and reserve lands in British Columbia.
Guidelines for Ethical Aboriginal Research
Guidelines for Ethical Aboriginal Research released by the Aboriginal Health Research Review Committee in collaboration with Manitoulin First Nations leadership and community agencies.
Guidelines applicable to any kind of research project within the Manitoulin district. Guide includes screening tools, sample agreements, and a community-based vision for reliable health research data.
Inter Tribal Health Authority enacts Research Protocol
Developed to expand First Nations community research capacity to review requests, generate research questions, guide research projects, and participate in all stages of research.
First Nations Health Authority of B.C. now holds the directive to foster meaningful collaboration and partnerships in health research.
Negotiating Research Relationships with Inuit Communities, A Guide for Researchers
Released by Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and Nunavut Research Institute, the guide provides “practical advice to assist researchers who plan to work with, or in the vicinity of, Canadian Inuit communities.” This guide builds on the 1998 Negotiating Research Relationships: A Guide for Communities.
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Article 31.1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.
Principles of Ethical Métis Research
Released by Métis Centre, National Aboriginal Health Organization, principles explore how to engage Métis communities in ethical research, from relationship building to acknowledging, protecting, and working within a Métis context.
First Nations Ethics Guide on Research and Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge
Released by the Assembly of First Nations, the guide helps to frame dialogue and aids in building research agreement and responsive policies. Principles include informed consent, OCAP, partnerships, academic integrity, disclosure, equity, benefit sharing, and empowerment.
Tri-Council Policy Statement 2: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans – TCPS 2
Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) is updated to clarify Indigenous Peoples’ involvement and participation in “Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada” (Chapter 9).
Still limited on ways to include Indigenous research protocols and methodologies.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission Final Report and 94 Calls to Action
The 65th Call to Action calls for a national research program to advance understanding of reconciliation:
We call upon the federal government, through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, and in collaboration with Aboriginal peoples, post-secondary institutions and educators, and the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation and its partner institutions, to establish a national research program with multi-year funding to advance understanding of reconciliation.
Indigenous Research Statement of Principles
Released by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, the principles clarify directions to take and how to support Indigenous-controlled research and researchers.
- Assembly of First Nations [PDF] ↵
- Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (1993). Integrated Research Plan, Appendix B: Ethical Guidelines for Research (pp. 37–40). Ottawa: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/bcp-pco/Z1-1991-1-41-17-eng.pdf ↵
- Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples ↵
- First Nations Information Governance Centre ↵
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, & Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. (1998). Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans ↵
- Stolen Lands, Broken Promises ↵
- Guidelines for Ethical Aboriginal Research [PDF] ↵
- Research Protocol [PDF] ↵
- Negotiating Research Relationships with Inuit Communities, A Guide for Researchers ↵
- United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples [PDF] ↵
- Principles of Ethical Métis Research [PDF] ↵
- First Nations Ethics Guide on Research and Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge [PDF] ↵
- Tri-Council Policy Statement 2: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans – TCPS 2 ↵
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission ↵
- Indigenous Research Statement of Principles ↵