Research and Reports

15 Northern Hemisphere

Last update: Nov 23/22


Rets, I., Coughlan, T., Stickler, U., & Astruc, L. (2020). Accessibility of open educational resources: how well are they suited for English learners? Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.

Zhang, X., Tlili, A., Nascimbeni, F., Burgos, D., Huang, R., Chang, T.-W.,….& Khribi, M.K. (2020). Accessibility within open educational resources and practices for disabled learners: a systematic literature review. Smart Learning Environments 7: 1.


Chiappe, A., & Arias, V. (2015). Understanding reusability as a key factor for open education: A review. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1), 40–56.

Guo, Y., Zhang, M., Bonk, C. J., & Li. Y. (2015). Chinese faculty members’ open educational resources (OER) usage status and the barriers to OER development and usage. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 10(5), 59-65.

Mtebe, J.S., & Raisamo, R. (2014). Challenges and instructors’ intention to adopt and use open educational resources in higher education in Tanzania. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(1).

Nascimbeni, F.,& Burgos, D. (2016). In search for the open educator: Proposal of a definition and framework to increase openness adoption among university educators. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(6).

Onalfo, D. (2016). Alternate academy: Investigating the use of open educational resources by students at the University of Lagos in Nigeria. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository, 4086.

Rodés, V., Podetti, M., Hernández, Y., & Collazos, C. (2014). Strategies for the adoption of open textbooks: The Latin American open textbooks initiative. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 17(2), 76–85.


Weller, M. (2013). The battle for open – a perspective. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2013(3), p.Art.15. doi:10.5334/2013-15


de Langen, F.H.T.  (2018). Sustainability of open education through collaboration. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(5).

Creative Commons licences

Hagedorn, G., Mietchen, D., Morris, R.A., Agosti, D., Penev, L., Berendsohn, W.G.,& Hobern, D. (2011). Creative Commons licenses and the non-commercial condition: Implications for the reuse of biodiversity information. ZooKeys, 150, 127-149.


Genç, H., & Koçdar, S. (2020). Determining needs and priorities of learners with special needs for support services in an open and distance learning context in Turkey. Open Praxis, 12(3), 359-382.

Efficacy and student outcomes

Conole, G., & Brown, M. (2018). Reflecting on the impact of the open education movement. Journal Of Learning For Development – JL4D, 5(3).

Pitt, R., Ebrahimi, N., McAndrew, P., & Coughlan, T. (2013). Assessing OER impact across organisations and learners: experiences from the Bridge to Success project. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, OER 2013 Special Issue.

Equity, diversity, inclusion (EDI)

Koseoglu, S., Ozturk, T., Ucar, H., Karahan, E., & Bozkurt, A. (2020). 30 Years of gender inequality and implications on curriculum design in open and distance learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 5.

Ossiannilsson, E. (2019). OER and OEP for access, equity, equality, quality, inclusiveness, and empowering lifelong learning. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, Vol. 1 (2).


Müller, F. J. (2019, May 23). Opportunities and challenges of state-financed open educational resources: The Norwegian model – a way to more inclusion? SocArXiv.


Bozkurt, A., et al. (2020). A global outlook to the interruption of education due to COVID-19 Pandemic: Navigating in a time of uncertainty and crisis. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1).

Brunton, J., Farrell, O., Costello, E., Delaney, L., Foley, C., & Brown, M. (2019). Duelling identities in refugees learning through open, online higher education. Open Praxis, 11(4).

Hoosen, S., & Butcher, N. (2019). Understanding the impact of OER: Achievements and challenges. Moscow, Russia: UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education.

Iniesto, F., Pitt, B., Weller, M., Farrow, R., Cronin, C., Funk, J., Lambert, S., Nerantzi, C., Paskevicius, M., Pete, J., Roberts, V., Rodés, V. and Vladimirschi, V. (2022). The GO-GN Fellowship reflections report. Global OER Graduate Network https://go-

Jeong, H. (2019). Rethinking open universities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 20(4).

Kursun, E., Cagiltay, K., & Can, G. (2014). An investigation of faculty perspectives on barriers, incentives, and benefits of the OER movement in Turkey. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(6).

Marín, V., Bond, M., Zawacki-Richter, O., Aydin, C., Bedenlier, S., Bozkurt, A., Conrad, D., Jung, I., Kondakci, Y., Prinsloo, P., Qayyum, A., Roberts, J., Sangrà, A., Slagter van Tryon, P., Veletsianos, G., & Xiao, J. (2020). A Comparative Study of National Infrastructures for Digital (Open) Educational Resources in Higher Education. Open Praxis, 12(2), 241-256.

Niezen, G., Eslambolchilar, P., & Thimbleby, H. (2016). Open-source hardware for medical devices. BMJ innovations, 2(2), 78–83.

Okada, A., & Ferreira, G. (2012). Co-authorship in the age of cyberculture: Open Educational Resources at the Open University of the United Kingdom. Revista Teias, 13(30) pp. 327–353.

Rabin, E., Kalman, Y.<., & Kals, M. (2019). The cathedral’s ivory tower and the open education bazaar – catalyzing innovation in the higher education sector. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 35(1).

Souto-Otero, M., Inamorato dos Santos, A., Shields, R., Lažetić, P., Castaño Muñoz, J., Devaux, A., Oberheidt, S., & Punie, Y. (2016).  OpenCases: Case studies on openness in education. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission.

Moore, S. (2019). Revisiting ‘the 1990s debutante’: scholar-led publishing and the pre-history of the open access movement (postprint). Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.

Natale, E. (2019). In open access’s long shadow – A view from the Humanities. 027.7 Zeitschrift für Bibliothekskultur / Journal for Library Culture, 6(1), 25-4.

Weller, M., Jordan, K., DeVries, I., & Rolfe, V. (2018). Mapping the open education landscape: citation network analysis of historical open and distance education research. Open Praxis, 10(2), 109-126. doi:10.5944/openpraxis.10.2.822

Instructional designers (ID)

Merkel, E., & Cohen, A. (2015). OER usage by instructional designers and training managers in corporations. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Skills and Lifelong Learning, 11, 237–256.


Santos-Hermosa, G., Proudman, V., & Corti, P. (2021). Open Education in European Libraries of Higher Education (2021 report). Zenodo.

Open educational practices (OEP)/pedagogy

Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (Eds.). (2015). Open data as Open educational resources: Case studies of emerging practice. London: Open Knowledge, Open Education Working Group.

Attwell, G., & Pumilia, P. M. (2007). The new pedagogy of open content: Bringing together production, knowledge, development, and learning. Data Science Journal, 6, S211-S219. doi:10.2481/dsj.6.S211

Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Open practices: A briefing paper. JISC. Retrieved from

Cardoso, P., Morgado, L., Teixeira, A. (2019). Open practices in public higher education in Portugal: faculty perspectives. Open Praxis, 11(1).

Cronin, C. (2017). Openness and praxis: Exploring the use of open educational practices in higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(5).

Ehlers, U-D.,& Conole, G.C. (2010). Open educational practices: Unleashing the power of OER. ResearchGate.

Ehlers, U. D. (2011). Extending the territory: From open educational resources to open educational practices. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 15(2), 1-10.

Falconer, I., McGill, L., Littlejohn, A., & Boursinou, E. (2013). Overview and analysis of practices with open educational resources in adult education in Europe. Publications Office of the European Union.

Farrow, R. (2016). A framework for the ethics of open education. Open Praxis, 8(2). axis.8.2.291

Farrow, R. (2015). Open education and critical pedagogy. Learning, Media and Technology, 42(2), 130-146.

Koseoglu, S., & Bozkurt, A. (2018). An exploratory literature review on open educational practices, Distance Education, 39:4,441-461, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2018.1520042

Maina, M.F., Santos-Hermosa, G., Mancini, F., & Ortiz, L.G. (2020). Ascertaining impacts of capacity building in open educational practices. Distance Education, 41(2).

Maina, M.F., Santos-Hermosa, G., Mancini, F., & Ortiz, L.G. (2020). Open educational practices (OEP) in the design of digital competence assessment. Distance Education, 41(2).

Nascimbeni, F., Burgos, D., Campbell, L. M., & Tabacco, A. (2018). Institutional mapping of open educational practices beyond use of open educational resources. Distance Education, 39(4), 511-527. doi:10.1080/01587919.2018.1520040

Perryman, L.-A. & de los Arcos, B. (2016). Women’s empowerment through openness: OER, OEP and the Sustainable Development Goals. Open Praxis, 8(2).

Pitt, R., Jordan, K., de los Arcos, B., Farrow, R., & Weller, M. (2020). Supporting open educational practices through open textbooks. Distance Education, 41(2).

Pulker, H., & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2020). Openness re-examined: Teachers’ practices with open educational resources in online language teaching. Distance Education, 41(2).

Weller, M., de los Arcos, B., Farrow, R., Pitt, B., & McAndrew, P. (2015). The impact of OER on teaching and learning rractice. Open Praxis, 7(4), 351-361. doi:10.5944/openpraxis.7.4.227

Open educational resources (OER)

Atieno Adala, A. (2016). Current State of Advancement of Open Educational Resources in Kenya. Moscow: UNESCO.

Baas, M., Schuwer, R., van den Berg, E. et al. The role of brokers in cultivating an inter-institutional community around open educational resources in higher education. High Educ (2022).

Buckler, A., Perryman, L.-A.,  Seal, T. and Musafir, S. (2014). The role of OER localisation in building a knowledge partnership for development: insights from the TESSA and TESS-India teacher education projects. Open Praxis, 6(3): 221–233.

Deimann, M. & Farrow, R. (2013).  Rethinking OER and their use: Open education as Bildung. International Review of Online and Distance Learning, 14(3).

Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Agre, G., & Angelova, G. (2015). Trends and opportunities in computer science OER development. Cybernetics and Information Technologies, 15(3).

Dimitar, P. (2010). Open educational resources and open access in higher education in Macedonia.

Farrow, R., Pitt, R., de los Arcos, B., Perryman, L.-A., Weller, M. and McAndrew, P. (2015). Impact of OER use on teaching and learning: Data from OER Research Hub (2013–2014). British Journal of Educational Technology, 46 (5): 972–976. doi: 10.1111/bjet.12310

Fitzgerald, A. (2013). TOETOE International: FLAX Weaving with Oxford Open Education Resources. UK: The Higher Education Academy.

Ivins, T. (2009). Localization of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Nepal: Strategies of Himalayan Knowledge-Workers. Dissertation.

Masterman, L, & Wild, J. (2011). OER impact study: Research report. JISC Open Educational Resources Programme: Phase 2. University of Oxford.

Nikoi, S., & Armellini, A. (2012). The OER mix in higher education: Purpose, process, product, and policy. Distance Education, 33(2), 165–184.

Perryman, L.-A., Buckler, A. and Seal, T. (2014). Learning from TESS-India’s approach to OER localisation across multiple Indian states. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2(7).

Risquez, A., McAvinia, C., Desmond, Y., Bruen, C., Ryan, D., & Coughlan, A. (2020). Towards a devolved model of management of OER? The case of the Irish higher education sector. International Review or Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(1).

Scanlon, E. (2012). Open educational resources in support of science learning: Tools for inquiry and observation. Distance Education, 33(2), 221–236.

Stracke, C.M., Downes, S., Conole, G., Burgos, D., & Nascimbeni, F. (2019). Are MOOCs open educational resources? A literature review on history, definitions and typologies of OER and MOOCs. Open Praxis, 11(4).

Tlili, A., Huang, R., Chang, T.-W., Nascimbeni, F., & Burgos, D. (2019). Open Educational Resources and Practices in China: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 11(18), 4867. doi:10.3390/su11184867

Weller, M., Jordan, K., DeVries, I., Rolfe, V. (2018). Mapping the open education landscape: Citation network analysis of historical open and distance education research. Open Praxis, 10(2).

Open monographs

Adema, J. (2019). Towards a roadmap for open access monographs. Knowledge Exchange 2019. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2644997

Open peer review/peer review

Bozkurt, A., Koseoglu, S., & Singh, L. (2019). An analysis of peer reviewed publications on openness in education in half a century: Trends and patterns in the open hemisphere. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(4).

Dandieu, C., & HIRMEOS Consortium. (2019). Report on post-publication open peer review experiment (Version 1). Zenodo.

Open textbooks

Pitt, R. (2015). Mainstreaming Open Textbooks: Educator Perspectives on the Impact of OpenStax College open textbooks. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16 (4).


Harold, S., Rolfe, V. (2019). “I find the whole enterprise daunting” Staff understanding of open education initiatives with a UK university. Open Praxis, 11(1).

Nkwenti, M.N., & Abeywardena, I.S. (2019). OER mainstreaming in Cameroon: Perceptions and barriers. Open Praxis, 11(3).

Ozdemir, O., & Bonk, C. J. (2017). Turkish teachers’ awareness and perceptions of open educational resources. Journal of Learning for Development, 4(3), 309-321.

Rolfe, V. (2012). Open educational resources: staff attitudes and awareness. Research in Learning Technology, 20. doi: 10.3402/rlt.v20i0/14395


Atenas, J., Havemann, L., Nascimbeni, F., Villar-Onrubia, D., & Orlic, D. (2019). Fostering openness in education: Considerations for sustainable policy-making. Open Praxis, 11(2), 167-183.

Inamorato dos Santos, A. (2017). Going open: Policy recommendations on open education in Europe. JRC Science for Policy Report, European Commission.

Inamorato does Santos, A., Nascimbeni, F., Bacsich, P., Atenas, J., Aceto, S., Burgos, D., & Punie, Y. (2017). Policy approaches to open education – Case studies from 28 EU member states . JRC Technical Reports.

Kalman, Y. M. (2017). Open educational resources: Policy, costs, and transformation. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(3).

Mulder, F. (2013). The logic of national policies and strategies for open educational resources. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(2), 96–105.

Wiens, K., & Tarkowski, A. (eds). (2016). Global open policy report. Open Policy Network. Mountain View, CA: Creative Commons.

Foundations for OER strategy development. (2015, November 18). Version 1.0 (Word.)


Arimoto, M. M., Barroca, L., & Barbosa, E. F. (2016). Am-OER: An agile method for the development of open educational resources. Informatics in Education, 15(2), 205–233, doi: 10.15388/infedu.2016.11

Ross-Hellauer, T., Fecher, B., Shearer, K., & Rodrigues, E. (2019). Pubfair: A Distributed Framework for Open Publishing Services, version 2. Confederation of Open Access Repositories.

Weller, Martin (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education: a perspective. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.


Atenas, J., & Havemann, L. (2013). Quality assurance in the open: An evaluation of OER repositories. The International Journal for Innovation and Quality in Learning.

Mathes, J. (2019). Global Quality in Online, Open, Flexible and Technology Enhanced Education. Oslo, Norway: International Council for Open and Distance Education.

Reading: paper vs. screens

Mangen, A., Walgermo, B.R., & Bronnick, K.K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58: 61-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2012.12.002

Remixing/Revising OER

Baas, M., & Schuwer, R. (2020). What About Reuse? A Study on the Use of Open Educational Resources in Dutch Higher Education. Open Praxis, 12(4), 527-540.

Coughlan, T., Pitt, R., & McAndrew P. (2013). Building pen bridges: Collaborative remixing and reuse of open educational resources across organisations. >CHI ’13: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp 991–1000.


Tennant, J., Agarwal, R., Baždarić, K., Brassard, D., Crick, T., Dunleavy, D. J., … Yarkoni, T. (2020, March 6). A tale of two ‘opens’: intersections between Free and Open Source Software and Open Scholarship.

Social justice

Adam, T. (2020). Between social justice and decolonisation: Exploring South African MOOC designers’ conceptualisations and approaches to addressing injustices. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 7.

Bali, M., Cronin, C., & Jhangiani, R. S. (2020). Framing open educational practices from a social justice perspective. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 10.

Charitonos, K., Albuerne Rodriguez, C., Witthaus, G., & Bossu, C. (2020). Advancing social justice for asylum seekers and refugees in the UK: An open education approach to strengthening capacity through Refugee Action’s Frontline Immigration Advice Project. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 11.

Meri-Yilan, S. (2020). The online interface and social inclusion: A MOOC study in Turkey. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 12.

Urbančič, T., Polajnar, A., & Jermol, M. (2019). Open education for a better world: A mentoring programme fostering design and reuse of open educational resources for sustainable development goals. Open Praxis, 11(4).

Student support

Farrow, R., de los Arcos, B., Pitt, R., & Weller, M. (2015). Who are the open learners? A comparative study profiling non-formal users of open educational resources. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning, 18(2).


UNESCO: Data for the sustainable development goals, education and literacy


Alperin, J.P., Nieves, C.M., Schimanski, L.A., Fischman, G.E., Niles, M.T. & McKiernan, A. (2019). Meta-research: How significant are the public dimensions of faculty work in review, promotion and tenure documents? eLife, 8(e42254).


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