Research and Reports

14 United States

Last update: July 19/19

Access codes/assessment platforms

Schaffhauser, D. (2018, January 26). Bundles and access codes destroy efforts to cut textbook pricing. Campus Technology. PDF of original plan: Open 101-An action plan for affordable textbooks, The Student PIRGS.

Adoption

Belikov, O. M., & Bodily, R. (2016). Incentives and barriers to OER adoption: A qualitative analysis of faculty perceptions. Open Praxis, 8(3), 235–246. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.8.3.308

Bell, S. (2018). Course materials adoption: A faculty survey and outlook for the OER landscape, ACRL/Choice, publisher.

Braddlee, Dr.,& VanScoy, A. (n.d.) Bridging the chasm: Faculty support roles for academic librarians in the adoption of open educational resources. College & Research Libraries preprint.

The California OER Council (2016). OER Adoption Study: Using Open Educational Resources in the College Classroom.

Chiorescu, M. (2017). Exploring open educational resources for college algebra. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Hilton, J., Gaudet, D., Clark, P., Robinson, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). The adoption of open educational resources by one community college math department. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 37–50. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1523/2652 .

McNally, M., & Christiansen, E. (2019). Open enough? Eight factors to consider when transitioning from closed to open resources and courses: A conceptual framework. First Monday, 24(6). doi:https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v24i6.9180

Ozdemir, O., & Hendricks, C. (2017). Instructor and student experiences with open textbooks, from the California open online library for education (Cool4Ed). Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29(1), 98-113.

Pawlyshyn, Braddlee, Casper and Miller (2013). Adopting OER: A Case Study of Cross-Institutional Collaboration and Innovation. Educause Review.

Petrides, L., Jimes, C., Detzner, C. M., Walling, J., & Weiss, S. (2011). Open textbook adoption and use: implications for teachers and learners. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 26(1), 39-49. doi: 10.1080/02680513.2011.538563.

Advocacy

Young, J.R. (2018, October 31). Campus support for OER is growing, survey finds. EdSurge. Original research: The 2018 Campus Computing Survey.

Ancillary resources

Kelly, D. P., & Rutherford, T. (2017). Khan Academy as supplemental instruction: A controlled study of a computer-based mathematics intervention. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Awareness

Thompson, L., Lantz, J., and Sullivan, B. (2019). Pre-service teacher awareness of open educational resources. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, Vol. 1 (2). Retrieved from https://www.ijoer.org/pre-service-teacher-awareness-of-open-educational-resources/

Booksellers/bookstores

Sanders, C. (2019). Let Us Get You Into College: Community College Librarians, Barnes & Noble, and OER. OLA Quarterly, 24(3), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.7710/1093-7374.1952

Schmitt, M., & Shi, T. (2018). Secondary Markets and Firm Profits: Evidence from College Textbooks, UCLA Analysis Group.

Copyright

Nguyen, N. A. (2010). Not all textbooks are created equal: Copyright, fair use, and open access in the Open College Textbook Act of 2010. Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law, 21(1), 105–130.

Courses

Johansen, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for open courseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development, 59(3), p. 369-382. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-010-9160-7

Efficacy and student outcomes

Al Abri, M., & Dabbagh, N. (2019). Testing the Intervention of OER renewable assignments in a college course. Open Praxis, 11(2), 195-209. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.2.916

Allen, G., Guzman-Alvarez, A., Smith, A., Gamage, A., Molinaro, M., & Larsen, D. S. (2015). Evaluating the effectiveness of the open-access ChemWiki resource as a replacement for traditional general chemistry textbooks. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(4), 939-948.

See also Allen, G., Guzman-Alvarez, A., Molinaro, M., Larsen, D. (2015). Assessing the impact and efficacy of the open-access ChemWiki Textbook Project. Educause Learning Initiative Brief, January 2015, and this newsletter.

Clinton, V. (2018). Savings without sacrifices: A case study of open-source textbook adoption. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance, and e-Learning.

Colvard, N.B., Watson, C.E., Park, H. (2018). The impact of open educational resources on various student success metrics. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(2), 262-276. PDF.

Cooney, C. (2017). What impacts do OER have on students? Students share their experiences with a health psychology OER at New York City College of Technology. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Croteau, E. (2017). Measures of student success with textbook transformations: The Affordable Learning Georgia Initiative. Open Praxis, 9(1), 93-108. Retrieved from https://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/505/251

 

Feldstein, A., Martin, M., Hudson, A., Warren, K., Hilton, J., & Wiley, D. (2012). Open textbooks and increased student access and outcomes. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2, 1-9. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/index.php?p=archives&year=2012&halfyear=2&article=533

Fischer, L., Hilton III, J., Robinson, T. J., & Wiley, D. A. (2015). A multi-institutional study of the impact of open textbook adoption on the learning outcomes of post-secondary students. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 27(3), 159-172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-015-9101-x

Gil, P., Candelas, F., Jara, C., Garcia, G., Torres, F (2013). Web-based OERs in Computer Networks. International Journal of Engineering Education, 29(6), 1537-1550. PDF.

Grewe, K., & Davis, W. P. (2017). The impact of enrollment in an OER course on student learning outcomes. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Grimaldi, P.J., Mallick, D.B., Waters, A.E., Baraniu, R.G. (2019). Do open educational resources improve student learning? Implications of the access hypothesis. PLOS ONE, 14(3): eo212508. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212508

Hilton, J. (2016). Open educational resources and college textbook choices: A review of research on efficacy and perceptions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 573-590. doi: 10.1007/s11423-016-9434-9

Hilton, J., Fischer, L., Wiley, D., & Williams, L. (2016). Maintaining momentum toward graduation: OER and the course throughput rate. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 17(6). http://dx.doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i6.2686

Hilton, J., Laman, C. (2012). One college’s use of an open psychology textbook. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 27(3), 201–217. PDF.

Hilton, J., Larsen, R., Wiley, D. & Fischer, L. (2019). Substituting open educational resources for commercial curriculum materials: effects on student mathematics achievement in elementary schools, >Research in Mathematics Education, 21:1, 60-76, DOI: 10.1080/14794802.2019.1573150

Kersey, S. (2019). The effectiveness of open educational resources in college calculus. A quantitative study. Open Praxis, 11(2), 185-193. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.2.935

Lawrence and Lester (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness of adopting open educational resources in an introductory American government courseJournal of Political Science Education.

Lovett, M., Meyer, O., & Thille, C. (2008). The open learning initiative: Measuring the effectiveness of the OLI statistics course in accelerating student learningJournal of Interactive Media in Education2008 (1).

Robinson, T. J., Fischer, L., Wiley, D., & Hilton, J. (2014). The impact of open textbooks on secondary science learning outcomes. Educational Researcher, 43(7), 341-3351. CrossRef

Shaw, C.S., Irwin, K.C., Blanton, D. (2019). Impact of open educational resources on course DFWI rates in undergraduate online education. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, Vol.1 (2). Retrieved from https://www.ijoer.org/impact-of-open-educational-resources-on-course-dfwi-rates-in-undergraduate-online-education

Springer, M.T. (2019). Adapting and adopting open educational resources: An analysis of student cost savings, use, performance, and perception. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, Vol. 1 (2). Retrieved from https://www.ijoer.org/adapting-and-adopting-open-educational-resources/

Stovall, J.P., Laird, S.G., Welford, L., & Williams. A. (2019). Student and instructor generated open educational resources compare favorably to a traditional textbook. Journal of Forestry, 117(4), 370-378. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvz035

Winitzky-Stephens, J. R., & Pickavance, J. (2017). Open educational resources and student course outcomes: A multilevel analysis. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

General

Becker, S.A., Brown, M., Dahlstrom, E., Davis, A., DePaul, K., Diaz, V., & Pomerantz, J. (2018). NMC Horizon Report: 2018 Higher Education Edition. Louisville, CO: Educause. Retrieved from https://library.educause.edu/~/media/files/library/2018/8/2018horizonreport.pdf

Caswell, T., Hensen, S., Jensen, M., & Wiley, D. (2008) Open educational resources: Enabling universal education. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(1).

Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). Free: Why authors are giving books away on the internet. Tech Trends, 54(2).

Kinskey, C. and Lewis Miller, C. (2019). Creating faculty development on OER. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, Vol. 1 (2). Retrieved from https://www.ijoer.org/creating-faculty-professional-development-on-oer

Mott, J. & Wiley, D. (2009). Open for learning: The CMS and the open learning network. In Education, 15(2).

Tonks, D., Weston, S., Wiley, D., & Barbour, M. (2013). “Opening” a new kind of school: The story of the Open High School of Utah. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(1).

Wiley, D. (2010). Impediments to learning object reuse and openness as a potential solution. Revista Brasileira de Informática na Educação, 17(3).

Wiley, D. (2006). Open source, openness, and higher education. Innovate Journal of Online Education, 3(1).

Wiley, D. & Hilton, J. (2009). Openness, dynamic specialization, and the disaggregated future of higher education International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(5).

Information technology (IT)

The Campus Computing Survey – an annual survey, begun in 1990, is the largest continuing study of the role of information technology in American higher education.

Instructional designers (ID)

Ren, X. (2019). The undefined figure: Instructional designers in the open educational resource (OER) movement in higher education. Educ Inf Technol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09940-0

Libraries/librarians

Braddlee, Dr.,& VanScoy, A. (n.d.) Bridging the chasm: Faculty support roles for academic librarians in the adoption of open educational resources. College & Research Libraries preprint.

Breeding, M. (2019). Library Systems Report 2019. American Libraries. Retrieved from: https://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/2019/05/01/library-systems-report-2019/

Colson, R., Scott, E., Donaldson, R. (2017). Supporting librarians in making the business case for OER. The Reference Librarian, 58(4), 278-287. doi: 10.1080/02763877.2017.1377665

Miller, R., & Homol, L. (2016). Building an online curriculum based on OERs: The library’s role. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 10(3–4), 349–359. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/1533290X.2016.1223957

Okamoto, K. (2013). Making higher education more affordable, one course reading at a time: Academic libraries as key advocates for open access textbooks and educational resources. Public Services Quarterly, 9(4), 267–283. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15228959.2013.842397

Smith, B., Lee, L. (2017). Librarians and OER: Cultivating a community of practice to be mroe effective advocates. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 11. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2016.1226592

Walz, Anita, Kristi Jensen, and Joseph A. Salem, Jr. Affordable Course Content and Open Educational Resources. SPEC Kit 351. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries, July 2016. doi: 10.29242/spec.351

Open educational practices (OEP)/pedagogy

Gurell, S. (2012). Measuring the Technical Difficulty in Reusing Open Educational Resources with the ALMS Analysis Framework. Dissertation.

Hilton, J., Lutz, N., Wiley, D. (2012). Examining the reuse of open textbooks.
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2).

Leggett, J.M., Wen, J., & Chatman, A. (2018). Emancipatory learning, open educational resources, open education, and digital critical participatory action research. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , Innovative Pedagogy, 1 , Article 4. https://digitalcommons.humboldt.edu/sotl_ip/vol1/iss1/4

McDowell, Z. J. and Stewart, M. (2019). Student learning outcomes with Wikipedia-based assignments. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, Vol. 1(2). Retrieved from https://ijoer.org/student-learning-outcomes-with-wikipedia-based-assignments

Wiley, D., Hilton, J. (2018). Defining OER-enabled pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(4).

Wiley, D., Webb, A., Weston, S., & Tonks, D. (2017). A preliminary exploration of the relationships between student-created OER, sustainability, and students success. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Open educational resources (OER)

Allen, I.E., Seaman, J. (2012). Growing the curriculum: Open education resources in U.S. higher education, Babson Survey Research Group.

Allen, I.E., Seaman, J. (2014). Opening the curriculum: Open educational resources in U.S. higher education, Babson Survey Research Group.

Allen, I.E., Seaman, J. (2016). Opening the textbook: Educational resources in U.S. higher education, 2015-16, Babson Survey Research Group.

Atkins, D. E., Brown, J. S., & Hammond, A. L. (2007). A review of the open educational resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges, and new opportunities. San Francisco, CA: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.

Colorado Open Educational Resources Council (2017). Report to the Joint Budget Committee and the Education Committees of the General Assembly Open Educational Resources in Colorado. Colorado Department of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://highered.colorado.gov/Publications/Reports/legislative/OER/OER_Nov2017.pdf

Hilton, J.L., Gaudet, D., Clark, P., Robinson, J., Wiley, D. (2013). The Adoption of Open Educational Resources by One Community College Math Department, International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(4).

Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., Johnson, A. (2010). The four R’s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open rducational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning

Piña, A. A., & Moran, K. A. (2018). Effects of an open educational resources initiative on students, faculty and instructional designers. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 21(2).

Seaman, J.E. Seaman, J. (2018). Freeing the textbook: Educational resources in U.S. higher Education, 2018, Babson Survey Research Group.

Seaman, J.E., Seaman, J. (2017). Opening the textbook: Educational resources in U.S. higher education, 2017, Babson Survey Research Group.

Spilovoy, T.M., Seaman, J. (2015). Opening public institutions: OER in North Dakota and the nation, 2015, Babson Survey Research Group.

Thoms, J. J., Arshavskaya, E., & Poole, F. J. (2018). Open educational resources and ESL education: Insights from U.S. educators. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 22(2), 1–24.

Wiley, D., Bliss, T. J., & McEwen, M. (2014). Open educational resources: A review of the literature. In J. M. Spector, M. D., Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop. (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 781-789). New York: Springer.

Open textbooks

American Council on Education. Quick hits: Open textbooks: The current state of play. Retrieved June 17, 2019 from https://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Pages/Quick-Hits-Open-Textbooks.aspx

NOVA Student Government Association. Free textbook survey.

Perception/attitude/awareness

Bliss, T., Robinson, T. J., Hilton, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). An OER COUP: College teacher and student perceptions of Open Educational Resources. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 1–25.

Bliss, T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., & Thanos, K. (2013). The cost and quality of online open textbooks: Perceptions of community college faculty and students. First Monday, 18(1). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3972/3383 .

Delimont, N., Turtle, E. C., Bennett, A., Adhikari, K., & Lindshield, B. L. (2016). University students and faculty have positive perceptions of open/alternative resources and their utilization in a textbook replacement initiative. Research in Learning Technology, 24.

Hilton, J. (2016). Open educational resources and college textbook choices: A review of research on efficacy and perceptions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 573-590. doi: 10.1007/s11423-016-9434-9

Illowsky, B. S., Hilton III, J., Whiting, J., & Ackerman, J. D. (2016). Examining student perception of an open statistics book. Open Praxis,8(3), 265-276.

Jung, E., Bauer, C., & Heaps, A. (2017). Higher Education Faculty Perceptions of Open Textbook Adoption. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Lindshield, B., & Adhikari, K. (2013). Campus and online U.S. college students’ attitudes toward an open educational resource course fee: A pilot study. International Journal of Higher Education, 2(4), 42–51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v2n4p42

Lindshield, B., & Adhikari, K. (2013). Online and campus college students like using an open educational resource instead of a traditional textbook. Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 9(1), 1–7.

Martin, T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D. Fischer, L., Belikov, O. (2017). An Analysis of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Textbook CostsOpen Praxis, 9(1), 79-91.

Morales, R., & Baker, A. (2018). Secondary Students’ Perceptions of Open Science Textbooks. Journal of Interactive Media in Education2018(1).

Pitt, R. (2015). Mainstreaming Open Textbooks: Educator Perspectives on the Impact of OpenStax College open textbooks. The International Review of Research in Open And Distributed Learning, 16(4).

Watson, C. E., Domizi, D. P., & Clouser, S. A. (2017). Student and Faculty Perceptions of OpenStax in High Enrollment Courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning18(5). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2462/4299

Policy

Association of College and Research Libraries. (2019). Open and equitable scholarly communications: Creating a more inclusive future. Chicago, IL: Maron and Kennison. https://doi.org/10.5860/acrl.1

Printing

Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2011). Free e-books and print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 14(1). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/3336451.0014.109

Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1).

Publishers/publishing

Blog post: Open access publishing: New evidence on faculty attitudes and behaviors – April 15, 2019 (The Scholarly Kitchen)

  • Referencing this research: Blankstein, M., & Wolff-Eisenberg, C. (2019, April 12). Ithaka S+R US Faculty Survey 2018. https://doi.org/10.18665/sr.311199

Aspesi, C., et al. (2019). SPARC Landscape Analysis: The Changing Academic Publishing Industry – Implications for Academic Institutions. Retrieved from https://sparcopen.org/our-work/landscape-analysis/

Association of American Publishers. (2019, February 12). AAP StatShot: Trade Book Publisher Revenue Increased by 4.6% in 2018. Retrieved from https://newsroom.publishers.org/aap-statshot-trade-book-publisher-revenue-increased-by-46-in-2018/

Randall, D. L., Johnson, J. C., West, R.E., Wiley, D.A. (2013). Teaching, doing and sharing project management: The development of an instructional design project management textbook. Educational Technology, 53(6), 24-28.

Quality

Bliss, T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Thanos, K. (2013). The cost and quality of open textbooks: Perceptions of community college faculty and students. First Monday, 18:1.

Bodily, R., Nyland, R., & Wiley, D. (2017). The RISE Framework: Using Learning Analytics to Automatically Identify Open Educational Resources for Continuous Improvement. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 18(2).

Fischer, L., Ernst, D., & Mason, S. L. (2017). Rating the Quality of Open Textbooks: How Reviewer and Text Characteristics Predict Ratings. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).

Reading: paper vs. screen

Jabr. F. (2013, April 11). The reading brain in the digital age: The science of paper versus screens. Scientific American. Retrieved June 17, 2019 from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/

Religious colleges

Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). The creation and use of open educational resources in Christian higher education. Christian Higher Education, 9(1).

Retention

Hilton, J. Fischer, L., Wiley, D., Williams, L. (2016). (2016). Maintaining Momentum Toward Graduation: OER and the Course Throughput Rate, International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 17(6): 1-10.

Steven, M. (2012). The Effects of Previous Exposure to Independent Study Courses and Open Courseware on Withdrawal from Subsequent Independent Study Courses, MS Thesis.

Savings

Bliss, T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Thanos, K. (2013). The cost and quality of open textbooks: Perceptions of community college faculty and students. First Monday, 18:1.
Clinton, V. (2018). Savings without sacrifices: A case study of open-source textbook adoption. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance, and e-Learning.

Hilton, J.L., Robinson, T.J., Wiley, D., & Ackerman, J.D. (2014). Cost-savings achieved in two semesters through the adoption of open educational resources. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(2).
Ikahihifo, T. K., Spring, K. J., Rosecrans, J., & Watson, J. (2017). Assessing the Savings from Open Educational Resources on Student Academic Goals. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning18(7).

Nyamweya, M. (2018, December 20). A new method for estimating OER savings, SPARC.

Wiley, D., Hilton, J.L. H., Ellington, S., & Hall, T. (2012). A preliminary examination of the cost savings and learning impacts of using open textbooks in middle and high school science classes. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(3,) 262–276.

Wiley, D. (2019). OER: Student savings and adoption rates. Lumen Learning.

Sustainability

Hilton, J., & Wiley, D. (2011). Open-access textbooks and financial sustainability: a case study on Flat World Knowledge. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/960/1860 .

Hilton, J. & Wiley, D. (2010). A sustainable future for open textbooks? The Flat World Knowledge story. First Monday, 15 (8-2).

Tenure

Alperin, J.P., Nieves, C.M., Schimanski, L.A., Fischman, G.E., Niles, M.T. & McKiernan, A. (2019). Meta-research: How significant are the public dimensions of faculty work in review, promotion and tenure documents? eLife, 8(e42254), doi: 10.7554/eLife.42254.

Textbook costs

Flatworld. (2019, June). FlatWorld Textbook Affordability Student.

Flatworld. (2018, October). Flatworld Textbook Cost Study 2018 [PDF].

Florida Virtual Campus. (2016). 2016 Student Textbook and Course Materials Survey. PDF.

Florida Virtual Campus. (2012). 2012 Florida Student Textbook Survey. PDF.

Also see: About the New Florida Virtual Campus Survey on Textbooks by Phil Hill, October 25, 2016 and  Comparing the 2016 and 2012 FLVC Student Textbook Survey Results by David Wiley, October 26, 2016

Koch, J.V. (2006). An Economic Analysis of Textbook Pricing and Textbook Markets. ACSFA College Textbook Cost Study Plan Proposal. Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance.

McConnell, E. (2017). How much are UConn students spending on textbooks? Affordable Textbooks Campaign. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1SeaWUa2ssXEJbDojuTZNkYi3KTfMBc6j/view

Perry, M.J. (2017, October 25). Wednesday afternoon links: Chart II (CPI: Educational Books and Supplies, Jan. 1967 to Sept. 2017). AEIdeas. Retrieved Nov 22, 2018.

Rose, D., (2018). Are Private Universities Exempt from Student Concerns About Textbook Costs? A Survey of Students at American University. Open Praxis, 10 (3).

Zed cred/Z degrees

Participant Experiences and Financial Impacts: Findings from Year 2 of Achieving the Dream’s OER Degree Initiative – October 18, 2018. (PDF: 2017 report; PDF: 2018 report).

Brandle, S., Katz, S., Hays, A., Beth, A., Cooney, C., DiSanto, J., Miles, L., Morrison, A. (2019). But what do the students think: Results of the CUNY cross-campus zero-textbook cost student survey. Open Praxis, 11(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.1.932

Griffiths, R., Mislevy, J., Wang, S., Shear, L., Mitchell, N., Bloom, M., Staisloff, R., Desrochers, D. (2017). Launching OER Degree Pathways: An Early Snapshot of Achieving the Dream’s OER Degree Initiative and Emerging Lessons. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International

Wiley, D., Williams, L., DeMarte, D., and Hilton, J. (2016). “The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO model for sustaining OER adoption.” Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(41), pp.1-12.

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United States by Lauri M. Aesoph is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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