Key Concepts of Computer Studies

Key Concepts of Computer Studies

Meizhong Wang

BCcampus

Victoria, B.C.

Contents

1

Accessibility Statement

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This statement was last updated on November 27, 2020.

2

For Students: How to Access and Use this Book

This textbook is available in the following formats:

You can access the online webbook and download any of the formats for free here: Key Concepts of Computer Studies. To download the book in a different format, look for the “Download this book” drop-down menu and select the file type you want.

How can I use the different formats?
Format Internet required? Device Required apps Features Screen reader compatible
Online webbook Yes Computer, tablet, phone An internet browser (Chrome, Firefox, Edge, or Safari) Option to enlarge text and compatible with browser text-to-speech tools. Yes
PDF No Computer, print copy Adobe Reader Ability to zoom in, highlight, and annotate the text. Unsure
EPUB and MOBI No Computer, tablet, phone Kindle app (MOBI) or eReader app (EPUB) Option to enlarge text, change font style, size, and colour. Unsure
HTML No Computer, tablet, phone An internet browser (Chrome, Firefox, Edge, or Safari) Option to enlarge text and compatible with browser text-to-speech tools. Yes

Tips for Using This Textbook

3

About BCcampus Open Education

Key Concepts of Computer Studies by Meizhong Wang was funded by BCcampus Open Education.

BCcampus Open Education began in 2012 as the B.C. Open Textbook Project with the goal of making post-secondary education in British Columbia more accessible by reducing students’ costs through the use of open textbooks and other OER. BCcampus supports the post-secondary institutions of British Columbia as they adapt and evolve their teaching and learning practices to enable powerful learning opportunities for the students of B.C. BCcampus Open Education is funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education, Skills & Training, and the Hewlett Foundation.

Open educational resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research resources that, through permissions granted by the copyright holder, allow others to use, distribute, keep, or make changes to them. Our open textbooks are openly licensed using a Creative Commons licence, and are offered in various e-book formats free of charge, or as printed books that are available at cost.

For more information about open education in British Columbia, please visit the BCcampus Open Education website. If you are an instructor who is using this book for a course, please fill out our Adoption of an Open Textbook form.

4

About the Author

Meizhong Wang has been an instructor at the College of New Caledonia (CNC) in Canada for 30 years. She currently teaches mathematical and computer courses and has lectured in physics, electronics, electric circuits, and more at CNC and other colleges and universities in Canada and China.

Meizhong is also the author of several books, including:

Key Concepts of Intermediate Level Math (BCcampus – Canada, 2018)

 

 

 

 

Algebra I & II – Key Concepts, Practice, and Quizzes (The Critical Thinking Co. – U.S., 2013).

 

 

 

Understandable Electric Circuits (Michael Faraday House of the IET – Institution of Engineering and Technology – U.K., 2010, second edition 2018).

 

 

 

 

Math Made Easy (CNC Press, Canada, 2011, second edition 2013).

 

 

 

 

Legends of Four Chinese Sages – coauthor (Lily S.S.C Literary Ltd. – Canada, 2007).

 

 

 

简明电路基础, Chinese version of Understandable Electric Circuits (The Higher Education Press – China, 2005).

5

Preface

If you are looking for a quick study guide in Computer Studies, Key Concepts of Computer Studies is an excellent resource. Skip the lengthy and distracting books and instead use this book to guide your studies, reviewing, or tutoring. This book quickly gets to the heart of each particular topic, helping students with a quick review before doing homework. It also supports preparation for tests.

This book was designed for fundamental and intermediate levels in computer studies. It is concise, understandable, and effective.

Key Features

As an aid to readers, the book provides some noteworthy features:

Suitable Readers

This book can be used by:

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Krista Lambert, Program Manager, Health, ECE, & ABE ZTC Programs, BCcampus, for her help, advice, and support throughout the entire process.

I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Josie Gray, Kaitlyn Zheng, Arianna Cheveldave, and Harper Friedman at BCcampus for their help, accuracy in proofreading and laying out the book, and support in publishing this book.

I

SECTION I - FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTER STUDIES

Section I covers the following topics:

II

Unit 1. Basic knowledge and common uses of computers

Topic A: Basic knowledge of computers

Topic B: Start a computer system or program

Topic C: Online communication

Topic D: Common uses of computers in society

Unit 1 Self-test

1

Topic A: Basic knowledge of computers

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System Unit

System unit – the main part of a desktop computer (the case) that contains all of the main electronic components of a computer.

Motherboard (mainboard) – the main circuit board of the computer.

CPU (Central Processing Unit) – CPU is often referred to as the brain or engine of a computer where most of the processing and operations take place.

RAM (Random-Access Memory) – a type of data storage (memory element) used in computers that temporarily stores programs and data.

Basic Parts of a Computer System

A computer system includes a system unit along with all its software (such as Office 2016, Windows 10, etc.) and peripheral devices (such as a mouse, keyboard, monitor, printer, etc.) connected to it.

Computer monitor – a display screen used to display information (text, image, video, etc.) processed by a computer.

Keyboard – an input device (the set of typewriter-like keys) that allows a user to enter characters (letters, numbers, symbols, etc.) into a computer.

.

Mouse – a hand-held pointing device that can control the position of a cursor (pointer) on a display screen.

Trackpad (or touchpad) – a small flat surface on a laptop or other computer that does the same things as a mouse (a trackpad is a built-in mouse).

Hard Drive, USB Drive, and Printer

Hard disk drive (HDD) – the main data storage device in a computer.

USB drive – a small portable storage device used to store or transfer data for computers. It is often used for storage, data backup, and transfer of computer files.

Printer – an output device linked to a computer. It transfers the information (text, images, etc.) to paper.

2

Topic B: Start a computer system or program

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Start and Shut Down a Computer System

Start a computer system

  1. Press the computer’s Power button.  
    If the monitor is not turned on, press the Power button on the monitor.
  2. When the computer has finished booting, it will show a dialogue box that will ask for a username and password.
  3. Enter your username and password, then click “→ ” (the submit button) or press the Enter key on keyboard.

Shut down a computer system (Windows 10)

Method 1

  1. Click the Start icon (at the bottom left corner). 
  2. Click the Power icon on the main menu.
  3. Click Shut down.

Method 2

  1. Right-click the Start icon. 
  2. Click or hover over Shut down or sign out.
  3. Click Shut down.

Log off (or sign out) a computer (Windows 10):

Method 1

  1. Press Ctrl-Alt-Del keys at the same time.
  2. Click Sign out.

Method 2

  1. Click the Start icon.
  2. Click the User profile icon. 
  3. Click Sign out.

Method 3

  1. Right-click the Start icon.
  2. Click or hover over Shut down or sign out.
  3. Click Sign out. (Or click Restart to reboot the computer.)

Start a Program

Start a program or application such as Word, PowerPoint, Paint, etc. (Windows 10)

Method 1

  1. Click the Start icon.
  2. Click the name of the program that you wish to start (e.g. Word, PowerPoint, etc.).

.

 

Method 2

  1. Type the program name in the Search box.
  2. Click the name of the program that you wish to start.

Method 3

  1. Double-click a program shortcut icon on the desktop. (If the program icon is on the desktop.)

Method 4

  1. Click an open program on the taskbar (the bottom edge of the screen).

Close a Program

Close (exit) a program (close an active open window)

Method 1

  1. Click the Close icon (x) in the upper-right corner of the window.

.

Method 2

  1. Click the File, and then click Close.

.

 

 

Method 3

On your keyboard, press Alt + F4 at the same time.

(Always save your document before closing.)

3

Topic C: Online communication

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Email and Video Conferencing

Online communication refers to the sharing of information or communication over a computer network (the Internet).

Some popular types of online communication:

A screenshot of 12 people video chatting over Zoom

Social Networking

 

 

4

Topic D: Common uses of computers in society

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Computers at Home

There are many things that a computer can do at home, such as:

Manage home budget

Work from home

 

Online banking

Entertainment

Computer games

Computers in Education and Business

Computers in education

The uses of computers in education are plentiful, such as:

Computers in business

Computer can help a business start, run, manage, and grow. Computers can be used in business for:

Without a computer, it can be very difficult to start, run, and grow the business.

Computers in Healthcare and Science/Engineering

Computers in healthcare

A hospital room with two beds.Computers play a crucial role in the healthcare field, such as:

Computers in science/engineering

Computers play a critical role in science/engineering because today is a world of computers.

5

Unit 1: Self-test

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Find answers to this self-test at the back of the book: Answers for Self-Tests

True or false

  1. A system unit includes the motherboard, CPU, RAM, hard drive, expansion cards, power supply, etc.
  2. A hard drive a computer’s central structure that connects the different parts of a computer together.
  3. All information that was stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned on.
  4. A keyboard is an output device that allows a user to enter characters into a computer.
  5. Blogs are written and updated by bloggers. They write about their opinions and thoughts.
  6. Computer can help business to start, run, manage, and grow.

Fill in the blank

  1. The [blank] is the main part of a desktop computer.
  2. CPU is the abbreviation for [blank].
  3. RAM is a type of data storage used in computers that [blank] stores programs and data.
  4. Computer [blank] is a display screen used to display information processed by a computer.
  5. USB stands for [blank].
  6. When you save data or install programs on your computer, the information is written to the [blank] disk.
  7. [Blank] is a telephone connection over the Internet. It allows users to make calls over the Internet.
  8. Disk drive is a hardware that stores and retrieves information, data, files, programs, etc. that are used by your computer. The drive is often referred to by the [blank].

Multiple choice

  1. The [blank] is often referred to as the brain or engine of a computer.
    1. CPU
    2. motherboard
    3. RAM
    4. system unit
  2. Which of the following is one of the common names used for CPU?
    1. processor
    2. central processor
    3. microprocessor
    4. all of the above
  3. Which of the following is one of the common names used for USB drive?
    1. flash drive
    2. pen drive
    3. USB stick
    4. all of the above
  4. A [blank] is a small flat surface on a laptop or other computer that does the same things as a mouse.
    1. flash drive
    2. trackpad
    3. USB stick
    4. RAM
  5. Popular social media websites:
    1. Facebook
    2. WeChat
    3. LinkedIn
    4. all of the above
  6. Computers play a crucial role in science/engineering, such as:
    1. simulating experiments
    2. patient monitoring
    3. diagnostic databases
    4. all of the above

III

Unit 2. Keyboarding

A small turtle crawls across a keyboard.

Topic A: Keyboarding skills

Topic B: The base position

Unit 2 Self-test

6

Topic A: Keyboarding skills

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Touch Typing

Keyboarding skills – the ability to input information at a keyboard smoothly while typing.

Touch typing – a method of typing (with all the available fingers) without looking at the keyboard.

Benefits of touch typing

Typing tips

Keyboarding Technique

A stick figure sits at a desk with a laptop. Their back is straight and their arms are at 90 degrees over the keyboard.

Proper posture

The mouse and keyboard should be set to the height of elbow height.

A woman sitting at a table, looking at a laptop.

7

Topic B: The base position

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The Home Row

The home row is the set of keys that are the base position for fingers. These are the keys located on the middle row of the keyboard.

 

A keyboard with two sets of keys in the middle row highlighted.
The home row keys on the keyboard are A, S, D, and F on the left and J, K, L, and the semicolon (;) on the right.

Finger names

Fingers on the right hand with labels, left to right: thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger.

Touch Typing Rules

Colour-coded chart

A keyboard with the keys grouped into sections. Long description available.
Labelled keyboard. [Image Description]

Correct finger placement

Typing Speed

Ways to improve typing speed

Take online typing tests

Image Descriptions

Home row image description: the base position keys for the left hand are:

The base position keys for the right hand are:

[Return to Home row image]

Labelled keyboard image description: a standard keyboard with the keys grouped into sections labelled A to I from left to right. Each section corresponds to a finger that would press the keys in that section.

8

Unit 2: Self-test

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Find answers to this self-test at the back of the book: Answers for Self-Tests

True or false

  1. Hands should be flat, but palms of hands not resting on the keyboard.
  2. Feet should be flat on the ground and cross.
  3. Keep eyes on the hands rather than the keyboard.
  4. Always try to return your fingers to the base position when you are not typing.

Fill in the blank

  1. [Blank] typing is a method of typing without looking at the keyboard.
  2. [Blank] body in front of keyboard and sit up straight.
  3. Base positions or [blank] row keys: the row of keys located on the middle row of the keyboard.
  4. The home row keys for the left hand are A, S, [blank], and F.
  5. The home row keys for the right hand are J, [blank], L, and the semicolon (;).

Multiple choice

  1. Benefits of touch typing:
    1. speed
    2. productivity
    3. accuracy
    4. all of the above
  2. Arms relaxed and bent to about [blank] degrees; elbows naturally close to body.
    1. 45°
    2. 60°
    3. 30°
    4. 90°
  3. The home row keys for the left hand are A, S, D, and [blank].
    1. L
    2. F
    3. K
    4. L
  4. Keyboards usually have small bumps on the [blank] keys.
    1. S and D
    2. A and F
    3. F and J
    4. all of the above
  5. Press all [blank] keys with the left ring finger.
    1. pink
    2. brown
    3. yellow
    4. purple
  6. Press all [blank] keys with the left index finger.
    1. pink
    2. brown
    3. light green
    4. purple
  7. Press all [blank] keys with the right ring finger.
    1. grey
    2. brown
    3. light green
    4. purple

IV

Unit 3. Basic file management and word processing

Topic A: Types of computer drives and pointing actions

Topic B: Basic file management

Topic C: Basic word processing

Unit 3 Self-test

9

Topic A: Types of computer drives and pointing actions

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Types of Computer Drives

Disk drive (drive) – a computer device that stores and retrieves information, data, files, programs, etc., from a disk. The drive is often referred to by its letter (your drive letter may differ).

A big metal disk sitting flat beneath a small, angular piece of metal.

A metal and plastic tray that juts out of a computer.

The back of a computer with several ports and wires sticking out.

Pointing Actions

Pointing device – a device used to control the movement of the pointer (cursor) on the screen.

The major pointing devices in use today are the:

A red computer mouse.

A shallowly sunken rectangle on a laptop above two rectangular buttons.

Hands holding up a tablet computer.

Basic pointing actions (use a mouse or trackpad/touchpad)

Example: drag the selected text to the new location.

10

Topic B: Basic file management

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Folder and File

Folder (or directory) – a virtual storage space used to store and organize computer files.

 

File – a storage unit on a computer that stores information, data, etc. (such as a document, an image, etc.).

Screenshot of four Word files. All are from Section 1, Units 1 to 4.

Filename – a unique name given to a file to identify it. A filename can contain letters, symbols, numbers, spaces, etc.

Right-click to create a new folder (Windows 10)

  1. Go to the location where you want to create the folder (Desktop, Documents, or anywhere on your computer).
  2. Right-click on a blank space (don’t right-click on an existing item in the folder).
  3. Click or hover over New.
  4. Click Folder.
  5. Type a name for the new folder and press Enter (on the keyboard).

Ribbon

Ribbon – a group of buttons and icons (tabs) at the top of the window that allows users to access the commands that they need to complete a task.

Microsoft Word ribbon. Icons offer options like bold, change font size, indent, and justify.

Create a new folder from the ribbon menu (Windows 10)

  1. Go to the location where you want to create the folder (e.g., Documents).
  2. Click Home.
  3. Click New folder.
  4. Type a name for the new folder and press Enter (on the keyboard).

Go to "Home" in File Explorer, then select "New folder" to make a new folder.

Basic File Management Skills

Basic file management refers to a way to name, save, backup, organize files/folders and keep track of files on a computer.

Some file management tips

Save a file for the first time or save a file with a different name or location (Microsoft Word)

  1. Click the File tab in Microsoft Word.

"File" tab in Microsoft Word is highlighted.

  1. Click the Save As command.

"Save as" is highlighted in the "File" menu.

  1. Choose a location on your computer (e.g., USB drive or hard disk drive) to save your file.
  2. Type a name for your document in the File Name box.
  3. Click the Save button.

Save an existing file in its current location (Microsoft Word)

  1. Click the File tab.
  2. Click the Save command.
  3. Or click the Save button icon.

Operate a Printer

Printer – a device that is usually connected to a computer in order to transfer the text and graphic information to paper.

A computer printer outputting a colourful document.

Microsoft Word print screen. One copy, print all pages, no page range selected.Operate a printer

  1. Load paper in the paper tray if needed.
  2. Press the Power button to turn the printer on.
  3. Open the file you want to print.
  4. Click the File tab.
  5. Click the Print command.
  6. Select the print options: Number of Copies, Print All pages, or Pages (e.g., from page 2 to page 5), etc.
  7. Click Print or Okay to start the printing process.

11

Topic C: Basic word processing

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Creating a Document

Word processing – the use of a program (software application) running on a computer to create, edit, format, and store documents.

Create a new blank document

  1. Start Word.
  2. Click the File tab.
  3. Click New command.
  4. Click Blank document. A new blank
    document appears.
  5. Type your document (text you type will be
    inserted into the document).

Open an existing document

  1. To open an existing document in Word, click File, then Open, then select the document.Start Word.
  2. Click the File tab.
  3. Click the Open command.
  4. Choose the location on the computer that stores your file (the drive and folder).
  5. Click the name of the file you want to open.
  6. Click Open or double click the file name.

Check Spelling and Grammar

Method 1

  1. Open an existing document.
  2. Right-click a word that is underlined with a wavy line (that indicates a
    misspelled word).
  3. Select the correct spelling from the suggestion list (to change the spelling
    error). For each error, Word will offer one or more suggestions.

When you right-click a misspelled word in MS Word, you get suggestions for what you may have meant.

Method 2

  1. Open an existing document.
  2. Click the Review tab.
  3. Click the Editor button (it may also be called Spelling & Grammar). If the program finds spelling errors, the Editor pane will
    appear.
  4. Click one of the options from the suggestion list to change the spelling error.
  5. The program will move to the next misspelled word.

Find Synonyms

Method 1

  1. Open an existing document.
  2. Right-click a word for which you wish to find a synonym.
  3. Click the Synonyms command on the pop-out menu.
  4. Find a desired word in the list and click it to replace the original word.
  5. If none of the synonyms is desired, click the Thesaurus command to open the full
    thesaurus. (The Thesaurus pane will appear.)
  6. Find a desired word in the Thesaurus pane list and right-click it, or point to a desired
    word in the Thesaurus pane gradient and
    click the list arrow.
  7. Click Insert [the desired word] on the menu
    that opens.

The Thesaurus pane offers different synonyms for different definitions of a word.

Method 2

  1. Open an existing document.
  2. Select a word for which you wish to use the thesaurus.
  3. Click the Review tab.
  4. Click the Thesaurus button.
  5. Find a desired word in the Thesaurus pane and right-click it, or point to a desired word in the Thesaurus pane list and click the list arrow.
  6. Click Insert [the desired word] on the menu that opens.
  7. Close the Thesaurus pane.

12

Unit 3: Self-test

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Find answers to this self-test at the back of the book: Answers for Self-Tests

True or false

  1. Filename: a unique name given to a file to identify it.
  2. A folder cannot contain additional folders.
  3. Basic file management refers to a way to name, save, backup, organize files/folders and keep tracking of files on a computer.
  4. Point and click: press and hold the left mouse button to grab an object and place it to a different location.

Fill in the blank

  1. When you save data or install programs on your computer, the information is written to the [blank] disk.
  2. A [blank] is a telephone connection over the Internet. It allows users to make calls over the Internet.
  3. A computer device that stores and retrieves information, data, files, programs, etc. from a disk. The drive is often referred to by the [blank].
  4. A [blank] is a virtual storage space used to store and organize computer files.
  5. A [blank] is a device that is usually connected to a computer in order to transfer the text and graphic information to paper.
  6. Word processing is the use of a program running on a computer that allows users to create,  [blank], format, and store documents.

Multiple choice

  1. The [blank] is a group of buttons and icons at the top of the window. It allows users to access the commands that they need to complete a task.
    1. stick
    2. tab
    3. ribbon
    4. RAM
  2. A filename can contain:
    1. letters
    2. symbols
    3. numbers
    4. all of the above
  3. A folder has a name and is represented by [blank].
    1. a stick
    2. an icon
    3. number
    4. a tab
  4. [Blank] is the use of a program running on a computer that allows users to create, edit, format and store documents.
    1. spreadsheet
    2. file management
    3. word processing
    4. all of the above

A scantron sheet.

V

Unit 4. Using web search engines

 Topic A: Web search engines

Topic B: Search the Internet using a web search engine

Unit 4 Self-test

13

Topic A: Web search engines

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Perform a Search Using a Web Search Engine

Search engine – a web-based tool that is designed to search the content of web pages and find particular information on the Internet.

Some popular search engines

Search the Internet using a web search engine

  1. The Google homepage has a search box where you type your query.Open a search engine in a web browser (such as Internet Explorer).
  2. Type a few specific keywords or phrases in the search box to describe whatever you wish to search. Search engines look for the keywords in your query.
  3. Press Enter. The search engine will display a list of websites (page after page) that include information related to your query.
  4. Repeat above steps (type different keywords or phrases) if necessary.

Web Browsers and Bookmarks

Browsers

Some popular web browsers:

Bookmarks

Bookmark bar is found beneath the address bar.

Google Chrome

Add bookmarks to Google Chrome

  1. Open Chrome by double-clicking.
  2. Go to the website you would like to
    bookmark.
  3. Click on the star icon Star. to the upper-right corner to add the bookmark.

  1. Click Done.

Find a bookmark in Chrome

Method 1

  1. Open Chrome.
  2. Click three dots (More options) in the upper-right corner.

Three vertical dots in the Chrome toolbar lead to more options.

  1. Click Bookmarks (in the pop-up menu that appears).A Chrome dropdown menu that includes a link to Bookmarks.
  2. Find and click a bookmark to open it.

Method 2

  1. Open Chrome.
  2. Find and click a bookmark on the bookmarks bar to open it.

Show or hide the bookmarks bar in Chrome

  1. Open Chrome.
  2. Click three dots icon to the upper-right corner.
  3. Click Bookmarks.
  4. Click Show Bookmarks Bar to turn the bookmarks bar on and off.
    (A check mark means the bookmarks bar is showing. No check mark means it’s hidden.)

In Chrome, click Bookmarks under More Options. Toggle Show Bookmarks on and off.

Internet Explorer

Add bookmarks to Internet Explorer

  1. Open Internet Explorer  double-click on Internet Explorer to open it.Right-click in Explorer, then select Add to favorites.
  2. Go to the website you would like to bookmark.
  3. Right-click on an empty space of the page.
  4. Select Add to Favorites from the pop-up menu that appears.
  5. Click Add.

Name the bookmark, then click Add in the Add a Favorite pop-up box.

You may also click on the star icon Star. in the upper-right corner to add the bookmark.

Find a bookmark in Internet Explorer

  1. Open Internet Explorer.
  2. Click on the star icon Star. in the upper-right corner.
  3. Find and click a bookmark to open it.

Or use the bookmarks bar that shows under the address bar. Click a bookmark to open it.

The bookmarks bar appears below the address bar in Explorer.

Show or hide the bookmark bar in Internet Explorer

  1. Open Internet Explorer.Toggle the bookmark bar in Explorer by selecting the Favorites bar option.
  2. Right-click on the top side (empty space) of the Window.
  3. Click the Favorites bar on the pop-up menu.

14

Topic B: Search the Internet using a web search engine

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Fill in Online Forms

Steps to fill in an online form

  1. Save the online form on your computer.
  2. Open the form.
  3. Click on an empty text field in the form to start filling in the form. Carefully fill in the necessary information. Double check to be sure that there are no mistakes.
  4. Add check marks if any are required.
  5. Save the form. When done, you can email, print or fax the filled out form.

PDF (Portable Document Format)

Steps to fill in a fillable PDF form

  1. An interactive form with empty check and text boxes.Save the PDF form on your computer.
  2. Open the form in Acrobat Reader.
  3. Click on an empty text field in the form to start filling in the PDF form.
  4. Save the form. When done, you can email, print or fax the filled out form.

Use Library Websites to Request Books/Other Resources

  1. Open a search engine in a web browser (such as Google in Chrome).
  2. Find the website for a library near you.
  3. Search the Library Catalogue (type your specific information into the search box). Library Catalogue is the main search box on Library webpages.
  4. Click on the title you wish to request (from the results list). Check the availability status.
  5. Click on the Place Hold button in the list of items (to place hold on your book).
  6. Enter your Library card number (or Username or
    Barcode for some libraries) and PIN number to Log In.
    When you signed up for your library card, you chose a
    personal identification number (PIN).
  7. Click on Place Hold(s).

Search methods

Use Library Websites to Renew Books/Other Resources

  1. Open a search engine in a web browser (such as Google in Chrome).
  2. Find the website for a library near you.
  3. Click on My Account (or Log In in some libraries).
  4. Enter your Library card number (or Username or Barcode for some libraries) and PIN number to Log In.
  5. Click on Checkouts.
  6. Click each title that you would like to renew.
  7. Click on Renew. (Renew option will not be available if another user has requested the book.)

15

Unit 4: Self-test

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Find answers to this self-test at the back of the book: Answers for Self-Tests

True or false

  1. A web browser is a collection of links to web pages that is stored in a web browser.
  2. Saving bookmarks allows users to quickly navigate back to the websites they visit the most.
  3. You can click on the star icon to the upper-right corner (in Chrome) to add a bookmark.
  4. Clicking the “Favorites bar” on the pop-up menu cannot show or hide the bookmark bar in Internet Explorer.

Fill in the blank

  1. A [blank] is a software program that allows users to access and display websites or web pages on the Internet.
  2. The bookmark [blank] contains all bookmarks that shows on the top of the window.
  3. A [blank] is a file format that looks like a printed document.

Multiple choice

  1. Some common web browsers include:
    1. Mozilla Firefox
    2. Google Chrome
    3. Opera
    4. all of the above
  2. An Internet [blank] is a web-based tool that is designed to search the content of web pages and to find particular information on the Internet.
    1. bar
    2.  RAM
    3. search engine
    4. all of the above
  1.  Some popular search engines include:
    1. Baidu
    2. Google
    3. Yandex
    4. all of the above

VI

Unit 5. Electronic communication

Topic A: Security issues on the Internet

Topic B: Email

Unit 5 Self-test

16

Topic A: Security issues on the Internet

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Security Issues

Although Internet led to many benefits, it also poses a greater potential for security threats. Below are a number of common Internet security issues.

Hacker

Hacker – refers to a person who can gain unauthorized access to (break into) a computer or a network to commit crimes.

Some things a skilled hacker can do to your computer:

Malware

Malware (short for malicious software) – a software that is designed to damage, disrupt, or infect computers.

Computer virus

Computer virus – a specific type of malware that is designed to replicate (copy) and spread from one computer to another.

Trojan horse

Trojan horse (or Trojan) – a type of malware that looks harmless but can cause harm to a computer system.

Worm

Worm – it is similar to a virus (a sub-class of a virus). It is designed to quickly self-replicate and spread copies of itself from one computer to another.

Phishing

Phishing – a scammer uses deceptive emails or websites and tries to obtain valuable personal information (i.e., username, password, account number, etc.).

Spyware

Spyware – a software that secretly monitors (spies) user’s online behaviour and gets sensitive information about a person or organization without the user’s knowledge.

Prevent Cyber Threats

Tips on how to prevent malware from infecting your computer

Some free antivirus software

17

Topic B: Email

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Email Address

An email address consists of three parts:

Example emails include regInfo@SFU.ca and userName@GMail.com. In these examples, the email domains are SFU.ca and GMail.com
Example Emails

Some popular free email service providers include

Create an Email Account

This is how you can create a Gmail account.

  1. On your computer, open a browser window and go to Gmail.

""

  1. Click Create an account (top right of screen).""
  2. Enter your first name, late name, username, and password (twice). Click Next.""
  3. Provide the additional information, including your birthday and gender. Click Next.""

 

  1. Scroll down and click I agree.Google with ask you to agree to a set of privacy and terms

Your account will be created and ready to send and receive emails.

Send and Receive Email

How to send an email

  1. Log into your personal email account (such as Gmail, Outlook, Yahoo! Mail, etc.) or log into your institutional email (many colleges and universities give students an email address).
  2. Click Compose (if using Gmail) or something similar. (For example, in Outlook, click New.)

  1. Enter a recipient’s email address in the To field. You can also add recipients in the Cc and Bcc fields.
  2. Enter a subject (the topic or heading of your email).
  3. Type your message in the main body field.
  4. Click Send.

""

Cc and Bcc

Send Emails with Attachments

You can attach different types of files to send through email, including PDFs, images, and more. This is how you attach a file to an email:

  1. Log in to your email account.
  2. Click Compose (Gmail) or something similar (e.g., New in Outlook).
  3. Enter a recipient’s email address in the To field.
  4. Enter a subject.
  5. Type your message in the main body field.
  6. Click Attach or something similar. (Note that the Attach option is often represented as a paperclip icon).

""

  1. Select the file you want to attach from your computer’s folder.
  2. Click the Choose or Select button (or another similar button) to attach the file to your email.
  3. Click Send.

Mail System Folders

18

Unit 5: Self-test

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True or false

  1. A malware cannot gain unauthorized access to a computer and continuously run in the background without owner’s knowledge.
  2. A virus can make a copy of itself over and over again.
  3. A Trojan may claim to get rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.
  4. The key difference between a virus and a worm is that a worm needs human action to replicate, whereas, a virus doesn’t.
  5. Enter a person’s email address to the ‘Cc’ field means that person will receive a copy of the email.

Fill in the blank

  1. A [blank] refers to a person who can gain unauthorized access to a computer or a network to commit crimes.
  2. A [blank] can spread from one computer to another through email attachments, removable storage devices, networks, etc.
  3. A [blank] is similar to a virus. It is designed to quickly self-replicate and spread copies of themselves from one computer to another.
  4. A [blank] can record a user’s Web browsing habits, email messages, keystrokes on online advertisements, personal information, etc., and forward it to a third party.
  5. Bcc is similar to that of Cc except that the email addresses are [blank] to the people in the “To” or “Cc” fields.
  6. The [blank] folder is the place where incoming emails are received and stored.
  7. Every email that you delete will be moved to the “[blank] Items” folder.

Multiple choice

  1. [Blank] is a software that is designed to infiltrate, damage, disrupt, or infect computers.
    1. Malware
    2. Firefox
    3. Yandex
    4. RAM
  2. Malware is a single term that refers to all the different types of threats to your computer safety such as:
    1. Trojan horse
    2. worm
    3. virus
    4. all of the above
  3. [Blank] is a software that secretly monitors (spies) user’s online behaviour and gets sensitive information about a person or organization without the user’s knowledge.
    1. Trojan horse
    2. spyware
    3. virus
    4. worm
  4. An unfinished email will be automatically saved to your [blank] folder.
    1. Sent
    2. Junk
    3. Drafts
    4. Deleted items

VII

SECTION II - INTERMEDIATE COMPUTER STUDIES

Section II covers the following topics:

VIII

Unit 6. Basic computer terminologies

Topic A: Application programs

Topic B: Types of computers

Topic C: Basic computer terminologies and acronyms

Unit 6 Self-test

19

Topic A: Application programs

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Word Processors and Spreadsheets

Application program – a computer program that provides users with tools to accomplish a specific task.

Examples of application programs include those for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, and database management, as well as Internet browsers, email programs, media players, accounting software, and programs that help with pronunciation, translation, desktop publishing, enterprise.

Microsoft Office – A group of productivity software applications developed by Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Office 2016 includes such programs as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Word processors

Word processor – a program that allows users to create, save, edit, format, print, and retrieve documents.

Word processing programs can be used to create all types of text-based documents, such as:

Examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word, Google Docs, Apple Pages, and LibreOffice Writer.

Spreadsheets

Spreadsheet (electronic worksheet) – a program that organizes data into rows and columns, also known as tabular form. This data can then be arranged, sorted, calculated (using formulas and functions), analyzed, or illustrated using graphical representations.

Among many other things, a spreadsheet program can be used to:

Examples of spreadsheet programs include Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Apple Numbers, and LibreOffice Calc.

Screenshoot of spreadsheet software.

Presentation and Database Programs

Presentation programs

An example slide from a presentation.

Presentation program – a program that is designed to present information in the form of a slideshow, using multimedia formats such as pictures, sounds, videos, and text. Such a program is commonly used in education, training, business meetings, etc., to create powerful presentations.

Presentation programs are commonly used to:

Examples of presentation programs include Microsoft PowerPoint, Google Slides, Apple Keynote, Prezi, CustomShow, SlideDog, and Powtoon.

Database programs

Database program (database management system) – A program that is designed for creating, editing, updating, maintaining databases, and managing organized information stored in them.

Databases are useful for keeping track of customers, users, employees, students, inventory, product purchases, ISBN numbers, etc. Database programs are used in the following fields:

Examples of database programs include Microsoft Access, Oracle Database, Knack, TablePlus, and TeamDesk.

Launch and Terminate a Program

Launch an application program

Method 1

  1. Menu when click Windows Start button.Click the Start icon. Microsoft Windows logo.
  2. Click the name of the program that you wish to start (e.g., Word 2016).

Method 2

  1. Search box in the Windows Start menu.Type the program name in the Search box.
  2. Click the name of the program that you want to launch.

Method 3

  1. Double-click a program shortcut icon on the desktop, if there is one.

Method 4

  1. Windows taskbar.Click a program shortcut on the taskbar at the bottom edge of the screen.

Close (exit) a program (close an active open window)

Method 1

  1. Click the Close icon (x) in the upper-right corner of the window.

Method 2 (Apple)

  1. Apple File menu.Click File in the upper-left corner.
  2. Click Close.

Force close a frozen program

Method 1

  1. Click Alt + F4.

Method 2

  1. Click Ctrl + Alt + Delete to open Task Manager.
  2. Select the unresponsive program and click End Task.

20

Topic B: Types of computers

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Classification of Computers by Size

Supercomputers

A supercomputer.

Supercomputer – a powerful computer that can process large amounts of data and do a great amount of computation very quickly.

Supercomputers are used for areas related to:

Supercomputers are useful for applications involving very large databases or that require a great amount of computation.

Supercomputers are used for complex tasks, such as:

Mainframe computers

A mainframe computer.

Mainframe computer – a high-performance computer used for large information processing jobs.

Mainframe computers are primarily used in :

Mainframe computers are useful for tasks related to:

Minicomputers

A minicomputer.

Minicomputer – a mid-range computer that is intermediate in size, power, speed, storage capacity, etc., between a mainframe and a microcomputer.

Minicomputers are used by small organizations.

“Minicomputer” is a term that is no longer used much. In recent years, minicomputers are often referred to as small or midsize servers (a server is a central computer that provides information to other computers).

Personal computers

A personal computer.

Personal computer (PC) – a small computer designed for use by a single user at a time.

A PC or microcomputer uses a single chip (microprocessor) for its central processing unit (CPU).

“Microcomputer” is now primarily used to mean a PC, but it can refer to any kind of small computer, such as a desktop computer, laptop computer, tablet, smartphone, or wearable.

Types of personal computers

Desktop computer – a personal computer that is designed to stay at one location and fits on or under a desk. It typically has a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and a tower (system unit).

A desktop computer.

Laptop computer (or notebook) – A portable personal computer that is small enough to rest on the user’s lap and can be powered by a battery. It includes a flip down screen and a keyboard with a touchpad.

A laptop computer.

Tablet – A wireless touchscreen PC that is slightly smaller and weighs less than the average laptop.

A tablet computer.

Smartphone – A mobile phone that performs many of the functions of a personal computer.

A smartphone.

21

Topic C: Basic computer terminologies and acronyms

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Basic Internet Terms and Acronyms

Internet – A globally connected massive computer network system.

World Wide Web (WWW or the web) – A system of Internet servers that is made from millions of interlinked websites and web pages.

Firewall – A network security device designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network.

A router.

Router – A device that transfers data between computer networks to provide access to the Internet.

ISP (Internet Service Provider) – A company that provides Internet service to customers.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – A set of rules (a protocol) for transferring and accessing data using the web.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – A web address of a specific web page or file on the Internet. An example is https://www.princegeorgecitizen.com.

IP (Internet Protocol) – A set of rules (a protocol) for sending data from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer has a unique IP address that distinguishes it from all other computers on the Internet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – A set of rules (a protocol) for transferring files between computers over the Internet.

Cookie – A small text file stored in a user’s computer by a website that the user has visited so that it can remember something about the user at a later time. For example, cookies are used for online shopping. Without cookies, login information would have to be entered before every product was added to the shopping cart.

Link (hyperlink) – A word, phrase, image, etc., within a file or web page that a user can click on to jump to another document, section of the same document, or web page.

Basic Computer Terms and Acronyms

PC (Personal Computer) – a small computer designed for use by a single user at a time.

Mac (Macintosh) – a type of personal computer made by Apple Inc. It runs a version of the macOS (Apple’s operating system, pronounced “mack-oh-ess”).

A Macintosh laptop computer.

OS (Operating System) – a powerful program that controls and coordinates a computer’s hardware devices and runs software and applications. Examples includes Windows, Android, OS X, and Linux.

Reboot – to shut down and restart a computer, allowing its operating system and programs to be reloaded.

CPU (Central Processing Unit) – the brain or engine of a computer, where most of the processing and operations take place.

A central processing unit (CPU).

RAM (Random-Access Memory) – a type of data storage (memory element) used in computers that temporarily stores programs and data. RAM is a kind of volatile memory, meaning its contents are lost when the computer is turned off.

A RAM stick.

ROM (read-only memory) – A type of data storage used in computers that permanently stores data and programs. ROM is a kind of non-volatile memory, meaning its contents are retained even when the computer is turned off.

A ROM storage device.

Bits and Bytes

Rows of binary.

Bit (Binary Digit) – the smallest, most basic unit of measurement for computer data storage, represented as either a 0 or a 1. One byte is equal to 8 bits.

Byte (Binary Term) – a unit of measurement for data storage. One byte is equal to 8 bits.

Data Storage Units and Their Properties
Data Storage Unit Symbol Power of 10 One Unit Equals
Byte B 101 8 bits
Kilobyte kB 103 1024 B
Megabyte MB 106 1024 kB
Gigabyte GB 109 1024 MB
Terabyte TB 1012 1024 GB
Petabyte PB 1015 1024 TB

22

Unit 6: Self-test

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True or false

  1. An application program is a computer program that provides the user with tools to accomplish a specific task.
  2. A database is a program that organizes data into rows and columns. This data can then be used to arrange, sort, calculate, analyze, or show graphical representations of data.
  3. Common uses for spreadsheet programs include creating slideshow presentations, creating lectures and tutorials, making photo slideshows, and making interesting animations.
  4. To launch an application program, click the Start icon, then click the name of the program that you wish to start.
  5. Microcomputers are used for complex tasks, such as weather forecasting, climate research, scientific simulation, oil and gas exploration, quantum mechanics, and cryptanalysis.
  6. A firewall is a network security device designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network.
  7. HTTP is a word, phrase, image, etc. within a file on the computer that a user can click on to jump to another document or section of that document.

Fill in the blank

  1. [Blank] is a program that allows users to create, save, edit, format, print, and retrieve documents.
  2. Common uses for a [blank] program include creating budgets, calculating grades, balancing bank accounts, calculating loan payments, calculating tax, preparing payrolls, and financial analysis.
  3. A [blank] program is a program that is designed to present information in the form of a slideshow.
  4. [Blank] computers are primarily used by institutions, researchers, academics, healthcare administrators, libraries, large companies and businesses, banking institutions, stock brokerage firms, and insurance agencies.
  5. The Internet is a globally connected massive computer [blank] system.
  6. The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that is made from millions of interlinked websites and [blank].
  7. A [blank] is a small text file in the user’s computer stored by a website that the user has visited so that it can remember something about the user at a later time.
  8. A [blank] is a powerful program that controls and coordinates a computer’s hardware devices and runs other software and applications on a computer.

Multiple choice

  1. A(n) [blank] is an example of application program.
    1. accounting
    2. translation
    3. Internet browser
    4. all of the above
  2. Microsoft Office 2016 includes
    1. Microsoft Excel
    2. Microsoft Word
    3. Microsoft PowerPoint
    4. all of the above
  3. To close a program:
    1. click “View”
    2. click “Tools”
    3. click the close icon (x)
    4. all of the above
  4. To force close a frozen program, click [blank] at the same time.
    1. Alt + F2
    2. Alt + F4
    3. Alt + F3
    4. Alt + F1
  5. A [blank] computer is a high-performance computer used for large information processing jobs.
    1. mainframe
    2. personal computer
    3. laptop
    4. desktop
  1. A [blank] is a device that transfers data between computer networks to provide access to the Internet.
    1. FTP
    2. URL
    3. router
    4. ISP
  2. A [blank] is often referred to as the brain or engine of a computer, where most of the processing and operations take place.
    1. mainframe
    2. CPU
    3. RAM
    4. byte
  3. A byte is a unit of measurement for data storage. 1 GB is equal to 1024 [blank].
    1. kB
    2. TB
    3. PB
    4. MB

IX

Unit 7. Evolution of computers

Topic A: Computer generations

Topic B: Computer hardware and software

Unit 7 Self-test

23

Topic A: Computer generations

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Basic Terms

Vacuum tube – an electronic device that controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum. It used as a switch, amplifier, or display screen in many older model radios, televisions, computers, etc.

 

Transistor – an electronic component that can be used as an amplifier or as a switch. It is used to control the flow of electricity in radios, televisions, computers, etc.

 

Integrated circuit (IC) – a small electronic circuit printed on a chip (usually made of silicon) that contains many its own circuit elements (e.g. transistors, diodes, resistors, etc.).

 

Microprocessor – an electronic component held on an integrated circuit that contains a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) and other associated circuits.

 

CPU (central processing unit) – It is often referred to as the brain or engine of a computer where most of the processing and operations take place (CPU is part of a microprocessor).

 

Magnetic drum – a cylinder coated with magnetic material, on which data and programs can be stored.

 

Magnetic core – uses arrays of small rings of magnetized material called cores to store information.

 

Machine language – a low-level programming language comprised of a collection of binary digits (ones and zeros) that the computer can read and understand.

 

Assembly language is like the machine language that a computer can understand, except that assembly language uses abbreviated words (e.g. ADD, SUB, DIV…) in place of numbers (0s and 1s).

 

Memory – a physical device that is used to store data, information and program in a computer.

 

Artificial intelligence (AI) – an area of computer science that deals with the simulation and creation of intelligent machines or intelligent behave in computers (they think, learn, work, and react like humans).

First Generation of Computers

Classification of generations of computers

The evolution of computer technology is often divided into five generations.

Five Generations of Computers
Generations of computers Generations timeline Evolving hardware
First generation 1940s-1950s Vacuum tube based
Second generation 1950s-1960s Transistor based
Third generation 1960s-1970s Integrated circuit based
Fourth generation 1970s-present Microprocessor based
Fifth generation The present and the future Artificial intelligence based

The main characteristics of first generation of computers (1940s-1950s)

Second Generation of Computers

The main characteristics of second generation of computers (1950s-1960s)

Third Generation of Computers

The main characteristics of third generation of computers (1960s-1970s)

Fourth Generation of Computers

The main characteristics of fourth generation of computers (1970s-present)

Fifth Generation of Computers

The main characteristics of fifth generation of computers (the present and the future)

Three women sitting around a table with laptops.

The computer this amazing technology went from a government/business-only technology to being everywhere from people’s homes, work places, to people’s pockets in less than 100 years.

24

Topic B: Computer hardware and software

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Computer Hardware Basics

Hardware – any physical device or equipment used in or with a computer system (anything you can see and touch).

External hardware

Internal hardware

Computer Software Basics

Computer software

Application software

System Software

System software – it is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application software, and make the computer system available for use. It serves as the interface between hardware, application software, and the user.
A computer functions through interactions between the user, applications, the operating system, and the hardware.

Operating system (OS) – a software that controls and coordinates the computer hardware devices and runs other software and applications on a computer. It is the main part of system software and a computer will not function without it.

Device driver – a software program that is designed to control a particular hardware device that is attached to a computer.

Utility software – a type of system software that helps set up, analyze, configure, strengthen, maintain a computer and performs a very specific task (e.g. antivirus software, backup software, memory tester, screen saver, etc.).

25

Unit 7: Self-test

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True or false

  1. A vacuum tube is an electronic device that controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum.
  2. A transistor is an electronic component held on an integrated circuit that contains a computer’s CPU and other associated circuits.
  3. A magnetic drum uses arrays of small rings of magnetized material called cores to store information.
  4. Assembly language is like the machine language that a computer can understand, except that assembly language uses abbreviated words in place of numbers.
  5. Internal hardware devices are any hardware device that is located outside the computer.
  6. Hardware is a set of instructions or programs that tells a computer what to do or how to perform a specific task.
  7. Operating system (OS) is a software that controls and coordinates the computer hardware devices and runs other software and applications on a computer. It is the main part of system software and the computer will not function without it.
  8. Utility software is a type of system software that helps set up, analyze, configure, strengthen, maintain a computer and performs a very specific task.

Fill in the blank

  1. A [blank] is an electronic component that can be used as an amplifier or as a switch. It is used to control the flow of electricity in radios, TV, computers, etc.
  2. The [blank] is often referred to as the brain or engine of a computer where most of the processing and operations take place.
  3. [Blank] is a low-level programming language comprised of a collection of binary digits (ones and zeros) that the computer can read and understand.
  4. [Blank] is an area of computer science that dealing with the simulation and creation of intelligent machines or intelligent behave in computers.
  5. The [blank] language was used in first generation of computers.
  6. An [blank] device is a piece of hardware device which is used to enter information to a computer for processing.
  7. [Blank] software is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application software, and make the computer system available for use. It serves as the interface between hardware, application software, and the user.
  8. A [blank] driver is a software program that is designed to control a particular hardware device that is attached to a computer.

Multiple choice

  1. [Blank] is a small electronic circuit printed on a chip usually made of silicon that contains many its own circuit elements
    1. a microprocessor
    2. a vacuum tube
    3. a transistor
    4. an integrated circuit
  2. [Blank] is a cylinder coated with magnetic material, on which data and programs can be stored.
    1. a magnetic core
    2. a vacuum tube
    3. a magnetic drum
    4. an integrated circuit
  3. [Blank] is a physical device that is used to store data, information, and program in a computer.
    1. a magnetic core
    2. computer memory
    3. a magnetic drum
    4. an integrated circuit
  4. The main electronic component used in first generation of computers was:
    1. transistor
    2. CPU
    3. integrated circuit
    4. vacuum tube
  5. Which language was used in second generation of computer?
    1. assemble language
    2. machine language
    3. C++
    4. Java
  6. The main electronic component used in fourth generation of computers was:
    1. transistor
    2. CPU
    3. VLSI
    4. vacuum tube

X

Unit 8. Operating system

Topic A: Basic pointing actions

Topic B: Printer

Topic C: Basic operations of an operating system

Topic D: Copy, move, delete, and rename files/folders

Unit 8 Self-test

26

Topic A: Basic pointing actions

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Pointing

Point and click

  • Pointing device – a device used to control the movement of the pointer (cursor) on the screen.
  • The major pointing devices in use today are the mouse, trackpad or touchpad (laptop), touch screens, etc.
  • Point and click – point an object on the screen and then press a button on the mouse to select objects / commands, open menus / hyperlinks (links), or close windows.
  • Double-click – quickly click the left mouse button twice on any folder, file, or program to open it.

Left and right click

  • Left-click – press the left mouse button on the left side of the mouse. Left-click is often referred to as “regular-click” and it is used for many common computer tasks, such as selecting objects, closing windows, opening hyperlinks, double-clicking, etc.
  • Right-click – press the right mouse button on the right side of the mouse to display a popup menu showing commands for a selected item.

Scrolling

Scroll bar

  • Scrolling – sliding content (text, images, etc.) vertically or horizontally on a computer screen and allowing the user to view different parts of information in a window.
  • Vertical scroll bar – a vertical bar on the right side of a window or screen that allows the user to scroll the window viewing area up or down.
  • Horizontal scroll bar – a horizontal bar on the bottom of a window or screen that allows the user to scroll the window viewing area to the left or right.

Scrolling

  • Vertical scrolling – sliding content up or down on a computer screen using a vertical scroll bar.
  • Horizontal scrolling – sliding content left or right on a computer screen using a horizontal scroll bar.

Drag and drop – press and hold the left mouse button to grab an object (such as an icon on the desktop) and place it to a different location.

Laptop Touchpad

Laptop touchpad (or trackpad) – an input device for laptop computers that is made up of a flat, touch-sensitive surface. It provides a way to move the cursor around the screen or give an instruction (highlight text, select and open applications, etc.).

Use a laptop touchpad (or trackpad)

  • Tap (click) – point an object on the screen and then tap on the trackpad to select items / commands, open menus / hyperlinks (links), or close windows.

  • Double tap (double click) – double tap on the trackpad on any folder, file, program, word, etc. to open / select it.
  • Drag and drop – double-tap the trackpad to grab an object and place it to a different location. Example: drag the selected text to the new location.
  • Right-click – tap two fingers anywhere on the trackpad to display a popup menu showing commands for a selected item.
  • Scrolling – tap two fingers on the trackpad and slide fingers up or down to scroll.
  • Select – swipe in from the left or right of the sentence or word (tap the right or left of the sentence or word and swipe towards the other side).

27

Topic B: Printer

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Operate a Printer

How to operate a printer

Printer – a device that is usually connected to a computer in order to transfer the text and graphic information to paper.

Turn on a printer

  1. Plug the printer into a working wall outlet.
  2. Make sure the power cord is connected to the rear of the printer.
  3. Press the Power button on the printer.

Load paper in the paper tray

  1. Pull the paper tray out.
  2. Load paper in the centre paper tray.
  3. Adjust the paper guides to fit the paper size (if necessary).
  4. Push paper tray completely into the machine.

Get a Printer Online

If a printer is showing an offline message, it means it can’t communicate with the computer. Bringing a printer online means it can communicate with the computer and it can read and print.

Get a printer online

  1. Click Start button.
  2. Type Devices Manager in the search box.
  3. Click Devices Manager.
  4. Click the Action tab (in the top-menu).
          
  5. Click on the Devices and Printers.
  6. Right-click on the Offline Printer (it appears faded).
  7. Click on See what’s printing.
  8. Click on the Use Printer Offline.

Read more on How to Make Printer Online in Windows 10.

28

Topic C: Basic Operations of an Operating System

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Files and Folders

Operating system

Files and folders

Create Folders

Right-click to create a new folder (Windows 10)

  1. Go to the location where you wish to create the folder (Desktop, Documents or anywhere on your computer).
  2. Right-click on a blank space (don’t right-click on an existing item in the folder).
  3. Click or hover over New.
  4. Click Folder.
  5. Type a name for the new folder and press Enter (on a keyboard).

Create a new folder from the ribbon menu (Windows 10)

Ribbon – a group of buttons and icons (tabs) at the top of the window. It allows users to access the commands that they need to complete a task.

  1. Go to the location where you wish to create the folder (e.g. Documents).
  2. Click Home.
  3. Click New folder.
  4. Type a name for the new folder and press Enter (on a keyboard).

Locate Files and Folders

Locate files and folders – search from the taskbar (Windows 10)

  1. Type the name of a file or folder (or a keyword from it) into the Search Box (next to the Start Button).
  2. Click the matching file or folder name to open it.

Locate files and folders – File Explorer option (Windows 10)

  1. Click File Explorer icon (on the taskbar or Start Menu).
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder (hard drive, USB, etc.).
  3. Click the name of the file or folder you wish to open.
  4. Double click the file or folder name.

29

Topic D: Copy, move, delete, and rename files/folders

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Copy Files or Folders

Copy a file or folder (Windows 10)

Method 1: Right-click

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder (hard drive, USB, etc.).
  3. Click the name of the file or folder you wish to copy.
  4. Right-click the highlighted file or folder and click Copy.
  5. Go to the destination folder, right-click the destination folder and click Paste.

Method 2: Ribbon toolbar commands

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder (hard drive, USB, etc.).
  3. Click the name of the file or folder you wish to copy.
  4. Click the Home tab at the top (on the ribbon).
  5. Click the Copy button.
  6. Go to the destination location, click the Home tab.
  7. Click the Paste button.

Move Files or Folders

Move a file or folder (Windows 10)

Method 1

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder (hard drive, USB, etc.).
  3. Click the name of the file or folder you wish to move.
  4. Click the Home tab at the top (on the ribbon).
  5. Click the Move to button.
  6. Click Choose Location (if you don’t find the right spot on the drop-down menu).
  7. Go to the location you want to move for this folder.
  8. Click Move.

Method 2

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder.
  3. Click the name of the file or folder you wish to move.
  4. Hold down the right mouse button and drag the file or folder to the location you wish to move.

Difference between copying and moving files / folders

Delete and Rename Files or Folders

Delete a file or folder (Windows 10)

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder.
  3. Click the name of the file or folder you wish to delete.
  4. Press the delete key (on the keyboard) or right click the file or folder and click Delete.

Recover a deleted file or folder

  1. Go to Desktop and click the Recycle Bin.
  2. Right-click the name of the file or folder (that you wish to recover). …
  3. Click Restore. (The file or the folder will be restored to its original location.)

Rename files or folders

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder.
  3. Right click the name of the file or folder you wish to rename.
  4. Click Rename (on the menu that opens up).
  5. Type a new name for the file and press Enter.

Note:

30

Unit 8: Self-test

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Find answers to this self-test at the back of the book: Answers for Self-Tests

True or false

  1. A pointing device is a device used to control the movement of the keyboard on the screen.
  2. Point and click – point an object on the screen and then press a button on the mouse to select objects / commands, open menus / hyperlinks, or close windows.
  3. Scrolling – sliding content vertically or horizontally on the keyboard and allowing the user to view different parts of information in a window.
  4. Tap (click) – point an object on the screen and then tap on the trackpad to select items / commands, open menus / hyperlinks, or close windows.
  5. If a printer is showing an offline message, it means it can communicate with the computer.
  6. A folder cannot contain additional folders.
  7. The copy deletes the original file or folder, while move creates a duplicate.

Fill in the blank

  1. The major pointing devices in use today are the mouse, trackpad or [blank], touch screens, etc.
  2. Drag and drop – press and hold the [blank] mouse button to grab an object and place it to a different location.
  3. A laptop trackpad is an input device for laptop computer that is made up of a flat, [blank]-sensitive surface. It provides a way to move the cursor around the screen or give an instruction.
  4. Drag and [blank] – double-tap the trackpad to grab an object and place it to a different location.
  5. A printer is an [blank] device linked to a computer. It transfers the information to paper.
  6. Files have names and are represented by various [blank].
  7. Files [blank]– a file system that organizes folders and files in a top-to-bottom structure.

Multiple choice

  1. [Blank]-click – quickly click the left mouse button twice on any folder, file, or program to open it.
    1. right
    2. double
    3. left
    4. all of the above
  2. Horizontal scrolling – sliding content [blank] on a computer screen using a horizontal scroll bar.
    1. right
    2. up and down
    3. left or right
    4. all of the above
  3. Double tap – double tap on the [blank] on any folder, file, program, word, etc. to open / select it.
    1. keyboard
    2. trackpad
    3. screen
    4. all of the above
  4. [Blank] – tap two fingers anywhere on the trackpad to display a popup menu showing commands for a selected item.
    1. right-click
    2. up-click
    3. left-click
    4. double-click
  5. Main functions of operating system:
    1. managing system resources
    2. handling input and output
    3. booting the computer
    4. all of the above
  6. Examples of operating system:
    1. Apple iOS
    2. Linux
    3. Windows
    4. all of the above
  1. A filename can contain:
    1. spaces
    2. numbers
    3. letters
    4. all of the above
  2. A [blank] is a group of buttons and icons at the top of the window. It allows users to access the commands that they need to complete a task.
    1. tab
    2. ribbon
    3. menu
    4. all of the above

XI

Unit 9. Basic word processing skills

Topic A: Basic word processing

Topic B: Save, retrieve, and print files

Topic C: Margins and alignment

Topic D: Formatting

Unit 9 Self-test

31

Topic A: Basic word processing

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Word processing – the use of a program (software application) running on a computer that allows users to create, edit, format, and store documents.

Create a Document

Steps to create a new word processing document (Word, Office 365):

  1. Start Microsoft Word.
  2. Click the File tab.
  3. Click the New tab.
  4. Click Blank document. (A new blank document appears.)
  5. Type your text. The text you type will be inserted into the document.

Edit a Document

Editing a document – making revisions to a document, focusing on correcting errors, improving the accuracy of language, rearranging, making words and sentences clearer and more effective, etc.

Editing in word processing may include the following tasks:

Select Text

Before editing text, you’ll need to select it. This is also sometimes called “highlighting text.”

  1. Click File Explorer icon.
  2. Go to the location where stores your file or folder (hard drive, USB, etc.).
  3. Open the document you wish to edit.
  4. Move the I-beam pointer to where you wish to select text.
    1. To select a word: double-click the word.
    2. To select an entire line of text: move the I-beam to the left of the line until it turns into a right-pointing arrow, then click.
    3. To select a paragraph: triple-click the paragraph.
    4. To select any amount of text: click and drag the I-beam over the text to highlight it.
    5. To select an entire document: move the I-beam to the left of any text until it turns into a right-pointing arrow , then triple-click. Or click the Home tab, under Editing, click Select, and then click Select All.

Delete (or remove) text

Method 1

  1. Select the text you wish to delete.
  2. Press the Delete key (on the keyboard).

Method 2

  1. Move the I-beam pointer to the text you want to delete. Click to set the insertion point there (a blinking vertical line).
  2. To delete text to the left of the insertion point, press the Backspace key on the keyboard. (On a Mac keyboard, press the Delete key.)
  3. To delete text to the right of the insertion point, press the Delete key on the keyboard. (On a Mac keyboard, press the fn key plus the Delete key.)

Copy and Paste

Copy vs. cut

Copy and paste vs. cut and paste

Steps to copy / cut and paste

Method 1

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Select the item you wish to Copy or Cut.
  3. Right-click the highlighted item and click Copy or Cut. You can also use your keyboard:
    1. Copy: Cntr + c (On a Mac, it is Cmd + c)
    2. Cut: Cntr + x (On a Mac, it is Cmd + x)

  1. Position the insertion point where you wish to insert the item.
  2. Right-click and click the Paste icon. You can also use your keyboard by pressing Cntr + v (On a Mac, it is Cmd + v).

Method 2

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Select the item you wish to copy or cut.
  3. Click the Home tab at the top (on the ribbon). Click the Copy button.
  4. Position the insertion point where you wish to insert the item.
  5. Under the Home tab at the top, click the Paste button.

Review a Document

Check Spelling and Grammar

Method 1

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Right-click a word that is underlined with a wavy line (that indicates a misspelled word).
  3. Select the correct spelling from the suggestion list to correct the spelling error. For each error, Word will offer one or more suggestions.

Method 2

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Click the Review tab.
  3. Click the Editor button (it may also say, “Spelling and Grammar”). If the program finds spelling errors, the Spelling & Grammar pane will appear.
  4. Click one of the options from the suggestion list to change the spelling error. The program will move to the next misspelled word.

Find Synonyms

Method 1

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Right-click a word for which you wish to find a synonym for.
  3. Click the Synonyms command from the pop-out menu.
  4. Find a desired word in the list and click it to replace the original word.
  5. If none of the synonyms are desired, click the Thesaurus command to open the full thesaurus. (The Thesaurus pane will appear.)
  6. Find a desired word in the Thesaurus pane list and right-click it and then click Insert.
  7. Close the Thesaurus pane.

Method 2

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Select a word for which you wish to use the thesaurus.
  3. Click the Review tab.
  4. Click the Thesaurus button.
  5. Find a desired word in the “Thesaurus” pane and right-click it and then click Insert.
  6. Close the Thesaurus pane.

32

Topic B: Save, retrieve, and print documents

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Save and Retrieve Documents

Save a new document or save a file to a specific location (Windows 10)

  1. Click the File tab.
  2. Click the Save As command.
  3. Choose a location on your computer (the drive and folder) to save your file.
  4. Type a name for your document in the File Name box.
  5. Click the Save button.

Save an existing file in its current location

  1. Click the File tab.
  2. Click the Save command.
  3. Or click the Save button icon.

Retrieve a file from a specific location

  1. Start Word.
  2. Click the File tab.
  3. Click Open command.
  4. Choose the location on the computer that stores your file (the drive and folder).
  5. Click the name of the file you wish to open.
  6. Click Open or double click the file name.

Print a Document

Printer – a device that is usually connected to a computer in order to transfer the text and graphic information to paper.

How to print a document in Microsoft Word:

  1. Load paper in the paper tray if needed.
  2. Press the Power button to turn the printer on.
  3. Choose the location on the computer that stores your file (the drive and folder).
  4. Open the file you wish to print.
  5. Click the File tab.
  6. Click the Print command.
  7. Select the print options. Here, you can select:
    • How many copies you would like
    • Which pages you want to be printed. You can choose to print all pages, select pages (for example, page 3 to 6), or just the current page (meaning the page that is open on the screen).
    • If the printer should print on one side of the page or both sides.
  8. Click Print to start the printing process.

33

Topic C: Margin and alignment

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Formatting – the appearance of a document. It is the shape, size, form, style, typeface, general arrangement, etc. of a document.

Page layout – the arrangement of text, graphics, pictures, and other elements on a page. It describes how each page of a document will appear when it is printed.

Basic page layout properties include

A sample layout from two pages of a magazine that uses a combination of headings, block quotes, pictures, and different numbers of columns.

Document Margins

Set document margins (Word 2016)

  1. Open the document you wish to set margins.
  2. Click the Layout tab in the Ribbon.
  3. Click the Margins button (in the Page Setup group).
  4. Choose predefined margin settings (Normal) from the drop-down menu. (Or choose the Custom Margins command and set the margins that you want.)

Change the page margins for part of a document

  1. Select the part of the document for which you wish to change margins.
  2. Click the Layout tab in the Ribbon.
  3. Click the Margins button (in the Page Setup group).
  4. Click the Custom Margins command and set the margins that you want.

Text Justification and Alignment

Text justification / alignment – refers to how the left and right edges of a paragraph align on a page.

Types of justification / alignment

Align the text left

  1. Select the text that you wish to align.
  2. Click the Align Left icon on the Home tab (or press Ctrl + L or Cmd + L on a Mac).
  3. Left align (the standard layout – we read from left to right) is the default alignment for text in a Word document.

Align the text right

  1. Select the text that you wish to align.
  2. Click the Align Right icon (or press Ctrl + R or Cmd + R on a Mac).
  3. Right align is often used when formatting tables of data, attributions to authors of quotes, etc.

Center text

  1. Select the text that you wish to align.
  2. Click the Center Align icon (or press Ctrl + E or Cmd + E on a Mac).
  3. Center-justified text is commonly used on title pages, chapter titles, headings, etc.

Justify text

  1. Select the text that you wish to align.
  2. Click the Justify icon (or press Ctrl + J or Cmd + J on a Mac).
  3. Justification gives text a cleaner, more formal look. Justified text is often used in some newspapers, magazines, books, etc.

34

Topic D: Formatting

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Bold, Italic, and Underline

Make text bold

  1. Open the document you wish to format.
  2. Select the text for which you wish to bold.
  3. Click Bold icon on the Home tab (or press Ctrl/Cmd + B).

Make text italic

  1. Open the document you wish to format.
  2. Select the text for which you wish to make italics.
  3. Click the Italic icon on the Home tab (or press Ctrl/Cmd + I).

Underline text

  1. Open the document you wish to format.
  2. Select the text for which you wish to underline.
  3. Click the Underline icon on the Home tab (or press Ctrl/Cmd + U).

Line Spacing

Line spacing – the space between lines of text in a paragraph.

Set line spacing

Method 1

  1. Open the document you wish to edit.
  2. Select the text you wish to change the line spacing.
  3. Click the Line Spacing icon on the Home tab in the Paragraph group.
  4. Choose a line-spacing value from the drop-down list.

Method 2

  1. Select the text you wish to change the line spacing.
  2. Click the Paragraph dialog box launcher button (in the lower right corner of the “Paragraph” group). Or right-click anywhere in the document and then click Paragraph.
  3. Click the Indents and Spacing tab.
  4. Choose a desired Line Spacing option.
  5. Click OK.

Method 3

Use keyboard shortcuts to set line spacing:

Use Help Features

Help menu / button – the user can click help button in Word to initiate a search, display the help resources, and aid the user in their task.

Access help

Screen Tip (Tool Tip) – a small text box (a hint) appears when the mouse point rest on a command, icon, button, etc. It displays the name of the item and sometimes a brief description of its function and the shortcut key for the command.

35

Unit 9: Self-test

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True or false

  1. Formatting a document – making revisions to a document, focusing on correcting errors, improving the accuracy of language, rearranging, making words and sentences clearer, more effective, etc.
  2. To select a paragraph: double-click the paragraph.
  3. To delete text to the left of the insertion point: press the backspace key on the keyboard.
  4. Text Justification / alignment refers to how the left and right edges of a paragraph align on a page.
  5. Left-justification: align text along the left side (ragged on the left).
  6. Bold – a typeface that makes an image thicker than the regular one.
  7. Line spacing – the space between lines of text in a paragraph / document. Line spacing can make a document looks cleaner and easy to read.

Fill in the blank

  1. [Blank] refers the use of a program running on a computer that allows users to create, edit, format, and store documents.
  2. To select any amount of text: click and drag the [blank] over the text to highlight it.
  3. Cut removes the selected data from its [blank] position.
  4. A [blank] is a device that is usually connected to a computer in order to transfer the text and graphic information to paper.
  5. Formatting refers to the [blank] of a document. It is the shape, size, form, style, typeface, general arrangement, etc. of a document.
  6. [Blank]-justification: text is aligned to neither the left side nor right.
  7. Italics – a type style with characters that slope to the [blank]. Italic is often used to emphasize a particular word, sentence, or particular part of a document.
  8. Underline – add a line [blank] the text, in order to show its importance and draw attention to the text.
  9. The user can click [blank] menu / button in Word to initiate a search, display the help resources, and aid the user in his / her task.

Multiple choice

  1. [Blank]-click refers to quickly click the left mouse button twice on any folder, file, or program to open it.
    1. right
    2. double
    3. left
    4. all of the above
  2. To select a [blank]: double-click the word.
    1. document
    2. word
    3. paragraph
    4. all of the above
  3. [Blank] refers to the arrangement of text, graphics, pictures, and other elements on a page. It describes how each page of a document will appear when it is printed.
    1. formatting
    2. editing
    3. page layout
    4. all of the above
  4. Basic page layout properties:
    1. the number of columns
    2. how headers and footers appear
    3. document margins
    4. all of the above
  5. Justify (full justification): align text along the [blank].
    1. both left and right sides
    2. centre
    3. right side
    4. all of the above
  6. [Blank] is a small text box appearing when the mouse point rest on a command, icon, button, etc. It displays the name of the item and sometimes a brief description of its function and the shortcut key for the command.
    1. formatting
    2. page layout
    3. ScreenTip
    4. all of the above

XII

Unit 10. More on word processing

Topic A: Headers, footers, page numbers, and bullets

Topic B: Tab stops

Topic C: Tables, columns, and breaks

Unit 10 Self-test

36

Topic A: Headers, footers, page numbers, and bullets

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Create a Header

Header – a section of information that appears at the top margin of each page of a document.

Method 1

  1. Double-click anywhere on the top of a page. A straight line (or a dashed line) on the head will appear.
  2. Enter any desired information on the header (such as a chapter title, a document tile, a business logo, the creation date, etc.).
  3. Double-click on the body of page (or press the Esc key) to close the header. The header will be on the top of each page.

Method 2

  1. Click the Insert tab.
  2. Click the Header command.Microsoft Word Toolbar. Header appears under the Insert toolbar.
  3. In the menu that appears, choose a desired header layout (called content control).
  4. Enter any desired information on the header.
  5. Double-click on the body of page (or press the Esc key) to close the header. The header will be on the top of each page.

Create a Footer

Footer – a section of information that appears at the bottom margin of each page of a document.

Method 1

  1. Double-click anywhere at the bottom of the page. A straight line (or dashed line) on the footer will appear.
  2. Enter any desired information on the footer (such as the page number, author’s name, copyright, references, etc.).
  3. Double-click on the body of page (or press the Esc key) to close the footer. The footer will be at the bottom of each page.

Method 2

  1. Click the Insert tab.
  2. Click the Footer command.
  3. In the menu that appears, choose a desired footer layout.
  4. Enter any desired information on the footer. The footer will be at the bottom of each page.
  5. Double-click on the body of page (or press the Esc key) to close the footer.

Page Numbers

Page numbers – Word supports automatically adding page numbers in a multi-page document.

Insert page numbers

  1. Click the Insert tab.
  2. Click the Page Number command.
  3. Select a desired position (such as Top of Page, Bottom of Page, etc.) you wish the page number to appear in.
  4. Select a desired style (such as Plain Numbers 1, Plain Numbers 2, etc.).

Change the starting page number

  1. Click the Insert tab.
  2. Click the Page Number command.
  3. Select Format Page Numbers.
  4. Click Start at and type the page number you wish to appear on the first page.
  5. Click OK.

Start page number on page two (hide the page number on the first page)

  1. Click Layout.
  2. Click the Page Setup Dialog box launcher.
  3. Select Layout tab and Check the box next to Different first page.
  4. The page number will disappear from the first page.

Bulleted or Numbered Lists

Bullet – a dot, a small circle, diamond, or other symbols that is found before the text (a phrase, sentence or paragraph, etc.) to help organize information, make it easier to read, or differentiate between the different points.

Insert a bulleted list (a list whose items are bulleted)

  1. Select the text you wish to format as a list.
  2. Click the Bullets icon.
  3. Click to select a bullet symbol (i.e., a dot, a small circle, diamond) that you wish to use for the bullet.
  4. Deselect the text.

Insert a numbered list (a list whose items are numbered or lettered)

  1. Select the text you wish to format as a list.
  2. Click the Numbering icon.
  3. Click to select a number or letter symbol that you wish to use for the list.
  4. Deselect the text.

When you delete or add items in the list, or change the numbering format of the style, the numbers / letters in a list are updated automatically.

37

Topic B: Tab stops

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Tab stop – a location where the cursor (insertion point) would stop when the Tab key is pressed.

Types of Tab Stops

Set Tab Stops

The tab selector (tab indicator) – a small button located in the left corner of the horizontal ruler that supplies the user with a variety of tab marker (tab stop) options (left, right, center, etc.).

Insert a tab stop

Method 1

  1. Select the paragraphs / sentences you wish to set tab.
  2. Click the Tab Selector until it displays the type of tab stop you wish to use.
  3. Click on the lower edge of the horizontal ruler at the exact spot where you wish the tab to set. (If you don’t see the ruler at the top of the Word window, click View, then Ruler to display it.)
  4. Click to place the insertion point in front of the text where you wish to insert the tab.
  5. Press the Tab key on the keyboard.

Method 2

  1. Select the paragraphs / sentences you wish to set tab.
  2. Click the Paragraph dialog box launcher and select the Tabs.
  3. In the “Tab stop position” box, enter the measurement (such as 4”) on the horizontal ruler where you wish the tab to appear.
  4. Under “Alignment”, select a tab stop type (such as Left, Center, Right, Decimal, etc.).
  5. Click OK.

Remove Tab Stops

Method 1

  1. Select the paragraphs you wish to remove the tab.
  2. Drag the tab stop marker off the horizontal ruler.

Method 2

  1. Select the paragraphs / sentences you wish to remove the tab.
  2. Click the Paragraph dialog box launcher.
  3. Click to select the Tabs.
  4. Click Clear All.
  5. Click Ok.         

38

Topic C: Tables, columns, and breaks

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Insert a Table

Table – information arranged in a condensed form of columns and rows. It is a more effective way to present information.

Insert a table in a document (Word 2016)

Method 1

  1. Click where you wish to insert the table in your document.
  2. Click the Insert tab and the Table button.
  3. Drag through to select the desired number of rows and columns (a table will appear).

Method 2

  1. Click where you wish to create the table in your document.
  2. Click the Insert tab.
  3. Click the Table button.
  4. Click Insert Table.
  5. Click the up or down arrows (in the Table drop-down menu) to select the desired number of columns.
  6. Click the up or down arrows to select the desired number of rows.
  7. Click OK to insert the table.

Create and Remove Columns

Add columns to a document

  1. Select the paragraphs you wish to lay out in columns.
  2. Click the Layout tab and click the Columns button.
  3. Click to select the number of columns you wish to create (such as “Two,” in the drop-down menu).
  4. The text will lay out in columns.

Remove columns

  1. Click anywhere in the columns.
  2. Click the Layout tab.
  3. Click the Columns button.
  4. Click One to change the document as one column.

Insert Page Breaks

Page break – a page break marks the end of a page that indicates where the printer will start a new page.

Insert a page break

  1. Click where you wish a new page to begin.
  2. Click the Insert tab.
  3. Click the Page Break button. A page break is inserted in the document.
  4. Click on the Home tab and then Show/Hide symbol (¶) will show hidden page beaks (click the Show/Hide symbol again will remove ¶).

Insert Section Breaks

Section break – a section break splits a page into sections that can have a different format or layout within the same page in the document.

Insert a section break

  1. Click where you wish a new section to begin.
  2. Click the Layout tab.
  3. Click the Breaks button.
  4. Click to select the type of section break you wish to use.
  5. Click on the Home tab and then Show/Hide symbol (¶) will show hidden section beaks.

Remove a page or section break

  1. Click the Home tab.
  2. Click the Show/Hide symbol ¶ (to display the section break).
  3. Double-click the page or section break to select it.
  4. Press the Delete key (on the keyboard).

39

Unit 10: Self-test

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Find answers to this self-test at the back of the book: Answers for Self-Tests

True or false

  1. The footer is a section of information that appears at the bottom margin of each page of a document.
  2. Word does not support automatic numbering of pages in a multi-page document.
  3. Right Tab – text is aligned to the right of the tab stop.
  4. Decimal Tab – numbers are aligned by their vertical bar.
  5. Click on the Insert tab and then Show/Hide symbol (¶) will show hidden page beaks.

Fill in the blank

  1. A [blank] is a section of information that appears at the top margin of each page of a document.
  2. The [blank] is a dot, an asterisk, a small circle, or other symbols that is found before the text to help organize information, make it easier to read, or differentiate between the different points.
  3. Bar Tab – inserts a [blank] line into a line of text.
  4. A [blank] break splits a page into sections that can have a different format or layout within the same page in the document.

Multiple choice

  1. [Blank]-click refers to quickly click the left mouse button twice on any folder, file, or program to open it.
    1. right
    2. double
    3. left
    4. all of the above
  2. Tab stop – a location where the cursor would stop when the [blank] key is pressed.
    1. shift
    2. return
    3. tab
    4. all of the above
  3. Center Tab – text is centered in the [blank] of the tab stop.
    1. left
    2. right
    3. bar
    4. middle
  4. A [blank] break marks the end of a page that indicates where the printer will start a new page.
    1. section
    2. page
    3. text
    4. all of the above
  5. Right Tab – text is aligned to the [blank] of the tab stop.
    1. left
    2. middle
    3. bar
    4. right
  6. Decimal Tab – numbers are aligned by their [blank].
    1. decimal points
    2. tab stop
    3. bar
    4. all of the above

XIII

Unit 11. More on electronic communication

Topic A: Web browser

Topic B: Email

Topic C: Web search engine

Unit 11 Self-test

40

Topic A. Web browser

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Web Browser / Bookmark

Browser

Bookmark

Safari

Add bookmarks to Safari

Find a bookmark in Safari

Show / Hide the Bookmark Bar in Safari

Show or hide the bookmark bar in Safari

Mozilla Firefox

Add bookmarks to Firefox

  1. Open Firefox.
  2. Double-click on Firefox to open it.
  3. Go to the website you would like to bookmark.
  4. Click on the star icon to the right of the address bar.
  5. Click Done to add the bookmark.

Find a bookmark in Firefox

  1. Open Firefox.
  2. Type the first word of your bookmark in address bar. As you type in address bar, Firefox will suggest websites (bookmark) you’ve visited.
  3. Find and click a bookmark to open it (to see your favorites).

Show or hide the bookmark bar in Firefox

  1. Open Firefox.
  2. Click on the three-line icon to the upper-right corner.
  3. Click Library on the pop-out menu.
  4. Click Bookmarks on the pop-up Library menu.
  5. Click the Bookmarking Tools on the pop-up Bookmarks menu.
  6. Click the View or Hide Bookmarks Toolbar in the Bookmarking Tools menu to turn the bookmarks bar on and off.

41

Topic B. Email

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Email Address

Popular Free Email Providers
Email provider Sample email addresses
Gmail username@gmail.com
Outlook username@outlook.com
Yahoo! Mail username@yahoo.com
ProtonMail username@protonmail.com
Zoho username@zoho.com
AOL username@aol.com

Create an Email Account

Create a Gmail account

  1. On your computer, go to the Google Account creation page.
  2. Enter your first, last name, username, and password (twice).
  3. Click Next.
    ""
  4. Enter your phone number (optional).
  5. Enter “Recovery email address” (optional).
  6. Enter your birthday, and gender.
  7. Click Next.
  8. Scroll down and click I agree. Your account will be created and ready to send and receive emails.

Sending and Receiving Email

Steps for sending and receiving emails

  1. Log into your email account (such as Gmail, Outlook, Yahoo! Mail, etc.). Or log into your institutional email (many colleges / universities give students an email address).
  2. Click Compose (Gmail) or something similar (e.g., New in Outlook).
  3. Enter a recipient’s email address in the “To” field. (You can also add recipients in the “Cc” and “Bcc”
    fields.)
  4. Enter a subject (the topic or heading of your email).
  5. Type your message in the main body field.
  6. Click Send at the bottom of the page.

Cc and Bcc

Email Folders

Email Attachment

Steps to send emails including attachments

  1. Log into your email account.
  2. Click Compose (Gmail) or something similar (e.g., New in Outlook).
  3. Enter a recipient’s email address in the “To” field.
  4. Enter a subject.
  5. Type your message in the main body field.
  6. Click Attach or something similar (e.g., the paper click icon).
  7. Select the file you want to attach from your computer’s folder.
  8. Click the Open or another similar button to attach the file to your email.
  9. Click Send at the bottom of the page.

42

Topic C: Web search engine

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Perform a Search using a Web Search Engine

Search engine – an Internet search engine is a web-based tool (a software) that is designed to search the content of web pages and to find particular information on the Internet.

Some popular search engines

Search the Internet using a web search engine

  1. Open a search engine in a web browser (such as Google in Chrome).
  2. Type a few specific keywords or phrases to describe whatever you wish to search in the search bar. Search engines look for the keywords in your query.
  3. Press the Enter key on the keyboard.
  4. Repeat above steps if necessary.

Security Issues on the Internet

Internet security issues

Although Internet led to many benefits, it also poses a greater potential for security threats.

The common Internet security issues

Prevent Cyber Threats

Tips on how to prevent malware from infecting your computer

Some free antivirus software:

43

Unit 11: Self-test

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True or false

  1. A bookmark is a software program that allows users to access and display websites or webpages on the internet.
  2. A web browser is a collection of links to web pages that is stored in a bookmark.
  3. An email may contain attachments (files, photos, videos, etc.).
  4. Bcc is similar to that of Ccexcept that the email address is invisible to the people in   the “To” or “Cc” fields.
  5. An unfinished email will be automatically saved to your ‘Income’ folder.
  6. Although the Internet led to many benefits, it also poses a greater potential for security threats.
  7. Malware is a single term that refers to all the different types of threats to your computer safety such as virus, Trojan horse, worm, spyware, etc.

Fill in the blank

  1. Saving [Blank] allows users to quickly navigate back to the websites they visit the most.
  2. A bookmark [Blank] contains all bookmarks that shows on the top of the Window.
  3. Click on the [Blank] icon to the right of the address bar can add the bookmark to Firefox.
  4. Email – an Internet service that allows users who have an [Blank] account to send and receive messages anywhere in the world.
  5. Enter a person’s email address to the [Blank] field means that person will receive a copy of the email.
  6. The email you’ve [Blank] will be saved in the Sent Mail (or Sent Item) folder.
  7. An internet [Blank] is a web-based tool that is designed to search the content of web pages and to find particular information on the Internet.
  8. A [Blank] refers to a person who can gain unauthorized access to a computer or a network to commit crimes.
  9. [Blank] is a software that is designed to damage, disrupt, or infect computers.
  10. A computer [Blank] is a specific type of malware that is designed to replicate and spread from one computer to another.
  11. Advertisers can use [Blank] to target specific advertisements to your tastes.

Multiple choice

  1. Click the [Blank] Bookmarks Toolbar in the Bookmarking Tools menu to turn the bookmarks bar on and off.
    1. On / Off
    2. Open / Close
    3. View / Hide
    4. All of the above
  2. An email address consists of:
    1. @ sign
    2. username
    3. domain
    4. all of the above
  3. Incoming emails arrive in the [Blank] folder.
    1. Sent Mail
    2. Inbox
    3. Drafts
    4. Junk Email
  4. [Blank] is a type of malware that looks harmless but can damage, disrupt, steal data on your computer.
    1. phishing
    2. spyware
    3. a Trojan horse
    4. a worm

1

Glossary

application program (or application software)

a computer program that provides users with tools to accomplish a specific task.

artificial intelligence (AI)

an area of computer science that deals with the simulation and creation of intelligent machines or intelligent behave in computers (they think, learn, work, and react like humans).

basic file management

a way to name, save, backup, organize, and keep track of files and folders on a computer.

Bcc (blind carbon copy)

Bcc is similar to that of Cc except that the email address is invisible to the people in the “To” or “Cc” fields. Use Bcc if you don't want the other people to see who else has received a copy of the email.

bit

the smallest, most basic unit of measurement for computer data storage, represented as either a 0 or a 1. One byte is equal to 8 bits.

blog

a personal website or webpage that is like an online diary/journal.

bold

a typeface that makes a character thicker than the regular one. Boldfacing is often used for emphasis, headings, subheads, highlight keywords, etc.

bookmark (or favourite)

a collection of links (a saved shortcut) to web pages that is stored in a web browser. 

bookmark bar

a row of all bookmarks that shows on the top of a browser window (under the address bar).

browser

a software program that allows users to access and display websites or web pages (documents, images, video, music, etc.) on the Internet.

bullet

a dot, a small circle, diamond, or other symbol that is found before the text in a list (a phrase, sentence or paragraph, etc.) to help organize information, make it easier to read, or differentiate between the different points.

byte

a unit of measurement for data storage. One byte is equal to 8 bits.

Cc (carbon copy or courtesy copy)

entering a person's email address in the “Cc” field means that person will receive a copy of the email (for their information).

center-justification

text is aligned to neither the left side nor right.

chat room

an online service that allows people to communicate by typing messages to each other in real time.

computer monitor

a display screen used to display information (text, image, video, etc.) processed by a computer.

computer system

a complete computer that includes a system unit along with all its software (such as Office 2016, Windows 10, etc.) and peripheral devices (such as a mouse, keyboard, monitor, printer, etc.) connected to it.

computer virus

a specific type of malware that is designed to replicate (copy) and spread from one computer to another.

cookie

A small text file stored in a user's computer by a website that the user has visited so that it can remember something about the user at a later time.

copy

make a duplicate of the selected items (text, symbol, table, image, etc.) and place it in another location.

CPU (central processing unit)

The brain or engine of a computer, where most of the processing and operations take place.

cut

removes the selected item from its original position.

database program

a program that is designed for creating, editing, updating, and maintaining databases and managing organized information stored in them.

deleted items

an email folder that saves all emails that have been deleted.

desktop computer

a personal computer that is designed to stay at one location and fits on or under a desk. It typically has a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and a tower (system unit).

device driver

a software program that is designed to control a particular hardware device that is attached to a computer.

disk drive

a computer device that stores and retrieves information, data, files, programs, etc., from a disk.

double-click

quickly click the left mouse button twice on any folder, file, or program to open it.

drafts

an email folder that automatically saves unfinished emails.

drag and drop

press and hold the left mouse button to grab an object (such as an icon on the desktop) and place it to a different location.

Editing a document

making revisions to a document, focusing on correcting errors, improving the accuracy of language, rearranging, making words and sentences clearer, more effective, etc.

email

an Internet service that allows users who have an email account (or address) to send and receive messages anywhere in the world.

external hardware devices (peripherals)

any hardware device that is located outside the computer.

file

a storage unit on a computer that stores information, data, etc. (such as a document, an image, etc.).

filename

a unique name given to a file to identify it.

files hierarchy

a file system that organizes folders and files in a top-to-bottom structure.

firewall

a network security device designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network.

folder (or directory)

a virtual storage space used to store and organize computer files.

footer

a section of information that appears at the bottom margin of each page of a document.

formatting

the appearance of a document. It is the shape, size, form, style, typeface, general arrangement etc. of a document.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

a set of rules (a protocol) for transferring files between computers over the Internet.

hacker

a person who can gain unauthorized access to (break into) a computer or a network to commit crimes.

hard disk drive

the main data storage device in a computer.

hardware

any physical device or equipment used in or with a computer system (anything you can see and touch).

header

a section of information that appears at the top margin of each page of a document.

help menu / button

the user can click help button in Word to initiate a search, display the help resources, and aid the user in his / her task. 

horizontal scroll bar

a horizontal bar on the bottom of a window or screen that allows the user to scroll the window viewing area to the left or right.

horizontal scrolling

sliding content left or right on a computer screen using a horizontal scroll bar.

HTTP

short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A set of rules (a protocol) for transferring and accessing data using the web.

inbox

an email folder where incoming emails are received and stored.

input device

a piece of hardware device which is used to enter information to a computer for processing.

integrated circuit (IC)

a small electronic circuit printed on a chip (usually made of silicon) that contains many its own circuit elements (e.g. transistors, diodes, resistors, etc.).

internal hardware devices (or internal hardware components)

any piece of hardware device that is located inside the computer.

Internet

a globally connected massive computer network system.

IP (Internet Protocol)

a set of rules (a protocol) for sending data from one computer to another on the Internet.

ISP (Internet service provider)

a company that provides Internet service to customers.

italics

a type style with characters that slope to the right. Italic is often used to emphasize a particular word, sentence, or particular part of a document.

junk email

the Junk Email Filter feature moves suspected incoming emails (spams) to the Junk Email folder (a place used to store spam emails).

justify (full justification)

align text along the both left and right sides. 

keyboard

an input device that allows a user to enter characters (letters, numbers, symbols, etc.) and commands into a computer.

keyboarding skills

the ability to input information through a keyboard smoothly while typing.

laptop computer

a portable personal computer that is small enough to rest on the user's lap and can be powered by a battery. It includes a flip down screen and a keyboard with a touchpad. Also known as a notebook.

left-click

press the left mouse button on the left side of the mouse. Left-click is often referred to as “regular-click” and it is used for many common computer tasks, such as selecting objects, closing windows, opening hyperlinks, double-clicking, etc.

left-justification (flush left)

align text along the left side (ragged on the right).

line spacing

the space between lines of text in a paragraph / document.

link

a word, phrase, image, etc., within a file or web page that a user can click on to jump to another document, section of the same document, or web page. Also known as a hyperlink.

Mac

a type of personal computer made by Apple Inc. Short for Macintosh.

machine language

a low-level programming language comprised of a collection of binary digits (ones and zeros) that the computer can read and understand.

magnetic core

uses arrays of small rings of magnetized material called cores to store information.

magnetic drum

a cylinder coated with magnetic material, on which data and programs can be stored.

mainframe computer

a high-performance computer used for large information processing jobs.

malware

a software that is designed to damage, disrupt, or infect computers.

memory

a physical device that is used to store data, information, and programs in a computer.

microprocessor

an electronic component held on an integrated circuit that contains a computer's central processing unit (CPU) and other associated circuits.

Microsoft Office

a group of productivity software applications developed by Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Office 2016 includes such programs as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, etc.

minicomputer

a mid-range computer that is intermediate in size, power, speed, storage capacity, etc., between a mainframe and a microcomputer.

motherboard

the main circuit board of a computer; also known as the mainboard.

mouse

a hand-held pointing device that can control the position of a cursor on a display screen.

moving

move the original files or folder from one place to another (change the destination).

online communication

the sharing of information or communication over a computer network.

operating system (OS)

a software that controls and coordinates the computer hardware devices and runs other software and applications on a computer. It is the main part of system software and a computer will not function without it.

output device

a piece of hardware device that receives information from a computer.

page break

a page break marks the end of a page that indicates where the printer will start a new page.

page layout

the arrangement of text, graphics, pictures, and other elements on a page. It describes how each page of a document will appear when it is printed.

page numbers

Word supports automatically adding page numbers in a multi-page document.

personal computer

a small computer designed for use by a single user at a time. Also known as a PC or a microcomputer.

phishing

when an Internet scammer uses deceptive emails or websites to try to obtain valuable personal information from people.

point and click

point an object on the screen and then press a button on the mouse to select objects / commands, open menus / hyperlinks (links), or close windows.

pointing device

a device used to control the movement of the pointer (cursor) on the screen.

presentation program

a program that is designed to present information in the form of a slideshow, using multimedia formats such as pictures, sounds, videos, and text.

printer

an output device linked to a computer that transfers the information (text, images, etc.) to paper.

RAM (random-access memory)

a type of data storage (memory element) used in computers that temporarily stores programs and data. RAM is a kind of volatile memory, meaning its contents are lost when the computer is turned off.

reboot

to shut down and restart a computer, allowing its operating system and programs to be reloaded.

ribbon

a group of buttons and icons (tabs) at the top of the window that allows users to access the commands that they need to complete a task.

right-click

press the right mouse button on the right side of the mouse to display a popup menu showing commands for a selected item.

right-justification (flush right)

align text along the right side (ragged on the left).

ROM (read-only memory)

a type of data storage used in computers that permanently stores data and programs. ROM is a kind of non-volatile memory, meaning its contents are retained even when the computer is turned off.

router

a device that transfers data between computer networks to provide access to the Internet.

ScreenTip (ToolTip)

a small text box (a hint) appears when the mouse point rest on a command, icon, button, etc. It displays the name of the item and sometimes a brief description of its function and the shortcut key for the command.

scrolling

sliding content (text, images, etc.) vertically or horizontally on a computer screen and allowing the user to view different parts of information in a window.

search engine

a web-based tool that is designed to search the content of web pages and find particular information on the Internet.

section break

a section break splits a page into sections that can have a different format or layout within the same page in the document.

sent

an email folder that saves copies of emails that you have sent.

server

a central computer that provides information to other computers.

smartphone

a mobile phone that performs many of the functions of a personal computer.

social networking

the use of websites and other Internet services to communicate with other people.

software

a set of instructions or programs that tells a computer what to do or how to perform a specific task (computer software runs on hardware).

spreadsheet

a program that organizes data into rows and columns, also known as tabular form. This data can then be arranged, sorted, calculated (using formulas and functions), analyzed, or illustrated using graphical representations.

spyware

a software that secretly monitors (spies) a user’s online behaviour and gets sensitive information about a person or organization without the user’s knowledge.

supercomputer

a powerful computer that can process large amounts of data and do a great amount of computation very quickly.

system software

it is designed to run a computer's hardware and application software, and make the computer system available for use. It serves as the interface between hardware, application software, and the user.

system unit

the main part of a desktop computer (the case) that contains all of the main electronic components.

tab selector (tab indicator)

a small button located in the left corner of the horizontal ruler that supplies the user with a variety of tab marker (tab stop) options (left, right, center, etc.).

tab stop 

a location where the cursor (insertion point) would stop when the Tab key is pressed.

table

information arranged in a condensed form of columns and rows. It is a more effective way to present information.

tablet

a wireless touchscreen PC that is slightly smaller and weighs less than the average laptop.

text justification / alignment

refers to how the left and right edges of a paragraph align on a page.

touch typing

a method of typing (with all the available fingers) without looking at the keyboard.

trackpad

a small, flat surface on a laptop or other computer that does the same things as a mouse.

transistor

an electronic component that can be used as an amplifier or as a switch. It is used to control the flow of electricity in radios, televisions, computers, etc.

Trojan horse

(or Trojan) a type of malware that looks harmless but can cause harm to a computer system.

underline

add a line underneath the text, in order to show its importance and draw attention to the text.

URL

Short for Uniform Resource Locator. A web address of a specific web page or file on the Internet.

USB drive

a small, portable storage device used to store or transfer data for computers; often used for the storage, data backup, and transfer of computer files.

utility software

a type of system software that helps set up, analyze, configure, strengthen, maintain a computer and performs a very specific task (e.g. antivirus software, backup software, memory tester, screen saver, etc.).

vacuum tube

an electronic device that controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum. It used as a switch, amplifier, or display screen in many older model radios, televisions, computers, etc.

vertical scroll bar

a vertical bar on the right side of a window or screen that allows the user to scroll the window viewing area up or down.

vertical scrolling

sliding content up or down on a computer screen using a vertical scroll bar.

video conferencing

a live video-based meeting between two or more users in different locations conducted by transmitting audio and video data in real time.

VoIP

a telephone connection over the Internet.

word processing

the use of a program (software application) running on a computer to create, edit, format, and store documents.

word processor

a program that allows users to create, save, edit, format, print, and retrieve documents.

World Wide Web

a system of Internet servers that is made from millions of interlinked websites and web pages. Abbreviated as WWW or the web.

worm

a type of virus designed to quickly self-replicate and spread copies of itself from one computer to another.

2

Answers for Self-Tests

Unit 1

  1. T
  2. F
  3. F
  4. F
  5. T
  6. T
  7. system unit
  8. Central Processing Unit
  9. temporary
  10. monitor
  11. Universal Serial Bus
  12. hard
  13. VoIP
  14. letter
  15. a.
  16. d.
  17. d.
  18. b.
  19. d.
  20. a.

Unit 2

  1. T
  2. F
  3. F
  4. T
  5. Touch
  6. Center
  7. home
  8. D
  9. K
  10. d.
  11. d.
  12. b.
  13. c.
  14. d.
  15. b.
  16. c.

Unit 3

  1. T
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. hard
  6. VoIP
  7. letter
  8. folder
  9. printer
  10. edit
  11. c.
  12. d.
  13. b.
  14. c.

Unit 4

  1. F
  2. T
  3. T
  4. F
  5. web browser
  6. bar
  7. PDF
  8. d.
  9. c.
  10. d.

Unit 5

  1. F
  2. T
  3. T
  4. F
  5. T
  6. hacker
  7. virus
  8. worm
  9. spyware
  10. invisible
  11. Inbox
  12. Deleted
  13. a.
  14. d.
  15. b.
  16. c.

Unit 6

  1. T
  2. F
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. T
  7. F
  8. Word processor
  9. spreadsheet
  10. Presentation
  11. Mainframe
  12. network
  13. webpages
  14. Cookie
  15. Operating system
  16. d.
  17. d.
  18. c.
  19. b.
  20. a.
  21. d.
  22. b.
  23. d.

Unit 7

  1. T
  2. F
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. F
  7. T
  8. T
  9. transistor
  10. CPU
  11. Machine language
  12. AI
  13. machine
  14. input
  15. System
  16. device
  17. d.
  18. c.
  19. b.
  20. d.
  21. a.
  22. c.

Unit 8

  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. F
  7. F
  8. touchpad
  9. left
  10. touch
  11. drop
  12. output
  13. icons
  14. hierarchy
  15. b.
  16. c.
  17. b.
  18. a.
  19. d
  20. d.
  21. d.
  22. b.

Unit 9

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F
  6. F
  7. T
  8. Word processing
  9. I-beam
  10. original
  11. printer
  12. appearance
  13. Center
  14. right
  15. underneath
  16. help
  17. b.
  18. b.
  19. c.
  20. d.
  21. a.
  22. c.

Unit 10

  1. T
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. F
  6. header
  7. bullet
  8. vertical
  9. section
  10. b.
  11. c.
  12. d.
  13. b.
  14. d.
  15. a.

Unit 11

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F
  6. T
  7. T
  8. bookmark
  9. bar
  10. star
  11. e-mail
  12. Cc
  13. sent
  14. search engine
  15. hacker
  16. Malware
  17. virus
  18. spyware
  19. c.
  20. d.
  21. b.
  22. c.

3

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Version Date Change Details
1.00 November 27, 2020 Added to the B.C. Open Textbook Collection.