Key Terms

Key Terms

Acids

Substances with a pH less than 6; the lower the pH the more acidic

Brown sugar

A blend of sucrose, molasses, and molasses-flavoured syrup; used for its distinctive flavour and/or for colouring

Carbohydrate

Simple or complex sugars and starches

Caramelization

Development of colour in certain foods by heating until the natural sugars brown

Chocolate bloom

A whitish coating that can appear on the surface of chocolate. This effect is one of the main concerns in the production of chocolate. There are two types of bloom: fat bloom, arising from changes in the fat in the chocolate; and sugar bloom, formed by the action of moisture on the sugar ingredients.

Chlorophyll

The green pigment found in algae and plants

Cholesterol

A sterol found in all animal tissues and animal fats. There are two types: low density lipoproteins (LDL or “bad” cholesterol) and high density lipoproteins (HDL or “good” cholesterol)

Conching

A process that refines pressed cacao into chocolate by rolling and heating to evenly distribute the cocoa butter

Conversion

The process of changing a complex sugar to a simple or invert sugar; examples: the work done by bees in converting nectar to honey by means of an enzyme; the conversion of starch (a polysaccharide) to glucose by means of  an acid or enzyme

Couverture

A term used for higher quality chocolates, usually containing a high percentage of cocoa butter

Dextrose (glucose)

A sugar produced from grain, with a sweetness level somewhat lower than sucrose. It is available in liquid form as thick syrup or dry. (Bakers are more familiar with the liquid form.) Dextrose is fermentable by yeast and soluble in water. Compared to sucrose, dextrose has a lower solubility and is the sugar of choice for donut finishing.

Disaccharide

A form of sugar in which two molecules of simple sugar are bonded together in a more complex form of molecule. Sucrose is the commonest form of disaccharide. Disaccharides have to be broken down into simpler sugars to be used by either the body’s stomach enzymes or the yeast enzymes in dough.

Fructose

A simple sugar found in fruits and honey

Gliadin

One of the main structural proteins found in wheat and some other grains that forms gluten in combination with glutenin

Glucose

See dextrose

Gluten

A protein composite present in cereal grains, especially wheat, but also found in barley, oats, and rye. Composed mainly of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin. Gluten contributes to elasticity and texture in bread doughs and other products containing wheat.

Glutenin

One of the main structural proteins found in wheat and some other grains that forms gluten in combination with gliaden

Homogenized milk

Milk that has been processed so that the fat droplets are evenly dispersed and the cream does not separate. In Canada, homogenized milk also refers to milk that contains 3.25 g per 100 g milk fat, which is known as whole milk in the U.S.

Honey

An invert sugar (i.e., a monosaccharide) made by bees from flower nectar; used as a sweetener for its distinctive flavour. It is hygroscopic (i.e., keeps products moist). Components of honey are levulose and dextrose (there is a tiny fraction of sucrose).

Hygroscopic

The capacity to attract moisture from the air, typical of most simple sugars such as glucose and honey

Invert sugar

A simple form of sugar obtainable naturally (e.g., honey) or artificially by conversion of sucrose. It stays liquid and is prized for its moisture retention capabilities.

Lactose

A sugar naturally occurring in milk and other dairy products

Levulose

A simple sugar or monosaccharide; formed by the inversion of sucrose, or existing naturally as in honey

Lipids

A group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and cholesterol

Maillard reaction

Chemical reaction between amino acids and sugars that contributes to the browning of foods

Minerals

Inorganic elements, such as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, or sodium, that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods

Monosaccharide

A simple molecule of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Levulose, fructose, and glucose are examples; easily fermentable

Pasteurization

Exposure of food to temperatures high enough to destroy harmful micro-organisms

Pentosans

A class of carbohydrates found in rye flour in particular

pH

A measure of acidity and alkalinity. The lower the pH, the more acidic substance, and the higher the pH, the more alkaline. Substances with a pH above 8 are considered alkaline, and substances with a pH below 6 are considered acidic. Substances between 6 and 8 are considered neutral.

Polysaccharide

Complex units of carbohydrate, such as starch or cellulose, decomposable into more simple sugars

Protein

Element in plant or animal tissue supplying essential amino acids to the body

Raw sugar

The brown sugar received at the mill from the source country. It has been somewhat refined but still has considerable impurities.

Sodium

An essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium, and pH. Most of the sodium in the diet comes from salts and processed foods.

Sucrose

“Ordinary” sugar, a disaccharide. It is the most familiar form of sugar and comes in various sizes of granulation.

Temper

  1. To add a hot liquid to egg yolks slowly so as not to cook the yolks too quickly
  2. To allow an item to soften slightly by coming to room temperature slowly
  3. To heat and cool couverture to create a crystal structure that will result in shiny and crisp finished chocolate

Trans fat

A polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been converted from the natural form by hydrogenation; used in the manufacture of shortenings

Wheat Shorts

Consists of the fine bran particles, germ and a small portion of floury endosperm particles as separated in the usual processes of commercial flour milling

 

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Key Terms by go2HR is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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