- Identify and describe milk and dairy products used in the food service industry
- Describe the production of milk and dairy products
- Describe the function of milk and dairy products in baking
Milk and milk products are some of our oldest and best-known natural foods. In baking, milk is used fresh, condensed, powdered, skimmed, or whole. The great bulk, weight, and perishability of fresh milk plus the expense of refrigeration makes it a relatively high-cost ingredient, and for this reason, most modern bakeries use non-fat powdered milk or buttermilk powder.
Over the past 20 years, there has been a trend to lower fat content in dairy products. This reflects the high caloric value of milk fat, and also is compatible with the trend to leaner, healthier nutrition. These “low-fat” products often have the fat replaced with sugars, so care must be taking in substituting these ingredients in a recipe. For bakers, this trend has not meant any great changes in formulas: a 35% milk fat or a 15% cream cheese product usually works equally well in a cheesecake. Some pastry chefs find lowering the richness in pastries and plated desserts can make them more enjoyable, especially after a large meal.
Table 15 provides the nutritional properties of milk products.
|Nutrient||Whole Milk (3.5% milk fat)||Skim Milk (0.1% milk fat)||Coffee Cream (18% milk fat)||Heavy or Whipping Cream (36% milk fat)|
|Protein||3.22 g||3.37 g||3 g||2 g|
|Fat||3.25 g||0.08 g||19 g||37 g|
|Cholesterol||10 mg||2 mg||66 mg||137 mg|
|Potassium||143 mg||156 mg||122 mg||75 mg|
|Calcium||113 mg||125 mg||96 mg||65 mg|
|Magnesium||10 mg||11 mg||9 mg||7 mg|
|Sodium||40 mg||42 mg||40 mg||40 mg|
|Vitamin A (IU)||102 IU||204 IU||656 IU||1470 IU|
Note: Besides the elements shown in Table 15, all dairy products contain vitamin B-complex.
“IU” stands for International Units, a term used in nutritional measurement.