Fats and Oils

26 Sources of Bakery Fats and Oils

Edible fats and oils are obtained from both animal and vegetable sources. Animal sources include:

  • Beef
  • Pork
  • Sheep
  • Fish

In North America, the first two are the prime sources.

Vegetable sources include canola, coconut, corn, cotton, olive, palm fruit and palm kernel, peanut, soya bean, safflower, and sunflower.

Refining of Fats and Oils

The major steps in refining fats and oils are as follows:

  • Free fatty acids are neutralized and treated with an alkali.
  • Colour is removed.
  • The fat is hydrogenated.
  • The fat is deodorized.
  • The fat is chilled and beaten to make it softer and whiter. This is done by a votator (a machine that cools and kneads liquid margarine).
  • Fat is stored to facilitate the correct crystallization (tempering).


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Understanding Ingredients for the Canadian Baker Copyright © 2015 by The BC Cook Articulation Committee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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