1. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} v+9&=&16 \\ -9&&-9 \\ \hline v&=&7 \end{array}$
2. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} 14&=&b&+&3 \\ -3&&&-&3 \\ \hline 11&=&b&& \end{array}$
3. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} x&-&11&=&-16 \\ &+&11&&+11 \\ \hline &&x&=&-5 \end{array}$
4. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} -14&=&x&-&18 \\ +18&&&+&18 \\ \hline x&=&4&& \end{array}$
5. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} 30&=&a&+&20 \\ -20&&&-&20 \\ \hline a&=&10&& \end{array}$
6. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} -1&+&k&=&5 \\ +1&&&&+1 \\ \hline &&k&=&6 \end{array}$
7. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} x&-&7&=&-26 \\ &+&7&&+7 \\ \hline &&x&=&-19 \end{array}$
8. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} -13&+&p&=&-19 \\ +13&&&&+13 \\ \hline &&p&=&-6 \end{array}$
9. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} 13&=&n&-&5 \\ +5&&&+&5 \\ \hline n&=&18&& \end{array}$
10. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} 22&=&16&+&m \\ -16&&-16&& \\ \hline m&=&6&& \end{array}$
11. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{340}{-17}&=&\dfrac{-17x}{-17} \\ \\ x&=&-20 \end{array}$
12. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{4r}{4}&=&\dfrac{-28}{4} \\ \\ r&=&-7 \end{array}$
13. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{l} \left(-9=\dfrac{n}{12}\right)(12) \\ \\ n=-108 \end{array}$
14. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{27}{9}&=&\dfrac{9b}{9} \\ \\ b&=&3 \end{array}$
15. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{20v}{20}&=&\dfrac{-160}{20} \\ \\ v&=&-8 \end{array}$
16. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{-20x}{-20}&=&\dfrac{-80}{-20} \\ \\ x&=&4 \end{array}$
17. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{340}{20}&=&\dfrac{20n}{20} \\ \\ n&=&17 \end{array}$
18. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{12}{8}&=&\dfrac{8a}{8} \\ \\ a&=&\dfrac{3}{2} \end{array}$
19. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{16x}{16}&=&\dfrac{320}{16} \\ \\ x&=&20 \end{array}$
20. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{8k}{8}&=&\dfrac{-16}{8} \\ \\ k&=&-2 \end{array}$
21. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} -16&+&n&=&-13 \\ +16&&&&+16 \\ \hline &&n&=&3 \end{array}$
22. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} -21&=&x&-&5 \\ +5&&&+&5 \\ \hline x&=&-16&& \end{array}$
23. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} p&-&8&=&-21 \\ &+&8&&+8 \\ \hline &&p&=&-13 \end{array}$
24. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrrrr} m&-&4&=&-13 \\ &+&4&&+4 \\ \hline &&m&=&-9 \end{array}$
25. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{l} \left(\dfrac{r}{14}=\dfrac{5}{14}\right)(14) \\ \\ r=5 \end{array}$
26. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{l} \left(\dfrac{n}{8}=40\right)(8) \\ \\ n=320 \end{array}$
27. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{rrl} \dfrac{20b}{20}&=&\dfrac{-200}{20} \\ \\ b&=&-10 \end{array}$
28. $\phantom{a}$
$\begin{array}[t]{l} \left(-\dfrac{1}{3}=\dfrac{x}{12}\right) (12) \\ \\ -\dfrac{1}{3}\cdot 12 = x \\ \phantom{-\dfrac{1}{3}\cdot 1}x=-4 \end{array}$