Chapter 1. History and Overview
As we have seen in this chapter, tourism is a complex system that is built up of industry sectors including accommodation, recreation and entertainment, food and beverage services, transportation, and travel services. It encompasses domestic, inbound, and outbound travel for business, leisure, or other purposes. And because of this large scope, tourism development requires participation from all walks of life, including private business, governmental agencies, educational institutions, communities, and citizens.
Recognizing the diverse nature of the industry and the significant contributions tourism makes toward economic and social value for British Columbians is important. There remains a great deal of work to better educate members of the tourism industry, other sectors, and the public about the ways tourism contributes to our province.
Given this opportunity for greater awareness, it is hoped that students like you will help share this information as you learn more about the sector. So let’s begin our exploration in Chapter 2 with a closer look at a critical sector: transportation. Before you get started on Chapter 2 test some of your knowledge to-date by taking this short summary quiz.
- British Columbia Government Travel Bureau (BCGTB): the first recognized provincial government organization responsible for the tourism marketing of British Columbia
- Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR): a national railway company widely regarded as establishing tourism in Canada and BC in the late 1800s and early 1900s
- Destination BC: the provincial destination marketing organization (DMO) responsible for tourism marketing and development in BC, formerly known as Tourism BC
- Destination Canada: the national government Crown corporation responsible for marketing Canada abroad, formerly known as the Canadian Tourism Commission (CTC)
- Destination marketing organization (DMO): also known as a destination management organization; includes national tourism boards, state/provincial tourism offices, and community convention and visitor bureaus
- Diversity: a term used by some in the industry to describe the makeup of the industry in a positive way; acknowledging that tourism is a diverse compilation of a multitude of businesses, services, organizations, and communities
- Excursionist: same-day visitors in a destination. Their trip typically ends on the same day when they leave the destination.
- Fragmentation: a phenomenon observed by some industry insiders whereby the tourism industry is unable to work together toward common marketing and lobbying (policy-setting) objectives
- Hospitality: the accommodations and food and beverage industry groupings
- North American Industry Classification System (NAICS): a way to group tourism activities based on similarities in business practices, primarily used for statistical analysis
- Social Exchange Theory: describes how tourists and hosts’ behaviours change as a result of the perceived benefits and threats they create during interaction
- Travel: moving between different locations, often for leisure and recreation
- Tourism: the business of attracting and serving the needs of people travelling and staying outside their home communities for business and pleasure
- Tourism Industry Association of BC (TIABC): a membership-based advocacy group formerly known as the Council of Tourism Associations of BC (COTA)
- Tourism Industry Association of Canada (TIAC): the national industry advocacy group
- Tourism Supply Chain: The combination of sectors that supply and distribute the needed tourism products, services, and activities within the tourism system
- Tourist: someone who travels at least 80 kilometres from his or her home for at least 24 hours, for business or pleasure or other reasons; can be further classified as domestic, inbound, or outbound
- United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO): UN agency responsible for promoting responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism worldwide
Test your terms knowledge
- List the three types of tourist and provide an example of each.
- What is the UNWTO? Visit the UNWTO website, and name one recent project or study the organization has undertaken.
- List the five industry groups according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Using your understanding of tourism as an industry, create your own definition and classification of tourism. What did you add? What did you take out? Why?
- What is the difference between Tourism Services and Travel Trade?
- Describe how the phenomenon of tourism can still happen even when tourists have gone back to their origin.
- According to UNEP, what are the four types of negative environmental tourism impact? For each of these, list an example in your own community.
- What major transportation developments gave rise to the tourism industry in Canada?
- Historically, what percentage of international visitors to Canada are from the United States? Why is this an important issue today?
- Name three key events in the history of BC tourism that resonate with you. Why do you find these events of interest?
- Watch the Tourism Pays video feature on Richmond. Now think about the value of tourism in your community. How might this be communicated to local residents? List two ways you will contribute to communicating the value of tourism this semester.
- Choose one article or document from the reference list below and read it in detail. Report back to the class about what you’ve learned.
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