Chapter 11. Race and Ethnicity

Chapter 11 Resources and Activities

Key Terms

achieved status: A status  received through individual effort or merits (e.g., occupation, educational level, moral character, etc.).ancestry:  (in a biological usage) the connection between human variations and the historical-geographical origins of an individual or group’s  ancestors.

ascribed status: A status received by virtue of being born into a category or group (e.g., hereditary position, gender, race, etc.).

assimilation: The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture.

BIPOC: Black, Indigenous, and People of Colour.

conquest: The forcible subjugation of territory and people by military action.

discrimination: Prejudiced action against a group of people.

dominant: Can be used interchangeably with the term majority.

dominant group: A group of people who have more power in a society than any of the subordinate groups.

equality of opportunity: A situation in which everyone in a society has an equal chance to pursue economic or social rewards.

ethical relativism: The idea that all cultures and all cultural practices have equal value.

ethnicity: A shared cultural heritage — the distinctive practices, beliefs and way of life of a group.

ethnocentrism: Evaluating another culture according to the standards of one’s own culture.

exogamy: Refers to marriage outside of the group (community, tribe, ethnicity, etc.).

expulsion: When a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave a certain area or the country.

five race theory: The idea that humans can be categorized into five racial categories: African, European, Asian, Oceanic, and Native American.

genocide: The deliberate annihilation of a targeted (usually subordinate) group.

group-specific rights: Rights conferred on individuals by virtue of their membership in a group.

hybridity: The process by which different racial and ethnic groups combine to create new or emergent cultural forms and practices.

identity: a shared self-perception or self-ascription of an individual or community as belonging to a distinct group based on ethnic, racial, religious, geographical or other characteristics.

institutional racism: When a societal system has developed with an embedded disenfranchisement of a group.

internal colonialism: The process of uneven regional development by which a dominant group establishes control over existing populations within a country by maintaining segregation of ethnic and racial groups.

intersection theory: A theory that suggests that the effects of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and other attributes on social status compound one another.

minority group: Any group of people who are singled out from others for differential and unequal treatment.

miscegenation: The blending of different racialized groups through sexual relations, procreation, marriage, or cohabitation.

model minority: The stereotype applied to a minority group that is seen as reaching higher educational, professional, and socioeconomic levels without protest against the majority establishment.

multiculturalism: The recognition of cultural and racial diversity and of the equality of different cultures.

orientalism: the practice of projecting exotic characteristics onto “Asia,” “the East” or “the Orient” that are said to be the opposite of Western characteristics.

prejudice: Biased thought based on flawed assumptions about a group of people.

primitivism: The practice of projecting “savagery” or premodern characteristics onto Indigenous and racialized peoples around the globe.

racial profiling: The selection of individuals for greater surveillance, policing, or treatment on the basis of racialized characteristics.

racial steering: When real estate agents direct prospective homeowners toward or away from certain neighbourhoods based on their race.

racialization: The social process by which certain social groups are marked for unequal treatment based on perceived physiological differences.

racism: A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices used to justify the belief that one racial category is somehow superior or inferior to others.

representation: The process by which meaning is produced and circulated in a society through the use of language, signs and images to stand in for, or re-present, things.

segregation: The physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions.

settler society: A society historically based on colonization through foreign settlement and displacement of Indigenous inhabitants.

stereotypes: Oversimplified ideas about groups of people.

stigma: a mark or attribute regarded as deeply discrediting.

strategy for the management of diversity: A systematic method used to resolve conflicts, or potential conflicts, between groups that arise based on perceived differences.

subaltern groups: Groups whose identity is defined by cultural subordination.

subordinate group: A group of people who have less power than the dominant group.

systemic racism:  Overlapping and mutually reinforcing structures of racial discrimination systematically embedded within and between organizations and institutions.

White privilege: The benefits people receive simply by being part of the dominant group of racialized “whites.”

White supremacy: The doctrine that non-White groups are inferior and that racial discrimination, segregation, and domination is therefore justified.

visible minority: Persons, other than Indigenous persons, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-White in colour.

Section Summary

11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
Race is fundamentally a social construct. Ethnicity is a term that describes shared culture and national origin. Minority groups are defined by their lack of power.

11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Stereotypes are oversimplified ideas about groups of people. Prejudice refers to thoughts and feelings, while discrimination refers to actions. Racism refers to the belief that one race is inherently superior or inferior to other races.

11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity
Functionalist views of race study the role dominant and subordinate groups play to create a stable social structure. Critical sociologists examine power disparities and struggles between various racial and ethnic groups. Interactionists see race and ethnicity as important sources of individual identity and social symbolism. The concept of culture of prejudice recognizes that all people are subject to stereotypes that are ingrained in their culture.

11.4 Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity
Intergroup relations range from a tolerant approach of pluralism to intolerance as severe as genocide. In pluralism, groups retain their own identity. In assimilation, groups conform to the identity of the dominant group. In assimilation, groups combine to form a new group identity.

11.5 Race and Ethnicity in Canada
The history of the Canadian people contains an infinite variety of experiences that sociologists understand follow patterns. From the Indigenous people who first inhabited these lands to the waves of immigrants over the past 500 years, migration is an experience with many shared characteristics. Most groups have experienced various degrees of prejudice and discrimination as they have gone through the process of assimilation.

Questions

Quiz: Race, ethnicity, and discrimination

11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

  1. The racial term “Black Canadian” can refer to                                                 .
    1. A Black person living in Canada.
    2. People whose ancestors came to Canada through the slave trade.
    3. A White person who originated in Africa and now lives in Canada.
    4. Any of the above.
  2. What is the one defining feature of a minority group?
    1. Self-definition
    2. Numerical minority
    3. Lack of power
    4. Strong cultural identity
  3. Ethnicity describes shared                   .
    1. Beliefs.
    2. Language.
    3. Religion.
    4. Any of the above.
  4. Which of the following is an example of a numerical majority being treated as a subordinate group?
    1. Jewish people in Germany
    2. Creoles in New Orleans
    3. White people in Brazil
    4. Blacks under apartheid in South Africa
  5. Scapegoat theory shows that                                                 .
    1. Subordinate groups blame dominant groups for their problems.
    2. Dominant groups blame subordinate groups for their problems.
    3. Some people are predisposed to prejudice.
    4. All of the above.

11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

  1. Stereotypes can be based on                   .
    1. Race.
    2. Ethnicity.
    3. Gender.
    4. All of the above.
  2. What is discrimination?
    1. Biased thoughts against an individual or group
    2. Biased actions against an individual or group
    3. Belief that a race different from yours is inferior
    4. Another word for stereotyping
  3. Which of the following is the best explanation of racism as a social fact?
    1. It needs to be eradicated by laws.
    2. It is like a magic pill.
    3. It does not need the actions of individuals to continue.
    4. None of the above

11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity

  1. As a Caucasian in Canada, being reasonably sure that you will be dealing with authority figures of the same race as you is a result of                              .
    1. Intersection theory.
    2. Conflict theory.
    3. White privilege.
    4. Multiculturalism.
  2. The Speedy Gonzales cartoon character is an example of                              .
    1. Intersection theory.
    2. Stereotyping.
    3. Interactionist view.
    4. Culture of prejudice.

11.4 Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity

  1. Which intergroup relation displays the least tolerance?
    1. Segregation
    2. Assimilation
    3. Genocide
    4. Expulsion
  2. What doctrine justified legal segregation in the American South?
    1. Jim Crow
    2. Plessey v. Ferguson
    3. De jure
    4. Separate but equal
  3. What intergroup relationship is represented by the “mosaic” metaphor?
    1. Assimilation
    2. Pluralism
    3. Expulsion
    4. Segregation
  4. Assimilation is represented by the                               metaphor.
    1. Melting pot
    2. Mosaic
    3. Salad bowl
    4. Separate but equal

11.5 Race and Ethnicity in Canada

  1. What makes Indigenous Canadians unique as a subordinate group in Canada?
    1. They are the only group that experienced expulsion.
    2. They are the only group that was segregated.
    3. They are the only group that was enslaved.
    4. They are the only group that did not come here as immigrants.
  2. Which subordinate group is often referred to as the “model minority?”
    1. Black Canadians
    2. Asian Canadians
    3. White ethnic Canadians
    4. First Nations
  3. Which federal act or program was designed to address Québécois nationalism?
    1. Official Languages Act
    2. The Treaty of Utrecht
    3. The Multiculturalism Act
    4. The repatriation of the Constitution
  4. The Komagata Maru incident affected which visible minority?
    1. Métis
    2. Japanese
    3. South Asians
    4. Chinese
  5. Which of the following groups is not considered a visible minority in Canada?
    1. The Issei
    2. Somali Canadians
    3. Sikhs
    4. Indigenous Canadians

[Quiz answers at end of chapter]

Short Answer

11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

  1. Why do you think the term “minority” has persisted when the word “subordinate” is more descriptive?
  2. How do you describe your ethnicity? Do you include your family’s country of origin? Do you consider yourself multiethnic? How does your ethnicity compare to that of the people you spend most of your time with?

11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

  1. How does racial stereotyping contribute to institutionalized racism?
  2. Give an example of stereotyping that you see in everyday life. Explain what would need to happen for this to be eliminated.

11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity

  1. Give three examples of White privilege. Do you know people who have experienced this? From what perspective?
  2. What is the worst example of intersection theory you can think of? What are your reasons for thinking it is the worst?

11.4 Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity

  1. Do you believe immigration laws should foster an approach of pluralism, assimilation, or amalgamation? Which perspective do you think is most supported by current Canadian immigration policies?
  2. Which intergroup relation do you think is the most beneficial to the subordinate group? To society as a whole? Why?

11.5 Race and Ethnicity in Canada

  1. In your opinion, which group had the easiest time coming to this country? Which group had the hardest time? Why?
  2. Which group has made the most socioeconomic gains? Why do you think that group has had more success than others?

Further Research

11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
Explore aspects of the contemporary debate over racial identity and genomic markers in Vivian Chou’s (2017) How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century on the Harvard University website.

11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

Explore the concept of White privilege with this White privilege checklist [PDF] from the Alliance of Local Service Organizations (ALSO) website (2015) to see how much of it holds true for you or others. [This checklist was adapted from Peggy McIntosh, 1989]

11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity
Watch this short video intersectionality 101 by Learning for Justice (2016) on YouTube to explore the basics behind the concept.

11.4 Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity
Read more about multiculturalism in a world perspective at the Multiculturalism Policies in Contemporary Democracies (n.d.) on the Queen’s University website

11.5 Race and Ethnicity in Canada
Are people interested in reclaiming their ethnic identities? Read this article,”The White Ethnic Revival,” by Matthew Frye Jacobson (n.d.) on the George Washington University History News Network website and decide for yourself!

References

11.0 Introduction Race and Ethnicity

Block, S., Galabuzi, G-E., and Tranjan, R. (2020). Canada’s colour coded income inequality [PDF]. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. https://policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/canadas-colour-coded-income-inequality

CBC. (2007, March 8). Term “visible minorities” may be discriminatory, UN body warns Canada. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/term-visible-minorities-may-be-discriminatory-un-body-warns-canada-1.690247 [Last Updated: March 8, 2007]

Li, P. (1996). The making of post-war Canada. Oxford.

Indigenous Services Canada. (2020). Annual report to parliament 2020: Measuring the socioeconomic gaps. Government of Canada. https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1602010609492/1602010631711#chp6

Statistics Canada. (2010, March 9). Study: Projections of the diversity of the Canadian population. The Daily. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100309/dq100309a-eng.htm

Statistics Canada. (2011). 2011 national household survey: Data tables. (Statistics Canada catalogue no. 99-010-X2011028).  https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/dt-td/Index-eng.cfm

Statistics Canada. (2017, Oct. 25). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity: Key results from the 2016 Census. The Daily. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171025/dq171025b-eng.htm

Statistics Canada. (2019). Census Profile, 2016 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016191. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/98-400-X2016191

Statistics Canada. (2022a). The Canadian census: A rich portrait of the country’s religious and ethnocultural diversity. The Daily. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/221026/dq221026b-eng.htm

Statistics Canada. (2022b, October 26). Visible minority and population group by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts. Government of Canada. www12.statcan.gc.ca.

11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

BBC News. (2015). Genomes document ancient mass migration to Europe. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31695214

Bhopal, R. (2007, December 20). The beautiful skull and Blumenbach’s errors: the birth of the scientific concept of race. British Medical Journal, 335, 1308.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39413.463958.80

Bolnick, D. et al. (2007). The science and business of genetic ancestry testing. Science, 318(5849), 399–400. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1150098

Brown, J. (1993). Métis, halfbreeds, and other real people: Challenging cultures and categories. The History Teacher, 27(1), 19–26. https://doi.org/10.2307/494328

Chakravarti, A. (2001).  …to a future of genetic medicine. Nature, 409(February), 822–823. https://doi.org/10.1038/35057281

Chou, V. (2017). How science and genetics are reshaping the race debate of the 21st century. Science in the News. Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/science-genetics-reshaping-race-debate-21st-century/

Collins, F. (2004). What we do and don’t know about ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, genetics and health at the dawn of the genome era. Nature Genetics, 36, S13–S15. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1436

Dahl, G. (2013). A half-breed’s perspective on being Métis. In Adams, C., G. Dahl and I. Peach (Eds). Métis in Canada: History, identity, law and politics (pp. 93–139). University of Alberta Press.

Gannon, M. (2016, February 5). Race is a social construct, scientists argue. Scientific American/LiveScience. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/race-is-a-social-construct-scientists-argue/

Garcia, S. (2020, June 17). Where did BIPOC come from? New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/article/what-is-bipoc.html

Ghosh, P. (2015, July 22). DNA uncovers mystery migration to the Americas. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33612869

Hacker, H. M. (1951, October 1). Women as a minority group. Social Forces, 30. https://doi.org/10.2307/2571742

Jacobson, M. (1999). Whiteness of a different color: European immigrants and the alchemy of race. Harvard University Press.

Lewontin, R. (!972). The apportionment of human diversity [PDF]. Evolutionary Biology, 6, 381–398. http://www.philbio.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Lewontin-The-Apportionment-of-Human-Diversity.pdf

Lindsey, B. (2013, May 15). Why people deep misunderstanding the ‘connection’ between race and IQ. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/05/why-people-keep-misunderstanding-the-connection-between-race-and-iq/275876/

Manzo, J. & Bailey, M. (2008, July). On the assimilation of racial stereotypes among Black Canadian young offenders. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie, 42(3), 283–300. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.2005.tb00841.x

Milan, A.,  Maheux, H., & Chui, T. (2010, April 20). A portrait of couples in mixed unions. Canadian social trends, 89 (Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-008-X). http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2010001/article/11143-eng.htm

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). (2018). Genetics vs. genomics fact sheet. National Institutes of Health/ USA Government. https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/fact-sheets/Genetics-vs-Genomics

O’Toole, D. (2013). From entity to identity to nation: The ethnogenesis of the Wiisakodewininiwag (Bois-Brûlé) Reconsidered. In Adams, C., G. Dahl and I. Peach (Eds). Métis in Canada : History, identity, law and politics (pp. 143–204). University of Alberta Press.

Pocock, J.G.A. (2009). The politics of history: the subaltern and the subversive. In Political Thought and History: Essays on Theory and Method (pp. 239–25). Cambridge University Press.

Purich, D. (1988). The Métis. James Larimer & Co.

Rincon, P. (2016, September 22). DNA hints at earlier human exodus from Africa. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37408014

Romualdi, C., et al. (2002). Patterns of human diversity, within and among continents, inferred from biallelic DNA polymorphisms. Genome Research, 12, 602–612. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.214902

Rosenberg, N., et al. (2003, January). Genetic structure of human populations [PDF]. Science, 298(5602), 2381–2385. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1078311

Satzewich, V. (2000). Whiteness limited: Racialization and the social construction of “peripheral Europeans.” Histoire Social/Social History,  33(66), 271–289.

Satzewich, V. (2002). The Ukrainian Diaspora. Routledge.

Sethi, D., Wood, S., Mitis, F., Bellis, M., et al. (Eds.). (2011). European report on preventing elder maltreatment [PDF]. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/abuse-of-older-people

Spivak, G. (1988). Can the subaltern speak? In Nelson, C. and L. Grossberg (Eds.), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (pp. 271–313).  University of Illinois Press.

Stranglin, D. (2013, November 21). Feud tied to DNA test of supremacist’s Black blood. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/11/21/white-supremacist-dna-test-neo-nazi-north-dakota-town/3661791/

Sue, D.W. (2015). Race talk and the conspiracy of silence: Understanding and facilitating difficult dialogues on race. John Wiley and Sons.

Taylor, C.  (1994). The politics of recognition. In Amy Gutmann (Ed.), Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (pp. 25-73). Princeton University Press.

Telles, E. (2004).  Race in another America: The significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton University Press

Thompson, D. (2009). Racial ideas and gendered intimacies: The regulation of interracial relationships in North AmericaSocial and Legal Studies, 18(3), 353–371. https://doi.org/10.1177/0964663909339087

Tillery, A. (2018). CSDD & 23andme race and genomics survey. Center for the Study of Diversity and Democracy. https://csdd.northwestern.edu/research/csdd-23andme-race-and-genomics-survey-2018.html

Tishkoff, S. & Kidd, K. (2004). Implications of biogeography of human populations for ‘race’ and medicine. Nature Genetics Supplement, 36(11), 21–27. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1438

Wagley, C., & Harris, M. (1958). Minorities in the New World: Six case studies. Columbia University Press.

Wirth, L. (1945). The problem of minority groups. In R. Linton (Ed.), The science of man in the world crisis (p. 347). Columbia University Press.

Yudell, M. et al. (2016). Taking race out of human genetics. Science, 351(6273), 564–565. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac4951

11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Backhouse, C. (1994, Fall). Racial segregation in Canadian legal history: Viola Desmond’s challenge, Nova Scotia, 1946. Dalhousie Law Journal, 17(2), 299–362. Available from Digital Commons: https://digitalcommons.schulichlaw.dal.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1699&context=dlj

Block, S., & Galabuzi, G.-E. (2011). Canada’s colour coded labour market: The gap for racialized workers. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2011/03/Colour%20Coded%20Labour%20Market.pdf.

Block, S.,  G-E. Galabuzi & R. Tranjan. (2019).  Canada’s Colour Coded Income Inequality. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2019/12/Canada%27s%20Colour%20Coded%20Income%20Inequality.pdf

Congress of Aboriginal Peoples. (2010). Staying in school: Engaging Aboriginal students [PDF]. https://neaoinfo.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/aboriginal-education-congress-of-aboriginal-peoples.pdf

Deer, K. (2021). Why it’s difficult to put a number on how many children died at residential schools. CBC/Radio-Canada. https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/residential-school-children-deaths-numbers-1.6182456

Department of Indigenous Services. (2020). Annual Report to Parliament 2020: Measuring the socioeconomic gaps. Government of Canada. https://www.sac-isc.gc.ca/eng/1602010609492/1602010631711#chp6

Durkheim, É. (1982). The rules of the sociological method (W. D. Halls, Trans). Free Press. (Original work published 1895.)

Hudson, D. L., Jr. (2009, October 16). Students lose Confederate-flag purse case in 5th Circuit. First Amendment Center. http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/students-lose-confederate-flag-purse-case-in-5th-circuit

Macdonald, D., & Wilson, D. (2013, June). Poverty or prosperity: Indigenous children in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2013/06/Poverty_or_Prosperity_Indigenous_Children.pdf

McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In, White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women’s studies. Wellesley College Center for Research on Women.

Pitsula, J. (2014). Keeping Canada British: The Ku Klux Klan in 1920s Saskatchewan. UBC Press.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2012). Canada, Aboriginal peoples, and residential schools: They came for the children [PDF]. Government of Canada. https://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/cvrc-trcc/IR4-4-2012-eng.pdf

Wingrove, J., & Mackrael, K. (2012, June 25). Why so many Somali-Canadians who go west end up dead. The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/why-so-many-somali-canadians-who-go-west-end-up-dead/article4365992/?page=all

11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity

Blau, J. & Blau, P. (1982). The cost of inequality: Metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review, 47(1), 114–129. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095046

Blumer, H. (1958). Race prejudice as a sense of group position. The Pacific Sociological Review, 1(1), 3–7. https://doi.org/10.2307/138860

Castells, M. (2010). The rise of the network society (2nd edition). Wiley-Blackwell.

Collins, P. H. (1990). Distinguishing features of Black feminist thought. Routledge.

Diamond, S. (1969). Introduction: The uses of the primitive. In Diamond, S. (Ed.), Primitive views of the world (pp. v–xxix). Columbia University Press.

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hall, S. (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. In Hall, S. (Ed.), Representation, meaning and language (pp. 15–64). Sage.

Herrnstein, R. & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. Simon and Schuster.

Porter, J. (1965). The vertical mosaic: An analysis of social class and power in Canada. University of Toronto Press.

Richwine, J. (2009, May). IQ and immigration policy. A dissertation presented by Jason Richwine to The Department of Public Policy in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of Public Policy. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. https://www.scribd.com/doc/140239668/IQ-and-Immigration-Policy-Jason-Richwine

Roberts, J. & Gabor, T. (1990). In my opinion … Lombrosian wine in a new bottle: Research on crime and race. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32(2), 291–313. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjcrim.32.2.291

Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Sarich, V. & Miele, F. (2004). Race: The reality of human differences. Westview Press.

Sen, A. (2006).  Identity and violence: The illusion of destiny. W.W. Norton and Co.

Turkheimer, E., Haley, A., Waldron, M., D’Onofrio, B., & Gottesman, I. (2003). Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Psychological Science. 14(6), 623–628. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_147

Wang, J. (2006). His dominion and the yellow peril: Protestant missions to Chinese immigrants in Canada, 1859–1967. Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Wortley, S. (1999). A Northern taboo: Research on race, crime, and criminal justice in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology. 41(2), 261–274. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjcrim.41.2.261

11.4 Intergroup Relations and the Management of Diversity
Bhabha, H. (1994). The location of culture. Routledge.

Conference Board of Canada. (2013). How Canada performs: International rankings: Acceptance of diversity. https://web.archive.org/web/20160322081348/http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/society/acceptance-of-diversity.aspx

Day, R. (2000). Multiculturalism and the history of Canadian diversity. University of Toronto Press.

Des Forge, A.. (1999).  Leave none to tell the story: Genocide in Rwanda [PDF]. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/reports/pdfs/r/rwanda/rwanda993.pdf

Habib, M. (Ed.). (2018). Forced migration of Rohingya : the untold experience. Ontario International Development Agency.

Hall, S. (1990). Identity: Community, culture, difference. Lawrence & Wishart.

Human Rights Watch. (2004). Darfur destroyed: Ethnic cleansing by government and militia forces in Western Sudan. Human Rights Watch, 16(6A). https://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/sudan0504/sudan0504simple.pdf

Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship. Clarendon Press.

Lewy, G. (2004, September). Were American Indians the victims of genocide? History News Network. http://hnn.us/articles/7302.html

Li, P. (1996). The making of post-war Canada. Oxford.

Marshall, I. (1996). A history and ethnography of the Beothuk. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Mosher, C. (1998). Discrimination and denial: Systemic racism in Ontario’s legal and criminal justice systems, 1892-1961. University of Toronto Press.

Population Studies Center. (2010). New racial segregation measures for states and large metropolitan areas: Analysis of the 2005–2009 American community survey. https://web.archive.org/web/20220130210225/https://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/census/segregation.html

Steeves, P. (2021).  The Indigenous paleolithic of the western hemisphere. University of Nebraska Press.

Ujimoto, K. V. (2000). Multiculturalism, ethnic identity, and inequality. In B. Singh Bolaria (Ed.), Social issues and contradictions in Canadian society (pp. 228–246). Nelson.

UN Human Rights Council. (2019, October 23). UN Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar calls on UN Member States to remain vigilant in the face of the continued threat of genocide. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25197&LangID=E

Walks, R. A., & Bourne, L. (2006). Ghettos in Canada’s cities? Racial segregation, ethnic enclaves and poverty concentration in Canadian urban areas. Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 273–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.2006.00142.x

Waters, M. and T. Jimenez. (2005). Assessing immigrant assimilation: New empirical and theoretical challenges. Annual Review of Sociology, 31(1), 105–125. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100026

11.5 Race and Ethnicity in Canada
Abdulle, M. (1999). Somali immigrants in Ottawa: The causes of their migration and the challenges of resettling in Canada. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Ottawa. http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/en/bitstream/handle/10393/8831/MQ48122.PDF?sequence=1.

Bill 1070, An Act amending Title 11, Chapter 7, Arizona revised statues…. relating to unlawfully present aliens [PDF], 2nd Reg. Sess., 49th Legislature, Arizona Senate, 2010. http://www.azleg.gov/legtext/49leg/2r/bills/sb1070s.pdf

Black History Canada [The Canadian Encyclopedia]. (2014). End of segregation in Canada. Collection: Black History in Canada. Historica Canada. http://www.blackhistorycanada.ca/events.php?themeid=21&id=9

Block, S., & Galabuzi, G.-E. (2011, March). Canada’s colour coded labour market: The gap for racialized workers [PDF]. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2011/03/Colour%20Coded%20Labour%20Market.pdf

Buchignani, N. (2010, May 12). South Asian Canadians. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/south-asians

Carvery, I. (2008, January 2). Archived: Under a Northern Star. Africville: A community displaced. Library and Archives Canada. https://web.archive.org/web/20130621143930/http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/northern-star/033005-2601-e.html

CBC. (2001). A land of many cultures: Legacy of hate. Canada: A People’s History. http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH3PA3LE.html

Chan, A. B. (2013, July 30). Chinese Canadians. The Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/chinese-canadians/

Foster, C. (2019). They call me George: The untold story of the black train porters. Biblioasis.

Johnston, H. (1989). The voyage of the Komagata Maru: The Sikh challenge to Canada’s colour bar. University of British Columbia Press.

Koch, A., Brierley, C., Maslin, M., & Lewis, S. (2019, March 1). Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492. Quaternary Science Reviews, 207(March), 13–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.12.004

Li, P. (1996). The making of post-war Canada. Oxford Press.

Leslie, J. (1978). The historical development of the Indian Act (2nd ed.). Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

Library and Archives Canada. (2001, March 31). Oscar Peterson: A jazz sensation. http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/206/301/lac-bac/oscar_peterson-ef/www.lac-bac.gc.ca/4/2/index-e.html

Lou, N. M., Noels, K. A., Kurl, S., Zhang, Y. S. D., & Young-Leslie, H. (2022). Chinese Canadians’ experiences of the dual pandemics of COVID-19 and racism: Implications for identity, negative emotion, and anti-racism incident reportingCanadian Psychology / Psychologie Canadienne, 63(3), 279–297. https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000305

Marger, M. (2003). Race and ethnic relations: American and global perspectives. Wadsworth.

Marquis, G. E. (1923, May). The French Canadians in the province of QuebecAnnals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 107(1), 7–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/000271622310700103

Massey, D. S. (2006, August 20). Seeing Mexican immigration clearly. Cato Unbound. http://www.cato-unbound.org/2006/08/20/douglas-s-massey/seeing-mexican-immigration-clearly/

Mosher, C. (1998). Discrimination and denial: Systemic racism in Ontario’s legal and criminal justice systems, 1892-1961. University of Toronto Press.

Mathias, J., & Yabsley, G. (1991, Spring). Conspiracy of legislation: The suppression of Indian rights in CanadaBC Studies, 89, 34–45. https://doi.org/10.14288/bcs.v0i89.1383

Myers, J. P. (2007). Dominant-minority relations in America. Pearson.

Patterson, P. E. (1972). The Canadian Indian: A history since 1500. Collier-Macmillan.

Ruttan, S. (2014). Vancouver Island scoundrels, eccentrics and originals: Tales from the library vault. TouchWood Editions.

Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division. (2007, August). The Caribbean community in Canada. Statistics Canada (Catalogue no. 89-621-XIE — No. 7 – Archived).  https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/89-621-x/89-621-x2007007-eng.pdf?st=7IB1e_t_

Statistics Canada. (2012, October). Analytical document: Linguistic characteristics of Canadians [PDF]. Statistics Canada (Catalogue no. 98-314-X2011001). http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-314-x/98-314-x2011001-eng.pdf.

Statistics Canada. (2013). Analytical document: Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada: National household survey, 2011 [PDF]. Statistics Canada (Catalogue no. 99-010-X2011001). http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.pdf.

Statistics Canada. (2017a, August 2).

Statistics Canada. (2017b, August 2).

Statistics Canada. (2019a). Data Tables: Census of Population. Statistics Canada (Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016190). https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?TABID=2&Lang=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=1341679&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=110531&PRID=10&PTYPE=109445&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2017&THEME=120&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&D1=0&D2=0&D3=0&D4=0&D5=0&D6=0

Statistics Canada. (2019b). Diversity of the Black population in Canada: An overview. Ethnicity, Language and Immigration Thematic Series. Statistics Canada.  https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-657-x/89-657-x2019002-eng.htm

Sunahara, A., & Oikawa, M. (2011, January 31). Japanese CanadiansThe Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/japanese-canadians/.

Titley, B. (1983). W. M. Graham: Indian agent extraordinaire. Prairie Forum, 8(1), 25–41.

Walker, J. (1980). The history of Blacks in Canada: A study guide for teachers and students. Minister of State for Multiculturalism.

Weaver, S. (1981). Making Canadian Indian policy: The hidden agenda 1968-1970. University of Toronto Press.

Wortley, S., & Tanner, J. (2004). Racial profiling in Canada: Survey evidence from Toronto. The Canadian Review of Policing Research, 1(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230355866_2

Solutions to Section Quiz

1 D, | 2 C, | 3 D, | 4 D, | 5 B, | 6 D, | 7 B, | 8 C, | 9 C, | 10 B, | 11 C, | 12 D, | 13 B, | 14 A, | 15 D, | 16 B, | 17 A, | 18 C, | 19 D, [Return to quiz]

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Introduction to Sociology – 3rd Canadian Edition by William Little is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book