Chapter 20. Population, Urbanization, and the Environment

Chapter 20 Resources and Activities

Key Terms

Anthropocene: The current geologic era of the planet initiated by the impact of human activity on the biosphere.

appropriate technology: A technology suited and fit to its ecological and social context.

automobility: A self-perpetuating system encompassing actors, materials, technologies, policies and practices that make up and reinforce private vehicle usage.

bioregion: A geographical area that is determined not by political or administrative boundaries but by ecological systems, such as a watershed, a river estuary, a coastal environment, a mountain range or plain.

capital accumulation: The reinvestment of profit in order to increase private capital assets and future profits.

carrying capacity: How many people can live in a given area considering the amount of available resources.

climate change: Long-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity.

commons: Collective resources that humans share in common.

concentric zone model: A model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones.

cornucopian theory: Theory which asserts that human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources for a growing population.

corporate city: A city form based economically on corporate management and financial services.

deep ecology: An environmental social movement based on the principle that the eco-system and members of the natural world are not resources to be used because all beings have intrinsic value.

demographic transition theory: Theory that describes four stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development.

demography: The study of population dynamics.

dual city: Cities that are divided into wealthy, high-tech, information-based zones of urban development and poorer, run-down, marginalized zones of urban underdevelopment and informal economic activity.

ecological modernization theory: Theoretical framework that describes human pressure on environmental systems as temporary because, as society modernizes, the ecological rationality underpinning the need to protect the environment from the strains of human development will become evident, leading to necessary reforms, innovations and environmental sustainability.

edge city: Urban formations based on clusters of shopping malls, entertainment complexes, and office towers at major transportation intersections.

emigration: The movement of people out of an area to another place of permanent residence.

environmental inequality: The condition in which low-income and marginalized people are disproportionately likely to experience various environmental problems.

environmental racism: The unequal access to a clean environment and basic environmental resources based on racialized distinctions.

environmental sociology: The sociological subfield that addresses the relationship between humans and the environment.

environmental sustainability: The degree to which a human activity can be sustained without damaging or undermining basic ecological support systems.

extractivism: The accelerated extraction of natural resources to satisfy a global demand for minerals and energy with the idea that this sustains national economic growth.

exurbs: Communities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by residents of high socioeconomic status.

fantasy city: Cities that choose to transform themselves into Disneyland-like theme parks or sites of mega-events to draw international tourists.

fertility rate: A measure noting the actual number of children born.

gentrification: When upper- and middle-class residents renovate and live in properties in certain city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent.

global city: A unique development based on the new role of cities in the circuits of global information and global capital circulation and accumulation.

growth machine: Coalitions of politicians, real estate investors, corporations, property owners, urban planners, architects, sports teams, and cultural institutions, for example, who work together to intensify land usage, attract private capital to the city and lobby government for subsidies and tax breaks for investors.

growth rate: How much the population of a defined area grows or shrinks in a specific time period, calculated as the current population minus the initial population divided by the initial population.

human ecology: A functional perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment.

immigration: The movement of people into an area to take up permanent residence.

industrial city: A city in which the major business and employment activities revolve around manufacturing, building, and machining.

Malthusian theory: Theory which asserts that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventive checks (measures to reduce fertility).

megalopolis: A large urban corridor that encompasses several cities and their surrounding suburbs and exurbs.

metropolis: The area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs.

metropolitan way of life: A form of social life distinguished from rural life and produced by the effect of the external features of the metropolis (population size, density, anonymity, and diversity, for example) on the psyche or subjective experience of the urban dweller.

migration: The movement of people into and out of an area.

mortality rate: A measure of the number of people who die.

NIMBY: A “not in my back yard” movement or protest, describing the tendency of people to protest development when it impacts them directly.

petro-masculinity: An exaggerated expression of masculinity tied to a backlash against climate change discourse.

population composition: A snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates.

population pyramid: Graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex.

postmodern city: A city defined by its orientation to circuits of global consumption, the fragmentation of previously homogeneous cultures, and the emergence of multiple centres or cores.

sex ratio: The ratio of men to women in a given population.

slum city: The development on the outskirts of cities of unplanned shantytowns or squats with no access to clean water, sanitation, or other municipal services.

social ecology: A sociological model in which human communities, like biotic communities, are bound together by complex relations of competition for resources and mutual dependence.

sprawl: The uncontrolled growth of urban areas with a low population density, high dependence on automobiles, and poor planning.

suburbs: The communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute.

tragedy of the commons: The collective destruction of collective or shared resources as a product of individual cost/benefit decision making.

treadmill of production theory: Theoretical framework that describes human pressure on environmental systems as a product of capitalism, which prioritizes economic growth over social inequality and environmental protection.

urban sociology: The subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization.

urbanism: The way of life characteristic of cities and towns.

urbanization: The process of the formation of cities.

zero population growth: A theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration.

zones of transition: Transitional, economically deprived zones within a city, where there is a high rate of flux in population as different groups of people move in and out.

Section Summary

20.1 Demography and Population
Scholars understand demography, or the study of population dynamics, through various analyses. Factors that impact the growth rate of a population include birth rates, mortality rates, and migration, including immigration and emigration. Earth’s human population is growing and projected to reach over 10 billion by the end of the century, but growth is uneven between the global north and south. Malthusian, zero population growth, cornucopian theory, and demographic transition theories all help sociologists study demography. There are numerous potential outcomes of the growing population, and sociological perspectives vary on the potential effect of these increased numbers. The growth will pressure the carrying capacity of the already taxed planet and its natural resources.

20.2 Urbanization
Urban sociology studies the distinctive qualities of cities. Once a geographically concentrated population has reached approximately 100,000 people, it typically behaves like a city. Urbanization in North America has passed through many urban forms from the development of industrial cities, to corporate cities, postmodern cities, exurbs and suburbs, and megalopolises. The growth in global urbanization in the 20th and 21st centuries is following the blueprint of North American cities, but is occurring much more quickly and at larger scales, especially in peripheral and semi-peripheral countries. Sociological explanations for the nature of urban growth and transformation range from structural functionalism and social ecology, to critical sociology and “growth machines,” to interpretive sociology and the metropolitan way of life.

20.3 The Environment and Society
Environmental sociology studies how humans interact with their environments. Two key concepts in environmental sociology are the concepts of carrying capacity and the tragedy of the commons, both of which have been growing in significance as societies cope with extreme weather patterns and concerns over climate change. A central dynamic is the conflict between environmental sustainability and strategies of capital accumulation focused on extractivism. While everyone is at risk from pollution and climate change, poor and disadvantaged communities and peripheral nations bear a greater burden of these social-ecological issues.


Quiz: Population, Urbanization, and the Environment

20.1 Demography and Population

  1. The population of the planet is projected to peak at                        in the 2080s?
    1. 10.4 billion
    2. 8 billion
    3. 25 billion
    4. 9.7 billion
  2. Which of the following issues is framed as a functionalist analysis?
    1. The way that fertility rates are the product of individual choices
    2. The way that societies adapt to ecological conditions
    3. The way racism and homophobia impact the population composition of rural communities
    4. The way that humans interact with environmental resources on a daily basis
  3. What does carrying capacity refer to?
    1. The ability of a community to absorb and house new immigrants
    2. The amount of water a single person can carry on their head
    3. The amount of life that can be supported sustainably in a particular environment
    4. The amount of weight that urban centres can bear if vertical growth is mandated
  4. What three factors did Malthus believe would limit human population?
    1. Nasty, brutish and short
    2. Natural cycles, maximum biological lifespan, and agricultural productivity
    3. Birth control, family planning, female education
    4. War, famine, and disease
  5. What does cornucopian theory state?
    1. That human ingenuity will solve any issues that overpopulation creates
    2. That new diseases will always keep populations stable
    3. That Earth will naturally provide enough for whatever number of humans exist
    4. That the greatest risk is population reduction, not population growth

20.2 Urbanization

  1. What, in Burgess’s concentric zone model, is Zone C likely to house?
    1. The city’s industrial factory zone
    2. Railyards, ports and parking lots
    3. Formerly wealthy homes split into cheap apartments
    4. Established ethnic enclaves
  2. What are the historical prerequisites for the development of a city?
    1. Good environment with water and a favourable climate
    2. Agricultural surpluses
    3. Strong social organization to ensure social stability and a stable economy.
    4. All of the above
  3. To what aspect of contemporary urban development does the term “fantasy city” refer?
    1. Red-light districts
    2. Land speculation and value of real estate decoupled from local labour markets
    3. The recreational zones of cities constructed as theme parks for international tourists
    4. A megalopolis
  4. What led to the creation of the exurbs?
    1. Urban sprawl and crowds moving into the suburbs
    2. The high cost of suburban living
    3. Inner-city resettlement by elites
    4. The voluntary simplicity movement
  5. How are the suburbs of Paris different from those of most Canadian cities?
    1. They are connected by public transportation.
    2. There are more industrial and business opportunities there.
    3. They are synonymous with housing projects and urban poor.
    4. They are less densely populated.
  6. What mental quality is common in Simmel’s “metropolitan way of life”?
    1. Crowding
    2. Blasé attitude
    3. Emotionality
    4. All of the above
  7. What does human ecology theory address?
    1. The relationship between humans and their natural and built environments
    2. The inhabitation of cities by opportunistic wild species like rats, racoons annd coyotes
    3. Global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions
    4. The relationship between humans and other species
  8. What is the focus of the critical sociological study of urbanization?
    1. Growth machines
    2. Land speculation and value of real estate decoupled from local labour markets
    3. NIMBY and other urban social movements
    4. All of the above

20.3 The Environment and Society

  1. To what does the “commons” in the “tragedy of the commons” refer?
    1. The commonly owned livestock in the early communal soviets
    2. The aggregated private greenspaces in a city
    3. The common grazing lands in pre-industrial England
    4. The common market that sets global prices for natural resources
  2. Climate scientists have shown human induced climate change has already increased average global temperatures by                        degrees and without sufficient emissions reductions there is a 50% chance that                        degrees of global warming will be reached or passed by 2040.
    1. 3.3 C; 5.7 C
    2. 0.4 C; 1.1 C
    3. 1.1 C; 5.7 C
    4. 1.1 C; 1.5 C
  3. The difference between the treadmill of production theory and ecological modernization theory on the causes of climate change is:
    1. Treadmill theory focuses on habitual routines of social life whereas ecological modernization focuses on environmental engineering strategies
    2. Treadmill theory focuses on pollution and greenhouse gas issues whereas ecological modernization focuses on environmental mitigation strategies
    3. Treadmill theory focuses on examining the causes and impacts of climate change whereas ecological modernization focuses on exploring equitable mitigation, adaptation and just transition strategies
    4. Treadmill theory focuses on the unsustainable logic of capital accumulation whereas ecological modernization focuses on the idea that continued development and sustainability can be balanced
  4. Automobility is a term that describes:
    1. The social policies and practices that reinforce private vehicle usage
    2. The increasing impact of transportation technologies on human movement
    3. An exaggerated expression of masculinity tied to a backlash against climate change discourse
    4. Policies to lower carbon emissions
  5. The mercury contamination in Grassy Narrows that poisoned many people in the Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation and Wabaseemoong First Nation communities in the 1960s and 1970s is best described as an example of:
    1. Environmental inequality
    2. Environmental racism
    3. The human exemptionalist paradigm
    4. Extractivism

[Quiz answers at end of chapter]

Short Answer

20.1 Demography and Population

  1. Do some additional research on the effects of public policy on population. What have been some of the effects of China’s one-child policy (1979-2015) that limited the number of children a family can have? Quebec on the other hand has been trying to increase fertility rates. What have been the effects of Quebec’s pronatal and family assistance policies? Are these types of policy interventions a good idea?
  2. Immigration policy in Canada has been focused on addressing economic needs for labour. Why do you think Canada has one of the highest immigration rates among G7 countries? What is the effect of relying on immigration to satisfy labour needs?
  3. Look at trends in birth rates from Stage 4 countries (like those in Europe) versus those from Stage 2 countries (like the Democratic Republic of Congo). How does the population makeup impact the political climate, issues and economics of the different countries? What factors lead to a sex ratio in which men outnumber women? What factors lead to higher fertility rates?

20.2 Urbanization

  1. What are the differences between the suburbs and the exurbs? Do these exist in the city you live in or in a city you are familiar with? Are they distinct? Who is most likely to live in each?
  2. Most major cities in core countries are to some degree postmodern and decentred. What elements of edge city, dual city and/or fantasy city characterize a city you are familiar with? In what sense is life in this cities still centered on a downtown core, and in what sense is it not?
  3. Considering the concentric zone model, does it apply to the city you grew up in or are familiar with? If you grew up in a city, what type of zone were you raised in? Is this the same or different from that of earlier generations in your family? If you live in a city, what type of zone do you reside in now? Do you find that people from one zone stereotype those from another? If so, how?
  4. Close your eyes and take a second to think about some recent situation in which you were in a city. Take a second to think about what was specifically “city-ish” about that situation. On a piece of paper write about it without stopping to think for two minutes. Look at what you’ve written and circle two or three things that surprise you or interest you. On a fresh sheet of paper, use these to compose an opening sentence or two about what is distictive about city life. How does what you have selected compare to Simmel’s description of the metropolitan way of life?

20.3 The Environment and Society

  1. What steps need to be taken to address climate change?
  2. Can you think of a modern example of the tragedy of the commons, where public use without accountability has created a negative outcome?
  3. Canadian politics often seems divided over questions of environmental sustainability and capital accumulation. Describe how the sociological imagination can provide a useful, evidence based framework for addressing these issues.

Further Research

20.1 Demography and Population

Research data on global population through the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Population Division) World Population Prospects databases.

20.2 Urbanization

Check out Robert Neuwirth’s work on Shadow Cities to explore the world’s squatter sites where a billion people now make their homes. He describes them as thriving centers of ingenuity and innovation.

Ellen Dunham-Jones discusses the fate of underperforming suburbs and shares a vision of dying malls rehabilitated, dead “big box” stores re-inhabited, and endless parking lots transformed into thriving wetlands.

Ed Soja’s exploration of Los Angeles describes postmodern urbanism as a new type of urban form. Is Soja’s analysis of Los Angeles and the Bonaventure Hotel still useful for urban sociologists today?

20.3 The Environment and Society

Interested in learning more about the latest research in the field of human ecology? Visit the Society for Human Ecology website to discover what’s emerging in this field.

What is your carbon footprint? Find out using the carbon footprint calculator.

Find out more about the deep ecology movement through The Trumpeter, an environmental humanities journal dedicated to the development of an ecosophy, or wisdom born of ecological understanding and insight.


20.0 Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment

Albert, A. (2018, March 26). Oneida Nation of the Thames says Toronto’s landfill is not a good neighbour. CBC News.

Alberta Energy and Minerals, Oil Sands, Coal and Mineral Operations. (2023). Oil sands facts and statistics. Government of Alberta.

Beck, U. (1996). World Risk Society as cosmopolitan society? Ecological questions in a framework of manufactured uncertainties. Theory, Culture & Society, 13(4), 1–32.

Crutzen, P. (2002, Jan. 3). Geology of mankind: The anthropocene. Nature, 415, 23.

Droitsch, D. & Simieritsch, T. (2010, September). Canadian aboriginal concerns with oil sands: A compilation of key issues, resolutions and legal activities. [PDF] Pembina Institute.

Gosselin, P., Hrudey, S. E., Naeth, M. A., Plourde, A., Therrien. R., Van der Kraak, G., & Xu, Z. (2010, December). Environmental and health impacts of Canada’s oil sands industry. [PDF] Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel report. Ottawa, ON.

Grant, J., Angen E., & Dyer, S. (2013, June). Forecasting the impacts of oilsands expansion: Measuring the land disturbance, air quality, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and tailings production associated with each barrel of bitumen production. [PDF] June 2013 report. The Pembina Institute and The Pembina Foundation, Drayton Valley, AB.

Hasham, A. (2013). Landfill or incinerator: What’s the future of Toronto’s trash? Toronto Star.

Hussey, I., Pineault, É., Jackson E. & Cake, S. (2021). Boom, bust, and consolidation: Corporate restructuring in the Alberta oil sands. In Carroll, W. (Ed.), Regime of obstruction : How corporate power blocks energy democracy (pp. 35–59). AU Press.

Lee, M. (2021). Dangerous distractions: Canada’s carbon emissions and the pathway to net zero [PDF]. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

Moore, J. (2016). Introduction: Anthropocene or capitalocene? Nature, history, and the crisis of capitalism. In Moore, P. (Ed.), Anthropocene or Capitalocene: Nature, History and the
Crisis of Capitalism (pp. 1–11). PM Press.

Parsons, T., & Shils, E. (Eds.). (1961). Theories of society: Foundations of modern sociological theory. Free Press.

Statistics Canada. (2023). Census profile. 2021 Census of Population. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2021001.

United Nations Population Fund. (2023). State of world population report 2023: 8 billion lives, infinite possibilities, the case for rights and choices [PDF].

20.1 Demography and Population
Caldwell, J. C. & Caldwell, B. K., Caldwell, P., McDonald, P.F., & Schindlmayr, T. (2006). Demographic Transition Theory. Springer.

CIA. (2023). The world factbook.

Ehrlich, P. R. (1968). The population bomb. Ballantine.

Malthus, T. R. (1965/1798). An essay on population. Augustus Kelley.

Simon, J. L. (1981). The ultimate resource. Princeton University Press.

StatsCan Plus. (2022, May 16). Fewer babies born as Canada’s fertility rate hits a record low in 2020. Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada. (2023, March 22). Canada’s population estimates: Record-high population growth in 2022. Statistics Canada: The Daily.

United Nations. (2022). World population prospects 2022: Summary of results [PDF]. Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division. UN DESA/POP/2022/TR/NO. 3.

United Nations Population Fund. (2008). Linking population, poverty, and Development [PDF].

United Nations Population Fund. (2023). State of world population report 2023: 8 billion lives, infinite possibilities, the case for rights and choices [PDF].

USAID. (2010). Family planning: The world at 7 billion.

20.2 Urbanization

Belshaw, J. (2015). Canadian History: Pre-Confederation. BCcampus.

BBC. (2005, November 14). Timeline: French riots—A chronology of key events.

Burgess, E. (1925). The growth of the city. In Park, R. & E. Burgess (Eds.), The City (pp. 47–62). University of Chicago Press.

Caulfield, J. (1994). City form and everyday life: Toronto’s gentrification and critical social practice. University of Toronto Press.

Chandler, T. & Fox, G. (1974). 3000 years of urban history. Academic Press.

Chrisafis, A. (2015, Oct 22). “Nothing’s changed”: 10 years after French riots, banlieues remain in crisis. The Guardian.

Davis, M. (1990). City of quartz: Excavating the future in Los Angeles. Verso.

Davis, M. (2006). Planet of slums. Verso.

Employment and Social Development Canada. (2014). Canadians in Context – Geographic Distribution. Indicators of Well-being in Canada.

Feagin, J., & Parker, R. (1990). Building American cities: The urban real estate game (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.

France24. (2010). Sarkozy promises “war without mercy” for Paris suburbs. France24.

Hannigan, J. (1998). Fantasy city: Pleasure and profit in the postmodern metropolis. Routledge.

Hemingway, A. (2018). Land wealth is a massive source of inequality in BC. Policy Note.

Keil, R. & Kipfer, S. (2003). The urban experience and globalization. In Clement, W. and L. Vosko (Eds.), Changing Canada: Political economy as transformation. McGill-Queen’s Press.

Lee, M. (2016). Getting serious about affordable housing: Towards a plan for metro Vancouver [PDF]. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

Lefebvre, I. (2022, Jun. 28). Life in France’s Banlieues: Overview and battle plan. Institut Montaigne.

Ley, D. (2021). A regional growth ecology, a great wall of capital and a metropolitan housing market. Urban Studies, 58(2), 297–315.

Logan, J. & Molotch, H. (1987). Urban fortunes: The political economy of place. University of California Press.

Magnusson, W. (2011). Politics of urbanism: Seeing like a city. Taylor and Francis.

Old Bailey Proceedings Online. (2011). A population history of London.

Park, R. (1915). The city: Suggestions for investigations of human behavior in the city. American Journal of Sociology, 20, 577–612.

Park, R. (1936). Human ecology. American Journal of Sociology, 42, 1–15.

Remax. (2020). 2020 Fall Market Outlook Report. Re/Max.*1c306h1*_ga*MjEwNTIxNDA1Ny4xNjgzNjY0Njk0*_ga_1K2F9Z3PBF*MTY4MzY2NDY5NC4xLjEuMTY4MzY2NDg4Mi42MC4wLjA

Rozworski, M. (2019). The roots of our housing crisis: Austerity, debt and extreme speculation. Policy Note.

Sassen, S. (2001). The global city: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press.

Sassen, S. (2005). The global city: Introducing a concept. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 11(2), 27–43.

Sciolino, E., & Bernand, A. (2006). Anger festering in French areas scarred in riots. New York Times.

Simmel, G. (1971). The metropolis and mental Life. In D. Levine (Ed.), On individuality and social forms. University of Chicago Press. (Originally published in 1903.)

Sjoberg, G. (1965). The preindustrial city: Past and present. Free Press.

Statistics Canada. (2011, February 4). Population, urban and rural, by province and territory. Statistics Canada Summary Tables.

Statistics Canada. (2022, Feb. 9). Canada’s large urban centres continue to grow and spread. Statistics Canada: The Daily.

Statistics Canada. (2022, July 13). Pandemic benefits cushion losses for low income earners and narrow income inequality – after-tax income grows across Canada except in Alberta and Newfoundland and Labrador. Statistics Canada: The Daily.

Statistics Canada. (2023a, Mar 22). Canada’s population estimates: Record-high population growth in 2022. Statistics Canada: The Daily.

Statistics Canada. (2023b, June 15). 40 million strong: Canada reaches a new population milestone. StatsCan Plus.

Stelter, G. (1986). Power and the place in urban history. In G. Stelter and A. Artibise, (Eds.), Power and place: Canadian urban development in the North American context. University of British Columbia Press.

United Nations. (2008). World urbanization prospects: The 2007 revision [PDF]. United Nations.

United Nations. (2012). World urbanization prospects: The 2011 revision. [PDF]. United Nations.

20.3 The Environment and Society

Agathangelou, A. and Ling, L. (2004). Power, borders, security, wealth: Lessons of violence and desire from September 11. International Studies Quarterly, 48(3), 517–538.

Bell, M. (2004). An Invitation to Environmental Sociology. Pine Forge Press.

Boehm, S. and Schumer, C. (2023, Mar 20). 10 big findings from the 2023 IPCC Report on Climate Change. World Resources Institute.

Bubbers, M. (2019, Aug. 2). How much do cars really pollute? Globe and Mail.

Buttel, F. (1994) Environment and society: The enduring conflict by A. Schnaiberg and K. Gould [Review]. Contemporary Sociology. 23(4), 509–510.

Burke, A. et al. (2016). Planet politics: A manifesto from the end of IR. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 44(3), 499–523.

Caniglia, B., Brulle, R., and Szasz, A. (2015, August). Chapter 8. Civil society, social movements, and climate change. In Dunlap, R. and R. Brulle (Eds.), Climate Change and Society (pp. 235–268). Oxford University Press.

Catton Jr, W. and Dunlap, R. (1978). Environmental sociology: A new paradigm. The American Sociologist, 13(1),41–49.

Catton Jr, W. and Dunlap, R. (1980). A new ecological paradigm for post-exuberant sociology. American Behavioral Scientist, 24(1), 15–47.

Cox, S. (1985). No tragedy of the commons. Environmental Ethics, 7(1), 49–61. 

Dagget, C. (2018). Petro-masculinity: Fossil fuels and authoritarian desire. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 47(1), 25–44.

Davis, S., and Boundy, R. (2020). Transportation energy data book: Edition 38 [PDF]. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Dietz, T., Gardner, G., Gilligan, J., Stern, P., Vandendergh, M. (2009). Household actions can provide a behavioural wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,106(44), 18452–18456.

Dorsch, M. (2014, January). Economic development and determinants of environmental concern. Social Science Quarterly, 95(4), 960–977.

Drengson, A. (1983). Shifting paradigms: From technocrat to planetary person. LightStar Press.

Drengson, A. (1995). The practice of technology. Suny Press.

Dunlap, R., and Brulle, R. (2015). Climate change and society: Sociological perspectives. Oxford University Press.

Dunlap, R., Gallup Jr., G., Gallup, A. (1993). Of global concern: Results of the health of the planet survey. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 35, 7–39.

Dunlap, R. and A. McCright. (2015). The denial countermovement. In Dunlap, R. and R. Brulle (Eds.), Climate change and society: Sociological perspectives (pp. 300–332). Oxford University Press.

Edwards, M. and Leonard, D. (2022, September). Effects of large vehicles on pedestrian and pedalcyclist injury severity. Journal of Safety Research, 82, 275–282.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2019). Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2017 [PDF]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Gallup, A., and Newport, F. (2010). The Gallup poll: Public opinion 2009. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Gardner, G. and Stern, P. (2008). The short list: The most effective actions U.S. households can take to curb climate change. Environment: Science and policy for sustainable development, 50(5), 12–15.

Goldman, M. (2002). Globalization and environmental reform: The ecological modernization of the global economy by A. Mol [Review]. Contemporary Sociology, 31(6), 727–728.

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons, Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248.

Harlan, S., Pellow, D., Roberts, J., Bell, S., Holt, W., and Nagel, J. (2015). Climate justice and inequality. In Dunlap, R. and R. Brulle (Eds.), Climate Change and Society (pp. 127–163). Oxford University Press.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2018). Summary for policymakers. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis [PDF]. Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. (2023). Synthesis report of the IPCC sixth assessment report (AR6): Longer report [PDF]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Islam, M. (2013). Development, power and the environment: Neoliberal paradox in the age of vulnerability. Routledge.

Islam, M. and Kieu, E. (2021). Sociological perspectives on climate change and society: A review. Climate, 9(7),

Jorgenson, A., Dick, C. and Shandra, J. (2011 January 6). World economy, world society, and environmental harms in less-developed countries. Sociological Inquiry, 81(1), 53–87.

Kais, S. and Islam, M. (2018). Impacts of and resilience to climate change at the bottom of the shrimp commodity chain in Bangladesh: A preliminary investigation. Aquaculture, 493, 406–415.

Kvaløy, B., Finseraas, H., Listhaug, O. (2012). The publics’ concern for global warming: A cross-national study of 47 countries. Journal of Peace Research, 49(1), 11–22.

Lynas, M., Houlton, B. and Perry, S. (2021). Greater than 99% consensus on human caused climate change in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Environmental Research Letters,16(11), 114005.

Mearns, R. and Norton, A. (Eds.). (2009). Social dimensions of climate change: Equity and vulnerability in a warming world [PDF]. The World Bank.

Michaels, D., and Jones, M. (2005). Doubt is their product. Scientific American, 292(6), 96–101.

Mol, A. (1995). The refinement of production: Ecological modernization theory and the chemical industry. Van Arkel.

Naess, A. (1995). Self realization: An ecological approach to being in the world. In Drengson, A. and Y. Inoue (Eds.), The deep ecology movement: An introductory anthology. North Atlantic Books. (Originally published in 1984.)

Naess, A. and Sessions, G. (1995). Platform principles of the deep ecology movement. In Drengson, A. and Y. Inoue (Eds.), The deep ecology movement: An introductory anthology. North Atlantic Books. (Originally published in 1984.)

Natural Resources Canada. (2016). Why reduce our fuel use? Natural Resources Canada: Welcome to the idle-free zone.

Norgaard, K. (2018). The sociological imagination in a time of climate change. Global and Planetary Change,163, 171–176.

O’Donnell, J. (2023). Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC): Synthesis report. Actuaries Digital.

Oreskes, N. and Conway, E. (2010). Merchants of doubt. Bloomsbury Press.

Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge University Press. 

Pellow, D. (2009). The state and policy: Imperialism, exclusion and ecological violence as state policy. In Gould, K. and T. Lewis (Eds.), Twenty lessons in environmental sociology (pp. 47–58). Oxford University Press.

Roberts, T. (2009). Climate change: Why the old approaches aren’t working. In Lewis, T. and K. Gould (Eds.), Twenty lessons in environmental sociology (pp. 191–208). Oxford University Press.

Roberts, J., and Toffolon-Weiss, M. (2001). Chronicles from the environmental justice frontline. Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, J. and Parks, B. (2006). A climate of injustice: Global inequality, north-south politics, and climate policy. MIT Press.

Schnaiberg, A. (1980). The environment: From surplus to scarcity. Oxford University Press.

Snyder, G. (1990). The practice of the wild. North Point Press.

Snyder, G. (1995). Four changes, with a postscript. A place in space: Ethics, aesthetics and watersheds (pp. 32–46). Counterpoint Press.

Sovacool, B. and Axsen, J. (2018). Functional, symbolic and societal frames for automobility: Implications for sustainability transitions. Transportation research part A: Policy and practice, 118, 730–746.

Veblen, T. (1994). The theory of the leisure class. Dover. (Original work published 1899.)

Vermes, J. (2023, Apr 30). Pickups are going electric and truck fans are buying in. Will it reduce carbon emissions? CBC: The Sunday magazine.

Walker, G. (2012). Environmental justice: Concepts, evidence, and politics. Routledge.

World Value Survey. (2021). Welcome to World Values Survey Site.

Solutions to Section Quiz

1 A, | 2 B, | 3 C, | 4 D, | 5 A, | 6 C, | 7 D, | 8 C, | 9 A, | 10 C, | 11 B, | 12 A, | 13 D, | 14 C, | 15 D, | 16 D, | 17 A, | 18 B, [Return to Quiz]


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Introduction to Sociology – 3rd Canadian Edition Copyright © 2023 by William Little is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book