Chapter 5 Main Ideas
An atom is made up of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and electrons arranged in energy shells around the nucleus. The first shell holds two electrons, and outer shells hold more. Atoms strive to have eight electrons in their outermost shell (or two for H and He). Atoms gain, lose, or share electrons to achieve this. In so doing they become either positively charged cations (if they lose electrons) or negatively charged anions (if they gain them).
5.2 Bonding and Lattices
The main types of bonding in minerals are ionic bonding (electrons transferred) and covalent bonding (electrons shared). Some minerals have metallic bonding or weak Van der Waals forces. Minerals form in three-dimensional lattices. The configuration of the lattices and the type of bonding within help determine mineral properties.
5.3 Mineral Groups
Minerals are grouped according to the anion part of their formula. Some common types are: oxides, sulphides, sulphates, halides, carbonates, phosphates, silicates, and native minerals.
5.4 Silicate Minerals
Silicate minerals are the most common minerals in Earth’s crust and mantle. They all have silica tetrahedra (four oxygens surrounding a single silicon atom) arranged in different structures (chains, sheets, etc).
Do You Know the Common Silicate Minerals?
The most common rock-building minerals come up frequently in this textbook. Now is a good time to make sure you know what they are.
5.5 How Minerals Form
Most minerals in the crust form from the cooling and crystallization of magma. Some form from hot water solutions, during metamorphism or weathering, or through organic processes. More rarely, minerals precipitate directly from a gas, such as at a volcanic vent.
5.6 Mineral Properties
Some of the important properties for mineral identification include hardness, cleavage/fracture, density, lustre, colour, and streak colour.
Key Term Check
What key term from Chapter 5 is each card describing? Turn the card to check your answer.