Versioning History

Record of Changes

This page provides a record of edits and changes made to this book since its initial publication in the BC Open Textbook Collection. Whenever edits or updates are made, we make the required changes in the text and provide a record and description of those changes here. If the change is minor, the version number increases by 0.1. However, if the edits involve substantial updates, the version number goes up to the next full number. The files on our website always reflect the most recent version, including the Print on Demand copy.

If you find an error in this book, please fill out the Report an Open Textbook Error form. We will contact the author, make the necessary changes, and replace all file types as soon as possible. Once we receive the updated files, this Versioning History page will be updated to reflect the edits made.

 Version Date Change Details
1.0 November 24, 2015 Book added to the B.C. Open Textbook Collection.
1.1 May 16, 2018 Several broken video links were removed and replaced with text suggesting the student watch a video or demonstration for the cited skill. See “Reported Errors” below.
1.2 November 16, 2018 Made correction to section 7.4. Replaced “NEVER give an IM injection in the dorsogluteal muscle. If a needle hits the sciatic nerve, the patient may experience partial or permanent paralysis of the leg.”


“The dorsogluteal site should be avoided for intramuscular injections. If a needle hits the sciatic nerve, the patient may experience partial or permanent paralysis of the leg.”

1.3 December 14, 2018 Made correction to section 6.4 and set table widths to 100%. Replaced “The rectal route (see Figure 6.1) is not as reliable in absorption and distribution as oral and parenteral routes. The rectal route is, however, relatively safe because there is less potential for adverse effects (Perry et al., 2014).”


“Drugs administered PR have a faster action than via the oral route and a higher bio-availability – that is, the amount of effective drug that is available is greater as it has not been influenced by upper gastrointestinal tract digestive processes. Rectal absorption results in more of the drug reaching the systemic circulation with less alteration on route. As well as being a more effective route for delivering medication, rectal administration also reduces side-effects of some drugs, such as gastric irritation, nausea and vomiting” (Lowry, 2016, para 2).”

Pages numbers in PDF will change.

1.4 June 5, 2019 Updated the book’s theme The styles of this book have been updated, which may affect the page numbers of the PDF and print copy.

Reported Errors

May 16, 2018: Several broken video links have been identified in this book. Plans are in place to create openly-licensed videos for each of the affected topics. It is anticipated that this effort will take one to three years.

Please contact if you know of any existing openly-licensed video on any of the below topics, or are interested in creating or collaborating on the creation of these videos. Each video must meet the quality and educational standards required by a post-secondary nursing program.

  • how to perform hand hygiene using the traditional hand scrub method
  • how to perform surgical hand scrub using an alcohol-based hand rub method
  • how to don surgical attire
  • how to apply a sterile gown independently
  • how to apply sterile gloves using the closed gloving method
  • how to apply sterile gloves using the assisted gloving technique
  • how to transfer a patient from lying to sitting to standing
  • ambulation with or without a gait belt
  • ambulation with a cane
  • ambulation with crutches
  • ambulation with a walker
  • how to administer intradermal injections
  • how to administer subcutaneous (SC) injections
  • how to administer IM (deltoid) injections
  • how to administer IM (ventrogluteal) injections
  • how to administer IM (vastus lateralis) injections
  • how to administer an IV piggyback medication
  • how to administer large-volume intravenous medication
  • how to prime IV tubing
  • how to change IV solution
  • how to convert a running IV to a saline lock
  • how to discontinue an IV (removal of a peripheral IV)
  • how to transfuse blood or blood products
  • how to insert an NG tube
  • how to remove an NG tube
  • how to suction a tracheotomy using sterile technique
  • inline suctioning using clean technique
  • how to change tracheostomy ties
  • evidence-based research on ostomy care
  • how to change an ostomy pouch
  • how to change an urostomy


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care by British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book