59 Twelfth Night: Study Guide
To paraphrase the French critic and philosopher Henri Bergson, comedy depicts the triumph of the vital characters (those on the side of life, fertility) over mechanical characters (those given to rote, mechanical, predictable behaviour). Comedy is concerned with the social norm. Aberrant individualism must be checked, and all must be brought back within the social fold. Usually romantic comedies end in marriage(s). One etymology of comedy is Greek Komoidia (revel song). The title, Twelfth Night (January 5), is an allusion to an important feast day of the Christian calendar, namely the eve of the 12th day after Xmas, or Feast of the Epiphany, (January 6), which is a time of much merrymaking. This feast derives from the ancient Roman Saturnalia, held at the same season. The play was probably so named because it was written for performance at the Twelfth Night revels (ca. 1600–1601). Typically at Saturnalia, a prototype of later English Christmas feasts or celebrations, a Lord of Misrule presided over the Festus Fatuorum (Feast of Fools).
Of course, the Christian calendar marks Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday) or Carnival (Latin carne + vale). Think of some modern English words with the root carn (carnal, incarnation) and valedictory (a saying good-bye). So Carnival = farewell to the flesh, a time of excess, which is followed by Lent. As Feste says, “pleasure will be paid, one time or another.” (TN 2.4.957)
Its origins aside, the spirit of comedy celebrates life and the flesh. In romantic comedy, the young lovers encounter impediments to their eventual marriage and eventual reproduction. Sometimes the impediments are external (blocking parents or members of the older generation), but often the impediment is internal (self-indulgence or pride). The typical comic plot begins with exposition, moves to complication, then to release or liberation.
The subtitle is significant, too: “What You Will.” Look up the word “will” in the Oxford English Dictionalry or any other good dictionary. (One suggested meaning is “To desire, wish for, want.”) It also had the sense of “to get lost, go astray.” Perhaps this obsolete meaning is relevant to theme.
The play’s main plot (the love plot: Orsino-Viola-Olivia-Sebastian) and the subplot (the revellers’ gulling of Malvolio) intersect thematically around the theme of pride or self-indulgence. Most of the characters must have their self-indulgence removed. Which characters are self-indulgent?
Self-indulgent characters in the main plot
I would suggest that Orsino is self-indulgent. He confuses wallowing in conventional attitudes of love with the real thing. He confuses sentimentality and imaginary love with the real thing. Next, Olivia is guilty of indulgently playing the chaste, scornful lady, one who abjures the sight of men for seven years. Thus, she tries too hard to show her own love for a dead brother, all the while perversely contradicting her own loving nature. Unlike Orsino, however, she does not adhere too long to the role she plays (scornful mistress of Petrarchan convention). Instead, she follows her natural, spontaneous loving tendency as Cesario. Neither Viola nor Feste is self-indulgent. Both observe others, and Viola is often selfless.
Self-indulgent characters in subplot
First: Sir Toby Belch. He insists on play, and like the eternal child, he refuses to deal with time and responsibility. He insists on ignoring the clock (“Not to be abed after midnight is to be up betimes” [early] (TN 2.3.701)), and staying outside time, insisting on holiday. His names both suggest drink—Toby jug and belching.
Second: Andrew Aguecheek. He is a fool, who, like Absalom in Chaucer’s “Miller’s Tale,” deludes himself that he could be worthy of a young, lusty, quick-witted woman. His lank hair and sallow complexion (ague is a flu-like disease) suggest the opposite of fertility. Belch bilks him shamelessly, perpetuating the laughable idea that Aguecheek is a worthy suitor (see especially the vulgar joke at TN 1.3.214).
Third, Malvolio (Mal and Voglio—Ital. “I wish”—suggest ill-will and bad volition. Contrast to Benvolio, the good-hearted friend of Romeo in Romeo and Juliet). Malvolio’s will is indeed diseased. He is malevolent. Like Aguecheek, he indulgently thinks himself worthy of Olivia. A thoroughgoing materialist, he is only interested in Olivia’s status and wealth. One aspect of Shakespeare’s satire on Puritanism is Malvolio’s social climbing and extreme interest in increasing his wealth. If Aguecheek woos Olivia in part to try to convince himself of his own virility, Malvolio woos her chiefly to rise in station and wealth. See his daydream about the servant who married into the nobility, i.e., a yeoman of the wardrobe married the Lady Strachy (TN 2.5.1055).
Act 1 (Illyria, The Duke’s Palace)
Duke Orsino’s first speech introduces the motif of excess, metaphorically suggested by a reference to overeating. He suggests that his love for Olivia is all-consuming. Pay close attention to Orsino’s insistence on “fancy” or imagination. Fancy means “love” [verb: to fancy; noun “fancy,” love] but also “to imagine.” He then compares himself to the mythological Actaeon, a hunter who, after seeing Diana bathing, was transformed into a stag (hart) and torn to pieces—an emblem of intemperance.
What key fact do we discover about Olivia, object of Orsino’s unrequited love (TN 1.1.25–34) in the first reference to her? The duke’s reply is important: affections (TN 1.1.42) are emotions. What kind of love does Orsino wish for from Olivia? In Renaissance psychology, the liver was held to be the seat of sexual passion, the brain, the seat of reason, and the heart, emotion.
Act 1, Scene 2 (Illyria)
Viola, shipwrecked, finds herself in Illyria. The captain who rescued her gives her hope that Sebastian, her brother, might also not have drowned. The captain, a native of these parts, offers to be her guide. He tells her of the noble duke (Orsino) who governs the area and tells of Olivia’s vow to forego suitors for seven years in honour of her dead brother.
Why do you think Viola decides to serve Olivia at this point? Why does she adopt the disguise of a eunuch?
What does Viola mean, “To time I will commit” (TN 1.2.112)?
Notice that Viola’s name is a virtual anagram of Olivia. They have many similarities; for example, both are noble born, and both have seemingly lost brothers. What is their key difference in attitudes to love? It’s too early to tell, but keep this question in mind.
Act 1, Scene 3
Toby is the Lord of Misrule figure, and he believes that “care is an enemy to life.” Toby is anything but serious (and so, is Malvolio’s opposite). Toby stands for holiday, whereas Malvolio seemingly stands for work. Toby loves humour; Malvolio is humourless. Of the seven deadly sins, foremost in Toby are gluttony, sloth, and lechery; Malvolio’s besetting sins are pride, avarice, and envy, with a touch of wrath (see TN 5.1.2549).
Notice that Aguecheek is a “foolish knight”; he is Sir Andrew Aguecheek. (Look up the term “Merry Andrew” in a good dictionary. Is his first name appropriate? Is his surname apt? Explain.)
What is Toby’s purpose in introducing Sir Andrew to his niece’s household? (TN 1.140). Later, pay close attention to Toby’s “She’ll (i.e., Olivia) none o’ the Count…” (TN 1.3.219). What do you make of Toby’s lines here? One aspect of Aguecheek’s character might seem out of place: see TN 1.3.147. Now look up “roaring boy.”
Link this aspect of Aguecheek’s character to the duelling scene (TN 3.4 and especially 4.1). Notice that Aguecheek is being proudly self-indulgent in that he pretends to be what he is not: a linguist, a macho-man/swordsman, dueller, a good dancer, etc. This trait heightens the appearance vs. reality theme.
Act 1, Scene 4
Note that Viola has now adopted the disguise of Cesario (a eunuch). How long has Cesario/Viola been at the duke Orsino’s court? How does Orsino treat Cesario? Given the length of time Orsino has known Cesario, what does this tell you about Orsino? By the way, if you were madly in love with someone, would you send an intermediary to do your wooing for you? Further, what conventional aspect of the duke’s role-playing personality is heightened in lines 288–289?
What does Viola/Cesario say in the scene’s last line (TN l.293–294) that complicates the plot?
Act 1, Scene 5
Here Feste, the Fool or jester, is introduced. Notice his name and its connotations. Notice that, as usual, Maria (Olivia’s lady-in-waiting, more than a maid) holds her own in the verbal play with Feste. With Olivia, his employer, Feste jokes his way out of trouble for his recent unexcused absence. How does he prove Olivia a fool? Like Toby, Feste feels that Olivia’s mourning is excessive.
What aspect of Malvolio’s character is immediately apparent in his discussion of the Fool? Notice Olivia’s reproach: “O, you are sick of self-love, Malvolio” (TN 1.5.383). He is certainly hostile to comic fooling, ever the serious-minded man. He wants to appear the wise counsellor and frequently “reproves” or scolds.
During Viola/Cesario’s first encounter with Olivia, notice that Olivia pointedly asks for her veil, an item of mourning.
Viola’s speech, she realizes, is artificial, and so she may consciously parody herself. Might the actress playing Viola deliver the lines in an exaggerated, ironic way? Note “comedian” (TN l.476) means “actor.” But Olivia is equally play acting, isn’t she?
Note the dramatic irony in Viola’s lines, “I am not that I play” (TN 479). This line could easily apply to several of the characters: Aguecheek, Orsino, Olivia, the Fool. Pay close attention to Viola’s lines at 481–482—a thematic crux.
Is Olivia being vain when she asks, “Is it not well done?” (TN 526) What is ironic about Olivia’s line, “Twill endure wind and weather” (TN 529)? Briefly, what is the gist of Viola’s reproach in lines, “Lady, you are the cruelest she alive/If you will lead these graces to the grave/And leave the world no copy” (TN 532–534)? How do they relate to Shakespeare’s sonnets quoted above?
Olivia’s lines (TN 537–540) refer to the Petrarchan convention known as a blazon. See Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130 for a parodic treatment of this convention. See also Spenser, “Long while I sought.” Then look at Olivia’s lines, “Thy tongue, they face…fivefold blazon” (TN 588). Now go online for further discussion of Sonnet 130 if you wish. Note also that Viola refers to Olivia as the typical cruel maiden of the Renaissance sonnet tradition, calling on behalf of Orsino for “pity” (TN l.569). Notice the dramatic irony in Olivia’s response, “You might do much” (TN 570).
Act 1 ends with Olivia in love with a woman dressed as a man. So we have seen exposition (necessary background business), followed by some complication. The complication will increase and later be followed by resolution. Thus the 3-part structure of comedy: Act 1, exposition; Acts 2 and 3, complication; Act 3, Scene 4, climax; Acts 4 and 5, resolution.
Act 2, Scene 1
The scenes with Sebastian (Viola’s twin brother) and Antonio—the man who saved him from drowning and befriended him after the shipwreck—help develop the plot and the theme of love. Notice that Antonio willingly serves his friend out of love for him and even exposes himself to danger in Illyria.
Act 2, Scene 2
Short connecting scene. The invented story of the ring suggests to Viola that Olivia loves her/him. “I am the man” (TN 681). Both Olivia and Viola realize that only time can unravel the complexities.
Act 2, Scene 3
The three revellers—Toby, Andrew, and Feste—engage in much noisy foolery and song, with “O Mistress Mine” introducing the carpe diem theme mentioned above. Maria, the voice of reason, urges them to be quiet, but Malvolio is awakened. Malvolio threatens Toby with dismissal if he does not mend his ways and continues in “this uncivil rule” (2.3.818.) At this point, Maria reveals her desire to gull (trick) Malvolio to teach him a lesson (828–831).
Analyze Maria’s speech about Malvolio—“The devil a Puritan” (839). What does Maria take to be the vice in Malvolio that will prove to be his undoing? Look now at the section on Puritanism in Shakespeare’s Life and Times by the University of Victoria. Pay most attention to the section “Satirical attacks on Puritanism.”
After Maria tells Toby and Andrew of her plan to trick Malvolio, Belch finally decides it is bedtime. What exactly does Andrew mean in the next lines, “If I cannot recover…” (875)?
Act 2, Scene 4
As Duke Orsino continues to call for melancholy music and to play the role of the unrequited lover, notice the dramatic irony in the exchange between him and Viola/Cesario, (907–915, also 999–1010).
Comment on Feste’s speech re the Duke Orsino: “Now the melancholy god protect thee…changeable taffeta…” (959–960). What exactly does Feste mean? What does the sea traditionally symbolize? Note that the god Proteus was associated with the sea. What does “protean” mean?
Comment on the conventional nature of the love song, “Come Away, Death” (sung by Feste, 941–952).
Lastly, notice that Orsino does not offer a jewel to Olivia until the end of Act 2.4 (“Give her this jewel”, 1.1013).
Act 2, Scene 5
Olivia’s servant Fabian, like Feste, has some reason to be hostile to Malvolio. What is it?
Why were Puritans against bearbaiting? How does bearbaiting become a symbol and to whom does it apply?
Maria’s Bait: Maria throws into Malvolio’s way a forged letter (ostensibly from Olivia, but Maria has copied her mistress’s hand and composed this letter). Notice how his own “contemplation” (1046) and “imagination” (1057) [cf. Fancy] lead to his gulling. Olivia’s special seal on her signet ring is an image of Lucrece. Clarify this allusion. Why is it apt that Olivia is linked to Lucrece? This scene is one of the most popular in the play. Describe what makes this scene (from Malvolio’s entrance at 1049) so amusing.
Notice Toby’s grateful line, “I could marry this wench for this device” (1184). How is this prophetic?
Act 3, Scene 1
Viola, outside Olivia’s garden, encounters Feste as she prepares to woo Olivia again by proxy for Orsino. Although the puns are a bit forced, both characters reveal their linguistic abilities and their wit. Contrast their verbal dexterity with Andrew’s verbal ham-handedness. Both Feste and Viola observe that foolish behaviour (folly) is everywhere (3.1.1251). As with the Duke, Feste succeeds in getting a tip through his verbal dexterity. Note the dramatic irony in Viola’s lines (1258–59). What does she mean here? She also praises Feste’s ability to show people their folly (thus a fitting act), whereas wise men who fall into folly betray their common sense (1276–80).
The encounter between Viola and Olivia playfully satirizes euphemistic or courtly language, the inflated language of the court, after hearing Viola’s cloyingly artificial, courtly praise of Olivia: “Most excellent accomplished lady, the heavens rain odors on you” (1297–98). Andrew is impressed by Viola’s courtly diction: “That youth’s a rare courtier” (1299). Compare this courtly language to that of Osric in Act 5 of Hamlet—or, to that of Absalom as he woos Alison in Chaucer’s “The Miller’s Tale.”
Now read the following: Backgrounds to Romance: “Courtly Love”
Meanwhile, Andrew is most impressed with courtly language and vows to copy such phrases (1302). Notice the many references to the lover as “servant,” and how Viola offers (Orsino) as Olivia’s servant (1313). Olivia indirectly tries to indicate her interest in Cesario/Viola. Interestingly, just like Orsino, Olivia accuses Cesario of cruelty (1331–33), but unlike the traditional cruel mistress of poetic convention, Cesario/Viola responds, “I pity you” (1336).
Again, dramatic irony can be seen in line 1354: Viola: “That you do think you are not what you are” … later, “I am not what I am” (1356).
The scene ends with a direct avowal of love from Olivia to Viola/Cesario, thus heightening the complication.
Act 3, Scene 2
Andrew, impatient at getting nowhere with Olivia, vows to leave. How does Toby deflect Andrew’s objections that Olivia seems only to be interested in Viola? In particular, why do Toby and Fabian suggest that Andrew challenge Viola to a duel? This scene and its continuation in the latter part of Act 3.4 parallel the gulling of Malvolio. Here begins the “gulling of Andrew Aguecheek,” and this tributary to the comic subplot continues until Act 4.1, much to Andrew’s discomfiture, both verbal and physical. What do Malvolio and Aguecheek have in common as comic gulls? What does Toby mean when he says of Sir Andrew, “I have been dear to him …some two thousand strong” (3.2.1434)?
Act 3, Scene 3
This short scene prepares for the introduction of Sebastian into the main plot as well as into the subplot, and he becomes an instrument in the fusion of both. Because Antonio is afraid to play the tourist in Illyria because of an outstanding warrant for his arrest, issued by the Duke, he begs off a tour of the city and instead lends Sebastian money for lodgings. They agree to meet later at an inn called the Elephant.
Act 3, Scene 4
This long comic scene develops the subplot gulling of Malvolio and of Andrew. First, Maria sets up Malvolio’s one-sided verbal lovemaking to Olivia, suggesting that his odd behaviour is evidence of possession by the devil and thereby setting up a necessary exorcism that will serve Malvolio right for his previous ill treatment of Fabian, Feste, as well as Toby and Andrew.
Love-smitten Olivia opens the scene, wondering what gifts to give Viola/Cesario in order to win his love. Then she asks for the grave and formal Malvolio, qualities that suit her ill fortunes (3.4.1525–27). Dramatic irony governs the humorous dialogue between the amorous Malvolio and the miserable Olivia. His words to Olivia make her believe he is in very “midsummer madness.” Just before she goes to meet the returned Viola, Olivia instructs Maria look after Malvolio, thereby giving Toby a pretext for tormenting Malvolio by locking him in a dark room (a common treatment for madness). Fabian, Maria, and Toby all pretend to be trying to cure Malvolio, even suggesting that his urine sample be sent to the “wise woman” (1625). Malvolio acts surly to them, thinking that he is following Olivia’s bidding in the love letter (“be opposite with a kinsman”), and this behaviour leads Toby to lock him in a dark room.
At this point, Andrew shows Fabian and Toby the scornful challenge to Viola/Cesario that he has penned, replete with “thou’s” and “thee’s”—terms of address used by superiors to inferiors, rather than the more polite “you” pronoun. Toby represses the foolish letter and instead gives a verbal report of the challenge to Viola, who all the while is being reproached by Olivia for cruelty. Viola still insists that she is wooing Olivia on behalf of her master, the Duke Orsino. Toby pretends that Viola is a hot-tempered and formidable fencer, and Andrew immediately tries to chicken out of the challenge, adding, “Let him let the matter slip and I’ll give him my horse, gray Capilet” (1804). Clarify what Toby means: “This shall end without the perdition of souls. [Aside] Marry I’ll ride your horse as well as I ride you.” Note that an aside is an utterance not heard by anyone else on stage and is the equivalent of a character’s thinking to himself.
After Toby pretends to Viola that Andrew will not be appeased, Viola reluctantly draws her sword only to have Antonio intervene, thinking he is defending Viola’s twin, Sebastian. Toby draws as well, whereupon Antonio is arrested. At this point, Antonio asks Viola for his purse, and the astonished Viola denies him. Antonio naturally upbraids Viola for ingratitude as he is led off to prison (1879 ff.). Viola now hopes that Sebastian may still be alive. Toby reports on Viola’s seeming dishonesty and cowardice in abandoning his friend, so Andrew now regains his bluster: “’Slid, I’ll after him again and beat him” (1912).
By the way, notice the curse: “’Slid” (by God’s eyelid). Other common Elizabethan blasphemous oaths were “Gadzooks,” and “’Sblood”. Look up “Gadzooks” in the Oxford English Dictionary or college dictionary.
Act 4, Scene 1
When Feste approaches Sebastian telling him to report to Olivia, Sebastian is bewildered and pays Feste to leave him alone, whereupon Andrew appears with Toby and strikes Sebastian a blow. Sebastian strikes back at Andrew, and Toby draws on Sebastian. When Olivia arrives, she takes Sebastian’s part, and Sebastian plays along, allowing her to govern him.
Act 4, Scene 2
Feste, disguised as the curate Sir Topas, further torments Malvolio, who asserts his sanity as Feste retorts, “There is no madness but ignorance, in which thou art more puzzled than the Egyptians in their fog” (2030). Malvolio succeeds in getting Sir Topas to bring him pen and paper so that he can write to Olivia.
Act 4, Scene 3
Olivia’s garden. Sebastian decides to pledge his troth with Olivia, believing that Olivia must be sane or else she could not command her servants.
Act 5, Scene 1
This long scene unravels all the plot complexities. The Duke finally appears at Olivia’s household and encounters Feste, who charms him and receives a tip from Orsino. Orsino appears ready to woo by himself at long last. The Duke and Viola encounter Antonio, who defends his recent actions. Antonio insists that, for the past three months, he and Sebastian have been inseparable. So by this shorthand, the audience learns that three months have passed since the action began. The duke refutes Antonio: “Three months [Viola/Cesario] has [at]tended upon on me” (2254).
One more complication remains—Duke Orsino is again rebuffed by Olivia, and he responds, “Still so cruel?” (2266). Orsino now suspects Viola/Cesario is the true object of Olivia’s affection and threatens to kill Cesario in spite: “Live you the marble-breasted tyrant still. / But …your minion, whom I know you love, / And whom…I tender dearly…. I’ll sacrifice a lamb that I do love. / To spite a raven’s heart within a dove (2280 ff.).” Incredibly, Viola accepts: “And I…a thousand deaths would die” (2289). Olivia tries to persuade Viola/Cesario to stand up and tell of their marriage: “Cesario, husband, stay” (2301). The priest corroborates Olivia’s words that she is married to Viola/Cesario. The Duke, in disgust, bids Viola farewell.
At this juncture, Andrew, nursing a broken head, blames Viola for his wound. Toby, too, complains of a beating at the hands of Viola. With the entry of Sebastian, all confusion ends, and the lovers pair off: Olivia and Sebastian, Orsino and Viola, even Toby and Maria. Three marriages will be celebrated. Only Malvolio remains at the periphery: “I’ll be revenged on the whole pack of you” (2548). So not quite everyone is integrated into the social circle: Malvolio still nurses a grudge. But the Duke urges Malvolio to make peace.
The closing song is hard to interpret, but perhaps its first verse suggests that foolishness is only acceptable in the young, but as one matures (verse 2), anti-social behaviour will have consequences—social expulsion (“’gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gates”); verse 3: conducting oneself in an arrogant manner and “swaggering” does not end well (Orsino and Olivia?); verse 4: drunkenness (Toby) will lead to hangovers. Nothing changes—foolishness has negative consequences, so try to be integrated into the social norm.
Some Key Ideas
Early in the play, Viola counsels Olivia:
“What is yours to bestow is not yours to reserve” (1.5.482–83). First, what does this line mean? Who utters it? To whom? Compare this sentiment with the main point of Shakespeare’s Sonnets 1–17, available online at Open Source Shakespeare. In this context, Sonnets 1 and 3 are especially relevant.
From fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty’s rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memory:
But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes, 5
Feed’st thy light’st flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
Thou that art now the world’s fresh ornament
And only herald to the gaudy spring, 10
Within thine own bud buriest thy content
And, tender churl, makest waste in niggarding.
Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
To eat the world’s due, by the grave and thee.
Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou viewest
Now is the time that face should form another;
Whose fresh repair if now thou not renewest,
Thou dost beguile the world, unbless some mother.
For where is she so fair whose unear’d womb 5
Disdains the tillage of thy husbandry?
Or who is he so fond will be the tomb
Of his self-love, to stop posterity?
Thou art thy mother’s glass, and she in thee
Calls back the lovely April of her prime: 10
So thou through windows of thine age shall see
Despite of wrinkles this thy golden time.
But if thou live, remember’d not to be,
Die single, and thine image dies with thee.
Perhaps the idea behind Viola’s criticism of Olivia is that, by being foolishly chaste and closed to love, Olivia is committing an offence against nature.
The Songs of Twelfth Night
Each song in some way is a comment on action or theme.
Briefly analyze each song’s theme or main point. To which character(s) is each most aptly directed?
- “O Mistress Mine” (2.3.740 ff.)
- “Come Away Death” (2.4.941 ff.)
- “Hey, Robin” (4.2.2057 ff.)
- “When that I was and a little tiny boy” (2559 ff.)
Characteristics of Shakespeare’s Comedies (adapted from Roland Frye, Shakespeare: The Art of the Dramatist (1970), pp. 81–96):
- Optimistic atmosphere
- Festive endings
- Non-satiric, genial tone
- Young love and marriage in foreground
- Old characters in background
- Evil is muted
Recurrent Comic Plot/Character
- Romantic Lover. Duke Orsino, the melancholy Petrarchan, conventional lover (compare to Orlando in As You Like It). Petrarchan conventions:
- Blazon—i.e., a feature-by-feature description of the beloved’s body;
- Melancholy lover, sick for love; considers mistress cruel; heart ready to break;
- Lover uses conceits to describe mistress’s beauty, cruelty, and his own suffering.
- Disdainful Lover. Olivia (compare Olivia with Phebe in As You Like It).
Theme of Pride or Self-love/Self-indulgence
Which characters are guilty of pride? Self-indulgence?
- Sonnet I by Shakespeare is free of known copyright restrictions.
- Sonnet III by Shakespeare is free of known copyright restrictions.
- “Twelfth Night”. Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Centenary Edition, 1109. ↵